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Incident Command System and National Incident Management System for FQHCs

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Title: Incident Command System and National Incident Management System for FQHCs


1
Incident Command System and National Incident
Management System for FQHCs
Amelia Muccio Amuccio_at_njpca.org Director of
Disaster Planning NEW JERSEY PRIMARY CARE
ASSOCIATION
2
Introductions
  1. Name
  2. Job Title
  3. Organization
  4. Experience in emergencies disasters
  5. Knowledge of IS 100, 200 and 700
  6. Grant funded for EP
  7. Expectations from this course
  • .

3
The Human Condition It Cannot Happen to Me!
  • Panic, fear and denial are inevitable in a
    disaster situation
  • Brain will perform best in a stressful situation
    if you have already put it through a few
    rehearsals
  • I.E. fire drills
  • Brain works in pattern recognition (respond
    quicker)

4
Foundation to Professional Emergency Mgt
  • Personal Preparedness
  • Do you have a family communications plan?
  • Do you have a go bag?
  • Do you have a pet go bag?
  • Have you made arrangements for childcare if you
    are needed at work?
  • What about your other family members including
    elderly and pets?
  • .

5
Be Prepared!
  • .

6
Objectives/Competencies Today
  • HVA/EMP/COOP other emergency plans
  • Incident Command System
  • Command and control
  • Functional positions and areas
  • Leadership
  • The Planning P
  • NIMS
  • Multiagency Coordination Systems
  • Public Information Systems
  • Resource Mgt
  • Federal Guidelines/Tools
  • NPS/TCL/UTL

7
ICS Overview and the Emergency Management Program
  • Pubic health agencies and healthcare
    organizations must learn and use ICS in order to
    be able to integrate into the larger emergency
    management system.
  • Including FQHCs
  • .

8
Comprehensive Emergency Mgt Program
  • A comprehensive CEM addresses all hazards through
    the four phases
  • Mitigation (including prevention)
  • Preparedness
  • Response
  • Recovery
  • ICS is used for response and recovery phases as
    well as for preparedness pre-planning activities.
  • .

9
CEM-4 Phases
  • Mitigation (including prevention) reduce or
    eliminate impact of hazards (generators)
  • Every 1 on mitigation saves 7 in post-disaster
    costs
  • Preparedness build capabilities to respond and
    recover from the impacts of those hazards (this
    training)
  • Response gain control over on-going negative
    effects of the hazards (staying open)
  • Recovery return to pre-disaster condition
    (normal business operations)
  • Where should FQHCs focus their efforts? MPgtRR

10
Emergency Management Plans
  • EMP is comprehensive, self-contained document
    that includes the components necessary to guide
    all emergency activities.
  • Is essential to minimize the disruption of
    services
  • Ensure predictable staff behavior during an
    emergency
  • All-Hazards approach
  • Review ESF 8
  • EMP should be aligned and integrated in local and
    State EMPs unified front.

11
Risk Assessment/HVA
  • BASED ON HAZARD VULNERABILITY ANALYSIS
  • Identifies potential emergencies and the
    direct/indirect effects these emergencies may
    have on CHCs operation and demand for services.
  • The risks identified should be prioritized based
    on likelihood of occurrence and severity.

12
What Are Your Centers Hazards?
  • List 3-5 possible hazards that can impact your
    Center

13
FQHCs EMP Elements (Emergencies Happen-NACHC)
  • Certification of plan approval
  • Record of plan and annex revisions
  • EMP distribution list
  • Introduction
  • Phases of emergency mgt
  • Scope
  • Responsibility
  • HVA
  • Schedule of exercises
  • Corrective Action Plan
  • Operational Policies
  • Legal basis and references
  • Command and control
  • Emergency response training
  • Continuity of Operations
  • Support

14
Other Emergency Plans
  • EOPs-how org will respond to emergencies
  • Basic plan
  • Functional annexes
  • Incident-Specific appendices
  • Procedures-SOPs
  • Preparedness plans-training needs
  • Corrective action/mitigation plans-activities
    required to implement lessons learned
  • Recovery plans-long term actions needed

15
EP Rules and Regs
  • HSPD 5 (NRF and NIMS)
  • HSPD 7
  • HSPD 8 (National Preparedness Goals includes
    healthcare orgs)
  • Joint Commission
  • NFPA 1600 2007 (9/11 Comm.)
  • HRSA PIN 2007-15
  • FEMAs PS Prep
  • Executive Order 50

16
National Preparedness Guidelines
  • National Planning Scenarios15 high consequence
    threat scenarios for govt and private sector
  • Universal Task Listmenu of 1,600 unique tasks
    than can facilitate efforts to prevent, protect
    against, respond to, and recover from NPS common
    voc and key tasks that support development of
    essential capabilities
  • Target Capabilities Listdefines 37 specific
    capabilities that communities, private sector,
    and all levels of govt should collectively
    possess in order to respond effective to disasters

17
National Planning Scenarios (15)
  1. Improvised nuclear device
  2. Aerosol anthrax
  3. Pandemic influenza
  4. Plague
  5. Blister agent
  6. Toxic industrial chemicals
  7. Nerve agent
  8. Chorine tank explosion
  9. Major earthquake
  10. Major hurricane
  11. Radiological dispersal device
  12. Improvised explosive device
  13. Food contamination
  14. Foreign animal disease
  15. Cyber attack

18
Elements of Capability
  1. Planning
  2. Organization and leadership
  3. Personnel
  4. Equipment and systems
  5. Training
  6. Exercises, evaluations, and corrective actions

19
TCL (Common Mission Area)
  • Communications
  • Community preparedness participation
  • Planning
  • Risk Mgt
  • Intelligence/Information sharing and
    dissemination

20
TCL (Prevent Mission Area)
  • CBRNE detection
  • Information gathering and recognition of
    indicators and warnings
  • Intelligence analysis and Production
  • Counter-Terror investigations and law enforcement

21
TCL (Respond Mission Area)
  • Animal health emergency support
  • Citizen evacuation and shelter-in-place
  • Critical resource logistics and distribution
  • Emergency operations center mgt
  • Emergency public info and warnings
  • Environmental health
  • Explosive device response operations
  • Fatality mgt
  • Fire incident response support
  • Isolation and quarantine

22
TCL (Respond Mission Area) CONT
  • Mass care (shelter, food, related services)
  • Mass prophylaxis
  • Medical supplies mgt and distribution
  • Medical surge
  • Onsite incident mgt
  • Emergency public safety and security response
  • Responder safety and health
  • Emergency triage and pre-hospital treatment
  • Search and rescue (land-based)
  • Volunteer mgt and donations
  • WMD/Hazardous materials response and
    decontamination

23
TCL (Protect Mission Area)
  • Critical infrastructure protection
  • Epidemiological surveillance and investigation
  • Food and agriculture safety and defense
  • Laboratory testing

24
TCL (Recover Mission Area)
  • Economic and community recovery
  • Restoration of lifelines
  • Structural damage assessment

25
National Priorities HSPD 8
  • Expand regional collaboration
  • UASI
  • Implement NIMS and NRF
  • HSPD 5
  • Implement NIPP
  • CI/KR, IS 860
  • Strengthen information sharing and collaboration
    capabilities
  • TCL metrics
  • Strengthen interoperable and operable
    communications capabilities
  • TCL metrics, SAFECOM
  • Strengthen CBRNE detection, response and decon
  • TCL metrics

26
National Priorities Continuedstrengthen
medical surge and mass prophylaxis capabilities
  • Bioterrorism, pandemic influenza and other public
    health emergencies
  • Medical surge is prioritized b/c of urgent need
    to enable our healthcare system to handle large
    number of patients requiring care
  • The ability to triage and provide decontamination
  • For mass casualty event that exceeds hospital's
    surge community based healthcare systems must
    have provisions in place to immediately
    accommodate an influx of patients and supplies
  • Staffing for mass prophylaxis plan
  • Strategic National Stockpile
  • National BT hospital preparedness program

27
National Priorities Continued
  • Community preparedness strengthening planning
    and citizen capabilities
  • TCL metrics
  • Lessons learned from Hurricane Katrina

28
Private SectorHSPD 8
  • Incorporate the safety and security of people and
    assets into business plans and corporate
    strategies
  • Participate in the development and implementation
    of the mgt and maintenance structure and process
    for the Guidelines, including capabilities based
    preparedness tools and assessment system
  • Participate in Guidelines implementation by
    determining requirements and achieving
    capabilities and by consulting in the development
    of program plans
  • Participate in State, local, tribal, territorial
    and regional planning and assessment process to
    comply with Guidelines and TCL
  • .

29
Private SectorHSPD 7
  • Work with relevant SSAs (Sector-Specific
    Agencies) to identify, prioritize and coordinate
    the protection of critical infrastructure and key
    resources in conformance with the NIPP
  • Share info about physical, and cyber threats,
    vulnerabilities, incidents, potential protective
    measures and effective practices
  • .

30
FQHCs
  • Role of Private Sector (FQHCs)
  • At risk individuals
  • Special planning considerations
    (barriers/obstacles)
  • HVA
  • Identify hazards
  • Prioritize hazards
  • Develop plan to mitigate hazards
  • COOP
  • Develop plan for continuity of operations during
    an emergency
  • Uninterrupted medical services
  • Essential staff
  • Vital records
  • Facilities and alternate site

31
What is the Incident Command System?
  • Incident-Focused organizational structure that
    can be implemented along side of day-to-day
    administrative structure of an organization
  • Allows its users to adopt an integrated
    organizational structure to match the demands of
    the incident
  • Based on best practices
  • Promotes incident safety
  • Achievement of tactical objectives
  • Efficient use of resources
  • 3 Priorities of ICS
  • Life Saving
  • Incident Stabilization
  • Property Preservation

32
ICS
  • Interdisciplinary (various responders meld
    rapidly into a common mgt structure)
  • Organizationally flexible
  • Cost-Effective (reduces duplication)
  • Incidents (small or largeplanned or unplanned)
  • Key feature in NIMS

33
ICSs origin
  • California, 1970s
  • FIRESCOPE
  • Series of catastrophic fires
  • Inadequate management greatest failure in response
  • .

34
Weaknesses in Incident Mgt without Proper ICS
  • Lack of accountability
  • Poor communication
  • Lack of a planning process
  • Overloaded Incident Commanders
  • Non-Integration
  • .

35
National Response Framework (NRF)
  • National, all discipline, all hazards plan that
    provides the framework and mechanisms to
    coordinate Federal, State, local, Tribal, private
    sector, and non-governmental entities during
    national emergencies.
  • NRF is based on functions
  • Incident of National Significance, HSPD 5,
    Stafford Act
  • Emergency Support Functions (HHS 8)

36
SEMS
  • SEMS is intended to standardize response to
    emergencies involving multiple jurisdictions or
    multiple agencies.
  • SEMS is intended to be flexible and adaptable to
    the needs of all emergency responders in
    California.
  • SEMS requires emergency response agencies use
    basic principles and components of emergency
    management including ICS, multi-agency or
    inter-agency coordination, the operational area
    concept, and established mutual aid systems.

37
Key Features of ICS
  • Common terminology
  • Modular organization
  • Management by objectives
  • Reliance on IAP
  • Chain of command/unity of command
  • Unified command
  • Manageable span of control
  • Predesignated incident locations and facilities
  • Resource management
  • Information and intelligence management
  • Integrated communications
  • Transfer of command
  • Accountability
  • Dispatch/Deployment

38
Standardization
  • Plain English, clear text
  • No jargon
  • No use of day-to-day titles
  • Common Terminology
  • Organizational functions, incident facilities,
    resource descriptions, position titles
  • What is wrong with acronyms and slang?
  • Bus?
  • Line?
  • .

39
Use of Title Positions
  • Provides a common standard for performance
    expectations
  • Helps to ensure that qualified individuals fill
    positions
  • Standardizes communication and reduces confusion
  • Describes the responsibilities of the position
  • No day-to-day titles

40
Command
  • Establishment IC assumes command
  • Transfer of command more qualified, incident
    changes, normal turnover, conclusion (effective
    time and date of transfer)
  • Chain of command orderly line of authority
  • Unity of command Report to only one supervisor
  • Unified command Multiple agencies working
    together one set of objectives, Incident
    Commanders make joint decisions, improved
    information and optimized effort

41
Planning/Organization Structure
  • Management by objectives ICS is managed by
    objectives based on 3 priorities
  • Incident Action Plan (IAP) specifies incident
    objectives and states activities to be completed,
    covers operational period, written or oral
  • Modular organization top-down modules based on
    incident size and complexity (use only what is
    needed)
  • Manageable span of control number that one
    supervisor can handle for effective and efficient
    mgt (3-7) 5 optimal

42
Facilities and Resources
  • Comprehensive resource management categorizing,
    ordering, dispatching, tracking and recovering
    resources (personnel, teams, equipment,
    facilities, supplies)
  • Tactical (assigned, available and out of service)
    and support resources
  • Incident locations and facilities
  • ICP-on scene command but out of harms way
  • Base-primary Logistics (one)
  • Staging area-ready resources awaiting assignment
    (labor pool, equip, cars)
  • Camp-separate from base and provides support
    services (can use camp if base is not accessible)
  • Helibase/Helispots

43
Communications/Information Mgt
  • Integrated communications
  • Common interoperable communication plan (modes,
    planning and networks)
  • Information and intelligence management
  • Critical info for response (gather, share and
    manage info)
  • Weather info, risk assessments, surveillance)

44
Professionalism
  • Accountability
  • Check-in (locate in emergency)
  • IAP
  • Unity of command
  • Span of control
  • Resource tracking
  • Dispatch/Deployment
  • Situation assessed
  • Manage resources safely and only when requested

45
Check-In
  • Check-In once (Form 211)
  • Report to Supervisor to obtain initial incident
    briefing (current situation, job
    responsibilities, location of work, procedures,
    safety info)
  • Ensures accountability, track resources, prepare
    personnel and locate personnel in case of an
    emergency
  • .

46
Mobilization
  • Stage of initial response, the initial ICS
    organization takes shape based on the type of
    incident
  • Predesignated level of staffing
  • .

47
ICS Structure
  • .

48
Unified Command (UC with One Command and Multiple
IC)
  • There is more than one responding agency with
    incident jurisdiction
  • Incidents cross political jurisdictions
  • Analyze intelligence information
  • Establish a common set of objectives and
    strategies for a single IAP

49
Area Command (AC with multiple ICP)
  • Oversee the mgt of multiple incidents that are
    each being managed by an ICS org
  • Oversee the mgt of large incidents that cross
    jurisdictional boundaries
  • Public health emergencies (nonsite specific, not
    immediately identifiable, evolve over time)
  • AC sets overall strategy, allocates critical
    resources, ensures compliancy to strategies AC
    may become Unified Area Command when incidents
    are multijurisdictional or involve multiple
    agencies
  • AC has no Operations Section b/c Operations are
    conducted on scene

50
Incident Commander
  • At scene, highest ranking person can either
    assume command, maintain command as is, or
    transfer command to a third party.
  • .

51
IC
  • Provides overall leadership for incident response
  • Only position that must always be filled
  • Ensures safety
  • Communicates with stakeholders
  • Develops objectives
  • Responsible for all activities and functions
    undelegated or unassigned
  • Establishes incident objectives
  • Delegates authority to others
  • Takes general direction from Agency Executive
  • Approves IAP with signature

52
Deputy IC
  • Performs specific tasks as requested by IC
  • Performs IC function in relief capacity
  • Represent an assisting agency
  • Must be as qualified as IC
  • Deputies available for IC, Section and Branch
    levels

53
Command Staff (PIO, LNO, SO)
  • IC delegates to Command Staff
  • Provide information, liaison, and safety services
    for the entire organization
  • Report directly to IC
  • .

54
Public Information Officer (PIO)
  • Conduit for information to internal and external
    stakeholders
  • Advises IC on info dissemination and media issues
  • Obtains info from and provides info to planning
    section
  • Obtains info from and provides info to the
    community and media
  • IC approves all info releases

55
Safety Officer (SO)
  • Monitors safety conditions
  • Advises IC on incident safety issues
  • Works with Operations Section to ensure safety of
    field personnel
  • Ensures safety of all incident personnel
  • .

56
Liaison Officer (LNO)
  • Primary contact for supporting agencies
  • Assists IC by serving as point of contact for
    agency reps who are helping to support the
    operation
  • Provides briefings to and answers questions from
    supporting agencies (assisting and cooperating)

57
General Staff Functions
  • Planning thinkers
  • Logistics getters
  • Finance/Admin payers
  • Operations doers
  • Each section is lead by a Section Chief
  • .

58
Operations Section Chief
  • Assists in identifying strategies
  • Develops and implements strategy and tactics to
    carry out the incident objectives
  • Organizes, assigns, and supervises the tactical
    field resources
  • Determines work assignments and resource
    requirements
  • Supervises air operations and resources in Staging

59
Operations Section
  • Directs and coordinates all incident tactical
    operations
  • Typically one of the first sections be to
    assigned
  • Expands from the bottom up
  • Has the most resources
  • May have Staging Areas and special organizations

60
Operations Section Challenges
  • Span of control is maintained by using Divisions,
    Branches and Groups
  • Divisions-divide incident geographically
  • Groups-functional areas of operation
  • Branches-used when Division or Groups exceed span
    of control (can be geo or functional)
  • May have a Deputy Operations Section Chief
  • Depends on other General Staff for support

61
Divisions
  • Geographically divided based on needs of incident
  • Labeled using alphabet (A,B,C)
  • A Division is managed by Supervisor
  • .

62
Groups
  • Needs of incident
  • Labeled according to job they are assigned
    (Health, Public Works)
  • Managed by Supervisor
  • Work wherever assigned and are not limited
    geographically
  • Divisions and Groups can be used together and are
    equal in structure)

63
Branches
  • Established when number of Divisions or Groups
    exceeds span of control
  • Functional or geographical responsibility
  • Identified by Roman numerals or functional name
  • Managed by Branch Director

64
Operations
  • Task Forces-combo of mixed resources with common
    communications operating under supervision of
    Task Force Leader
  • Strike Team-set number of resources of the same
    kind and type with community communications under
    supervision of Strike Team Leader
  • Single Resources-may be individuals, piece of
    equipment with personnel or crew/team with
    supervisor

65
Planning Section Chief
  • Gathers, analyzes, and disseminates information
    and intelligence
  • Manages the planning process
  • Compiles the IAP
  • Conducts the Planning Mtg
  • Manages Technical Specialists (SMEs when needed,
    infection control, epidemiology)

66
Planning Section
  • Maintains resource status
  • Maintains and displays situation status
  • Prepares IAP
  • Develops alternative strategies
  • Provides documentation services
  • Prepares the Demobilization Plan
  • Look beyond current operational period to next
    and anticipate potential problems

67
Information and Intelligence
  • I I function may be activated as a fifth
    General Staff section, as an element within
    Operations or Planning Sections or as part of the
    Command Staff.
  • .

68
Planning Section Units
  • Resources conducts check in and maintains status
    of all resources, prepares written IAP
  • Situation collects and analyzes info on current
    situation, prepared sit reps, develops maps and
    projections
  • Demobilization assists in ensuring that
    resources are released in orderly, safe and cost
    effective manner
  • Documentation provides duplication services
    including written IAP, maintains and archives all
    incident documents

69
Logistics Section Chief
  • Provides resources and services required to
    support incident activities
  • Develops portions of IAP and forwards them to
    Planning
  • Ensures that Logistics can support IAP
  • Contracts for and purchases good and services
    needed at the incident
  • Places orders for resources
  • Develops a transportation system to support
    operational needs

70
Logistics Section
  • Communications
  • Medical support for incident personnel
  • Food for personnel
  • Supplies
  • Facilities
  • Ground support
  • Service Branch
  • Communications Unit
  • Medical Unit
  • Food Unit
  • Support Branch
  • Supply Unit
  • Facilities Unit
  • Ground Unit

71
Communications Unit (Service)
  • Prepares and supports the Incident Communication
    Plan (Form 205)
  • Distributes and maintains communication equipment
  • Supervises the Incident Communications Center
  • Establishes adequate communications over the
    incident
  • .

72
Medical Unit (Service)
  • Develops the Medical Plan (Form 206)
  • Provides first aid and light medical care
  • Screening, evaluation and follow-up of employees
    assigned
  • Prepares procedures for a major medical emergency
  • .

73
Food Unit (Service)
  • Supplies the food and potable water
  • Obtains equipment and supplies to operate food
    service facilities
  • .

74
Supply Unit (Support)
  • Assists in determining what and how much supplies
    are needed
  • Orders, receives, stores and distributes supplies
  • Services nonexpendable equipment
  • Places all resource orders
  • Maintain inventory of supplies and equipment

75
Facilities Unit (Support)
  • Sets up and maintains facilities
  • Provides managers for Base and Camps
  • Provides facility security and maintenance
    services (sanitation, lighting, cleanup)

76
Ground Support Unit (Support)
  • Prepares the Transportation Plan
  • Arranges for, activates and documents the fueling
    and maintenance of ground resources
  • Arranges for transportation of personnel,
    supplies, food and equipment
  • .

77
Finance/Administration Section Chief
  • Responsible for financial and cost analysis
  • Provides cost implications of incident objectives
  • Ensures that IAP is within financial limits by IC
  • Oversees contract negotiations
  • Tracks personnel and equipment time
  • Processes claims for accidents and injuries
  • Works with Logistics to ensure resources are
    procured

78
Finance/Admin Section
  • Contract negotiation and monitoring
  • Timekeeping
  • Cost analysis
  • Compensation for injury and damage to property
  • Time Unit
  • Procurement Unit
  • Comp/Claims Unit
  • Cost Unit

79
Finance/Admin Units
  • Time-responsible for incident personnel time
    recording
  • Procurement-financial matters on vendor
    contracts, leases and fiscal agreements
  • Compensation/Claims-administrative matters on
    compensation for injury and claims related
    activities kept for incident
  • Cost-collects all cost data, performs cost
    effectiveness analyses, provides cost estimates,
    makes cost saving recommendations

80
Cooperating and Assisting Agencies
  • Assisting-agencies that provide personnel,
    services, or other resources to the org with
    direct responsibility for the incident mgt
  • Cooperating-organizations that supply assistance
    other than direct operational or support
    functions and resources to the incident mgt effort

81
Agency Representative
  • An Agency Representative is an individual who
    speaks on behalf of an assisting or cooperating
    agency
  • Work with Liaison Officer

82
Agency Executive
  • The IC reports to the Agency Executive whose role
    is to manage the day to day administrative
    affairs of the organization

83
Assistants
  • In large scale events, Assistants work with
    Command Staff to help them manage their workloads
  • Can be assigned to Unit Leaders too

84
Formal Communication
  • Following lines of authority, FC must be used
    when
  • Receiving and giving work assignments
  • Requesting support or additional resources
  • Reporting progress of assigned tasks

85
Informal Communication
  • Is used to exchange incident or event information
    only
  • Can be passed vertically or horizontally without
    restriction
  • Critical information must flow freely

86
Incident Leadership
  • As a leader during an incident you must provide
    purpose, direction, and motivation for responders
    who are working to accomplish difficult tasks
    under dangerous, stressful circumstances

87
Common Leadership Responsibilities
  • Ensure safe work practices
  • Takes command of assigned resources
  • Motivates with a can do safely attitude
  • Demonstrates initiative by taking action
  • Communicates by giving specific instructions and
    asking for feedback
  • Supervises the scene
  • Evaluates the effectiveness of the plan
  • Understands and accepts the need to modify plans
    or instructions

88
ICS Tools
  • ICS forms
  • Position descriptions and responsibilities
    document(Job Action Sheets, JAS)
  • Emergency Operations Plan
  • Organization policies and procedures manual
  • Maps
  • JAS Position title
  • Report to
  • Mission/Description
  • Qualifications
  • Immediate responsibilities
  • Appoint all Section Chiefs and the Medical Staff
    Director positions??
  • Intermediate responsibilities
  • Ensure that all news releases have the approval
    of the Incident Commander??
  • Extended responsibilities
  • Assure that all communications are copied to the
    Communications Unit Leader??

89
ICS Forms
  • Form 201, Incident Briefing (Section Chief) Serve
    as IAP
  • Form 202, Response Objectives (Section Chief)
  • Form 203, Organizational Assignment List
    (Resources Unit)
  • Form 206, Medical Plan (Medical Unit)
  • Form 215, Operational Planning Worksheet (Staff)
  • Form 215a, Incident Action Plan Safety Analysis
    (SO, staff)

90
Operational Periods
  • Within each operational periods there are six
    activities that take place within the ICS
    management structure
  • Situation briefing/shift change Form 201)
  • Management meeting Form 202(overall policies and
    priorities, AE)
  • Planning meeting Form 203, 204, 215(tactics,
    resources)
  • Operations briefing (OSC presents IAP)(PSC
    facilitates briefing)
  • Implementation
  • Assessment of situation and progress

91
Post Incident Evaluation and Corrective Action
  • Assessment methods include
  • Debriefing
  • Post-Incident critique
  • After action review mtg
  • AAR
  • Corrective action plans
  • .

92
The Planning P and Initial Response
  1. Incident/Threat?
  2. Notification?
  3. Initial Response and Assessment?
  4. Incident Briefing (Form 201) ?
  5. Initial IC/UC Meeting ?
  6. IC/UC Sets Objectives ?
  7. Tactics Meeting ?
  8. Preparing for Planning Meeting ?
  9. Planning Meeting ?
  10. IAP Prep and Approval ?
  11. Operations Briefing ?
  12. Execute Plan and Assess Progress

93
The Planning P
  • The Planning P illustrates the process and
    steps involved in planning for an incident
  • Leg items are completed initially
  • Circular sequence starts with IC/UC sets
    objectives and ends with execute plan and assess
    progress
  • Rinse and repeat (circular part of P)
  • New operational period begins after the Ops
    briefing

94
Initial Response Actions
  • IC must
  • Size up the situation
  • Determine if life is at immediate risk
  • Ensure personnel safety factors are taken into
    account
  • Determine if there are any environmental issues
    that need to be addressed

95
Size-Up
  • The first responder must assume command and size
    up the situation by determining
  • Nature and magnitude of the incident
  • Hazards and safety concerns
  • Initial priorities and immediate resource
    requirements
  • Location of ICP and Staging
  • Entrance and exit routes

96
Situational Awareness
  • Is the perception of what the incident is doing
    and what you are doing in relation to the
    incident and your objectives
  • Involves an awareness of potential incident
    behavior and the ability to predict where the
    incident and you will be in the future

97
Complexity Analysis Factors
  • Impacts to life, property and the economy
  • Community and responder safety
  • Potential hazardous materials
  • Weather and other environmental influences
  • Likelihood of cascading events
  • Potential crime scene
  • Political sensitivity, external influences and
    media relations
  • Area involved
  • Availability of resources

98
Objectives
  • Develop incident objectives
  • Objectives are based on 3 ICS priorities
  • Writing SMART objectives
  • Specific precise and unambiguous
  • Measurable conduct a final accounting-was it
    achieved?
  • Action Oriented action verb that describes
    expected accomplishments
  • Realistic achievable with the resources
    available/feasible
  • Time Sensitive timeframe should be specified

99
Sample Objectives
  • Complete preliminary damage assessments of all
    damaged residential structures in Anytown within
    the next 24 hours
  • Restore water to the business district by 0900
    hours tomorrow

100
Incident Briefing (Form 201)
  • Provides Command staff with info about the
    incident and the resources allocated
  • Serves as a permanent record of the initial
    response to the incident
  • Can be used for transfer of command
  • .

101
Initial IC/UC Meeting
  • Transfer of command (time and date of transfer)
  • Assuming command
  • Assess the situation with the current IC
  • Receive a briefing from the current IC
  • Determine an appropriate time for the transfer of
    command and document the transfer (Form 201)
  • Notify others of the change in incident command
  • Assign the current IC to another position

102
Planning Process
  • The IAP is the central tool for the planning
    during a response
  • The incident action planning process allows the
    organization to divide incident objectives into
    tactical assignments for specific operational
    periods

103
The Planning P Applicability
  • Planning for events and incidents
  • Incident action planning is essential for a
    successful response to expanding incidents

104
Operational Period
  • The designated time period in which tactical
    objectives are to be accomplished and reevaluated
  • Typically 12-24 hours

105
The Start of Each Planning Cycle
  • Incident objectives should be developed that
    cover the entire course of the incident
  • The cyclical planning process is designed to take
    the overall incident objectives and break them
    down into tactical assignments for each
    operational period
  • Objectives must conform to legal and mgt
    objectives of all affected agencies

106
IC/UC Sets Objectives
  • Planning for each operational period begins with
    the IC or UC setting objectives
  • Objectives are set based on the continued
    assessment of the situation and the progress made

107
Assessing Current Objectives
  • Is the incident stable or is it increasing in
    size and complexity?
  • What are the current incident objectives,
    strategy and tactics?
  • Safety issues
  • Are objectives effective?
  • What is current status of resources?
  • Are there sufficient resources?

108
The Tactics Meeting
  • Purpose Review the tactics developed by the Ops
    Section Chief
  • Determining how selective strategy will
    accomplish objectives
  • Assigning resources to implement tactics
  • Identifying how to monitor tactics and resources
  • Who attends Ops Section Chief, SO, PSC, LSC, and
    Resources Unit Leader
  • Who leads Ops Section Chief
  • Documentation ICS 215 Form, Operational Planning
    Worksheet

109
Objectives, Strategies and Tactics
  • Incident objectives state what is to be
    accomplished in the operational period
  • Strategies establish the general plan or
    direction for accomplishing the incident
    objectives
  • Tactics specify how the strategies will be
    executed

110
Developing Appropriate Strategy
  • Generate a list of alternative strategies
  • Select the strategy that
  • Within acceptable safety norms
  • Makes good sense (feasible)
  • Is cost effective
  • Is consistent with sound practice
  • Meets political considerations

111
Executing Tactical Direction
  • Establish tactics tactics needed to implement
    the selected strategy tactics are within op
    period or realistic timeframe
  • Assign resources determine and assign the kind
    and type of resources appropriate for the
    selected tactics kind-type-number of resources
    available and needed to achieve tactical
    operations
  • Monitor performance will determine if the
    tactics and resources selected for various
    strategies are both valid and adequate

112
Preparing for the Planning Meeting
  • Planning section
  • Analyze the ICS 215 developed in the tactics mtg
  • Review the incident safety analysis (215a)
    completed by SO
  • Assess current operations effectiveness and
    resource efficiency
  • Gather info to support incident mgt decisions
  • .

113
The Planning Mtg
  • Purposes review/validate the operational plan
    identify resource requirements
  • Who attends Command and General Staff other
    incident mgt personnel, AE, cooperating/assisting
    agencies
  • Who leads Planning Section Chief leads following
    a fixed agenda

114
The Planning Mtg Activities
  • PSC situation briefing
  • IC states incident objectives and policy issues
  • OSC states strategies
  • P L SC develops the resources, support and
    overhead orders
  • LSC considers additional support requirements

115
IAP Prep and Approval
  • Organizational elements prepare IAP assignments
    and submit them to the Planning Section
  • Planning Section collates, prepares, and
    duplicates the IAP document for the operational
    period briefing
  • Resources Unit coordinates with the Logistics
    Section to acquire the amount and type of
    resources
  • IC approves the IAP and General Staff implements
    it

116
IAPVerbal or Written
  • Verbal
  • short duration, simple incidents
  • Written
  • Two or more jurisdictions are involved in
    response
  • The incident continues into the next operational
    period
  • A number of ICS organizational elements are
    activated
  • Required by agency policy
  • Hazmat incident is involved

117
Written IAP
  • A clear statement of objectives and actions
  • A basis for measuring work effectiveness and cost
    effectiveness
  • A basis for measuring work progress and providing
    accountability
  • Documentation for post-incident fiscal and legal
    activities

118
Written IAP
  • IAP Cover Sheet
  • 202, incident objectives
  • 203, org assignment list
  • 204, Division or Group assignment list
  • 205, incident communications plan
  • 206, incident medical plan
  • Safety messages, maps, etc.
  • .

119
Operational Period Briefing
  • May be referred to as the shift change
  • Is conducted at the beginning of each operational
    period
  • Presents the IAP to supervisors of tactical
    resources
  • Should be concise
  • Planning Section Chief facilitates the briefing

120
Operational Period Briefing
  • PSC reviews agenda and facilitates mtg
  • IC presents incident objectives and confirms
    existing objectives
  • Current OSC provides current assessment and
    accomplishments
  • Oncoming OSC covers the work assignments and
    staffing for upcoming op period (Division/Group)
  • Technical Specialists Present updates on
    conditions affecting response

121
Operational Period Briefing
  • SO reviews risks and safety issues
  • Section Chief/Unit Leaders present information
    related to ensuring safe and efficient operations
  • IC Reiterates his or her operational concerns
    and directs resources to deploy
  • PSC Announces next planning meeting and
    operational period briefing adjourns the mtg

122
Operational Period Briefing
  • Supervisors conduct team briefings with their
    assigned resources in order to implement
    operational assignments
  • OSC assesses the IAP implementation, incident
    objectives, strategies, and tactics prior to next
    operational period

123
Operational Period Briefing Agenda
  1. Situation Update(PSC update)
  2. Status of current tactical assignments
  3. Response issues
  4. New tactical assignments
  5. Projections that may impact the next operational
    period
  6. Plan Review
  7. IAP questions
  8. Discussion of Logistical Support Details
  9. Review of transportation, communications, and
    medical plans as well as plans for
    feeding/resting
  10. Review of Safety Message
  11. Cover safety message and remind the Supervisors
    of the safety precautions

124
IS 700 (NIMS)
  • National Incident Management System (NIMS) is a
    comprehensive, national approach to incident
    management that is applicable at all
    jurisdictional levels and across functional
    disciplines (lowest jurisdictional level)
  • Building on the foundation provided by existing
    emergency management and incident response
    systems used by jurisdictions, organizations, and
    functional disciplines at all levels, NIMS
    integrates best practices into a comprehensive
    framework
  • Applicable across a full spectrum of potential
    incidents and hazard scenarios, regardless of
    size or complexity
  • Improves coordination and cooperation between
    public and private entities in a variety of
    domestic incident management activities

125
NIMS
  • NIMS is not an operational incident management or
    resource allocation plan
  • A comprehensive, nationwide, systematic approach
    to incident management, including the Incident
    Command System, Multiagency Coordination Systems,
    and Public Information
  • A set of preparedness concepts and principles for
    all hazards
  • Essential principles for a common operating
    picture and interoperability of communications
    and information management
  • Standardized resource management procedures that
    enable coordination among different jurisdictions
    or organizations

126
Standardization
  • NIMS provides a set of standardized
    organizational structures that improve
    integration and connectivity among jurisdictions
    and disciplines, starting with a common
    foundation of preparedness and planning.
  • Personnel and organizations that have adopted the
    common NIMS framework are able to work together,
    thereby fostering cohesion among the various
    organizations involved in all aspects of an
    incident.

127
NIMS Document
  • Originally published on March 1, 2004, the NIMS
    document was revised in December 2008 to reflect
    contributions from stakeholders and lessons
    learned during recent incidents

128
NIMS Compliance
  • The NIMS Mandate
  • HSPD-5 requires all Federal departments and
    agencies to
  • Adopt NIMS and use it in their individual
    incident management programs and activities
  • Make adoption of NIMS by State, tribal, and local
    organizations a condition for Federal
    preparedness assistance (through grants,
    contracts, and other activities)
  • 16 elements

129
NIMS Adoption
  • The State promotes and encourages NIMS adoption
    by associations, utilities, NGOs, private sector
    emergency management and incident response
    organizations in order to comply with HSPD 5.

130
NIMS Elements 1 2
  • Element 1-Adopt the National Incident Management
    System (NIMS) at the organizational level for all
    appropriate departments and business units, as
    well as promote and encourage NIMS adoption by
    associations, utilities, partners and suppliers.
  • Element 2-Manage all emergency incidents,
    exercises and preplanned (recurring/special)
    events in accordance with ICS organizational
    structures, doctrine, and procedures, as defined
    in NIMS. ICS implementation must include
    consistent application of Incident Action
    Planning and Common Communication Plans.

131
Elements 3 4
  • Element 3-Multi-agency Coordination System
    Coordinates and supports emergency incident and
    event management through the development and use
    of integrated multiagency coordination systems
    (MACs). That is, develop and coordinate
    connectivity capability with Hospital Command
    Center (HCC) and local Incident Command Posts
    (ICPs), local 911 centers, local Emergency
    Operations Centers (EOCs), the state EOC and
    others as applicable.
  • Element 4-Public Information System (PIS)
    Implements processes and/or plans to communicate
    timely accurate information through a Joint
    Information System (JIS) and Joint Information
    Center (JIC).

132
Elements 5, 6 7
  • Element 5-Hospitals and healthcare systems will
    track NIMS implementation annually as part of the
    organizations emergency management program
  • Element 6-Develop and implement a system to
    coordinate appropriate hospital preparedness
    funding to employ NIMS across the organization.
  • Element 7-Revise and update plans i.e. Emergency
    Operations Plan (EOPs) and standard operating
    procedures (SOPs) to incorporate NIMS components,
    principles and policies, to include
    planning,training, response, exercises,
    equipment, evaluation, and corrective actions.

133
Elements 8, 9, 10 11
  • Element 8-Participate in and promote interagency
    mutual-aid agreements, to include agreements with
    public and private sector and/or nongovernmental
    organizations.
  • Element 9-Complete IS-700 NIMS An Introduction
  • Element 10-Complete IS-800.A NRP An
    Introduction
  • Element 11-Complete ICS 100 and ICS 200 Training
    or equivalent courses

134
Elements 12, 13, 14
  • Element 12- Incorporate NIMS/ICS into internal
    and external local, regional, and state emergency
    management training and exercises.
  • Element 13-Participate in an all-hazard exercise
    program based on NIMS that involves responders
    from multiple disciplines, multiple agencies and
    organizations
  • Element 14-Hospitals and healthcare systems will
    incorporate corrective actions into preparedness
    and response plans and procedures.

135
Elements 15 16
  • Element 15-Maintain an inventory of
    organizational response assets.
  • Element 16-To the extent permissible by law,
    ensure that relevant national standards and
    guidance to achieve equipment, communication, and
    data interoperability are incorporated into
    acquisition programs.

136
3 Key Organization Systems in NIMS Incident Mgt
  1. ICS (Veni, vidi, vici)
  2. Multiagency Coordination Systems define the
    operating characteristics, management components,
    and organizational structure of supporting
    entities
  3. Public Information Systems include the
    processes, procedures and systems for
    communicating timely and accurate information to
    the public during an emergency

137
Preparedness
  • Preparedness involves
  • Planning, training and exercising
  • Personnel qualification and certification
    standards
  • Equipment acquisition and certification standards
  • Publication mgt processed and activities
  • Mutual aid agreements and EMACs
  • .

138
Preparedness
  • Preparedness is a continual cycle of planning,
    training, equipping, exercising and evaluating
  • Actions to establish and sustain prescribed
    levels of capability
  • Ensures mission integration and interoperability
  • NIMS Integration Center?National Integration
    Center (NIC)

139
National Integration Center
  • HSPD-5 required the Secretary of Homeland
    Security to establish a mechanism for ensuring
    the ongoing management and maintenance of NIMS.
  • The Secretary established the National
    Integration Center (NIC) to serve as an asset for
    government agencies, the private sector, and
    nongovernmental organizations that are
    implementing NIMS.
  • The NIC is responsible for the following
    functions
  • Administration and compliance
  • Standards and credentialing
  • Training and exercise support
  • publication management

140
Supporting Technologies
  • NIMS relies on scientifically based technical
    standards that support incident management.
    Ongoing development of science and technology
    supports the continual improvement and refinement
    of NIMS.
  • Strategic research and development ensures that
    this development takes place.
  • To be successful, the NIC must
  • Form a long-term collaborative effort among NIMS
    partners to maintain an appropriate focus on
    science and technology solutions.
  • Work in coordination with the DHS Under Secretary
    for Science and Technology to assess the needs of
    emergency management/response personnel and their
    affiliated organizations.

141
Preparedness
  • Public-Private partnerships
  • Emergency managers should establish
    public-private partnerships were appropriate to
    gain a better perspective on available emergency
    resources to meet the public need.

142
Training and Exercising
  • NIC will disseminate national standards, general
    training requirements
  • HSEEP is a capabilities and performance-based
    exercise program that provides a standardized
    policy, methodology, and language for designing,
    developing, conducting, and evaluating all
    exercises
  • .

143
Training
  • Personnel with roles in emergency management and
    incident response should be appropriately trained
    to improve all-hazards capabilities nationwide.
    Training should allow practitioners to
  • Use the concepts and principles of NIMS in
    exercises, planned events, and actual incidents.
  • Become more comfortable using NIMS, including the
    Incident Command System.  
  • Training and exercises should be specifically
    tailored to the responsibilities of the personnel
    involved in incident management. The National
    Integration Center (NIC) has developed
    requirements and guidance for NIMS training
    materials.

144
Exercises
  • To improve NIMS performance, emergency
    management/response personnel need to participate
    in realistic exercises. Exercises should
  • Include multidisciplinary, multijurisdictional
    incidents.
  • Require interactions with the private sector and
    nongovernmental organizations.
  • Cover all aspects of preparedness plans,
    particularly the processes and procedures for
    activating local, intrastate, and/or interstate
    mutual aid agreements and assistance agreements.
  • Contain a mechanism for incorporating corrective
    actions and lessons learned from incidents into
    the planning process.

145
Personnel Qualification and Certification
  • Standards (knowledge, skills and experience)
  • Training
  • Experience
  • Credentialing
  • Currency
  • Physical and medical fitness
  • .

146
Personnel Qualifications and Certification
  • A critical element of NIMS preparedness is the
    use of national standards that allow for common
    or compatible structures for the qualification,
    licensure, and certification of emergency
    management/response personnel.
  • Help ensure that personnel possess the minimum
    knowledge, skills, and experience necessary to
    execute incident management and emergency
    response activities safely and effectively
  • Typically include training, experience,
    credentialing, validation, and physical and
    medical fitness
  • The baseline criteria for voluntary credentialing
    will be established by the National Integration
    Center.

147
Incident Mgt Team
  • An Incident Management Team (IMT) is an incident
    command organization made up of the Command and
    General Staff members and appropriate functional
    units in an ICS organization and can be deployed
    or activated, as needed.
  • National, State, and some local IMTs have formal
    certification and qualification, notification,
    deployment, and operational procedures in place.
    In other cases, IMTs are formed at an incident or
    for specific events.

148
Equipment Certification
  • National equipment standards (NIMS IC)
  • Interoperability
  • Review and approve equipment meeting national
    standards

149
Equipment Certification
  • We all count on having the right tools to do the
    job. Being able to certify equipment is a
    critical component of preparedness.
  • Helps ensure that the equipment acquired will
    perform to certain standards (as designated by
    organizations such as the National Fire
    Protection Association or National Institute of
    Standards and Technology).
  • Supports planning and rapid fulfillment of needs
    based on a common understanding of the abilities
    of distinct types of equipment.

150
Mutual Aid and EMACs
  • Provide resources or other support to another org
    during emergency
  • Jurisdictions at all levels are encouraged to
    enter into agreements with
  • Other jurisdictions
  • Private Sector and NGOs
  • Private orgs

151
EMAC
  • The Emergency Management Assistance Compact
    (EMAC) is a congressionally ratified organization
    that provides form and structure to interstate
    mutual aid. Through EMAC, a disaster-impacted
    State can request and receive assistance from
    other member States quickly and efficiently,
    resolving two key issues upfront liability and
    reimbursement.

152
Mutual Aid
  • NIMS encourages
  • Jurisdictions to enter into mutual aid and
    assistance agreements with other jurisdictions
    and/or organizations from which they expect to
    receive, or to which they expect to provide,
    assistance.
  • States to participate in interstate compacts and
    to consider establishing intrastate agreements
    that encompass all local jurisdictions.
  • .

153
Standardized Approach to Resource Management
  • NIMS establishes a standardized approach for
    managing resources before, during, and after an
    incident. This standardized approach is based on
    the underlying concepts
  • Consistency
  • Standardization
  • Coordination
  • Use
  • Information Management
  • Credentialing

154
Planning
  • Jurisdictions should work together in advance of
    an incident to develop plans for identifying,
    ordering, managing, and employing resources.
  • Identification of resource needs based on the
    threats to and vulnerabilities of the
    jurisdiction
  • Development of alternative strategies to obtain
    the needed resources
  • Creation of new policies to encourage positioning
    of resources
  • Identification of conditions that may trigger a
    specific action, such as restocking supplies when
    inventories reach a predetermined minimum.

155
Use of Agreements
  • Agreements among all parties providing or
    requesting resources help to enable effective and
    efficient resource management during incident
    operations.
  • You might want to consider developing and
    maintaining standing agreements and contracts for
    services and supplies that may be needed during
    an incident.

156
Effective Resource Management Acquisition
Strategies
  • Effective resource management includes
    establishing resource acquisition procedures.
  • It is important to consider the tradeoffs (e.g.,
    shelf life, warehousing costs) and determine the
    optimal acquisition strategies, including
  • Acquiring critical resources in advance and
    storing them in a warehouse (i.e.,
    stockpiling).
  • Supplying resources just in time, typically
    using a pre-incident contract.

157
Effective Resource Management
  • Systems Management information systems collect,
    update, and process resource data and track the
    status and location of resources.
  • It is critical to have redundant information
    systems or backup systems to manage resources in
    the event that the primary system is disrupted or
    unavailable.
  • Protocols Preparedness organizations develop
    standard protocols to request resources,
    prioritize requests, activate and mobilize
    resources to incidents, and return resources to
    normal status.

158
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