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Systems Engineering Management

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Title: Systems Engineering Management


1
Systems Engineering Management
  • Day 3 SEM and Environmental Engineering
  • Sarah Bell

2
Programme
9-1pm SEM Review
Sustainable Systems
The Natural Step
Environmental Management Systems
Life Cycle Assessment
1-2pm BREAK
2-4pm Sustainability Assessment (Giffords)

3
Learning Outcomes
  • Understand value of SEM in achieving sustainable
    development
  • Knowledge of key tools used to incorporate
    sustainability into large projects and systems
  • Environmental Management Systems
  • Life Cycle Assessment
  • Sustainability assessment

4
What is a system?
  • Properties of a system
  • Architect
  • Multiple parts
  • Interaction between parts
  • Emergent properties

5
Systems thinking
  • Organisation and connection between components
  • Holism and cause and effect thinking
  • Hierarchy
  • Partitioning
  • Lifecycles
  • Subjectivity

6
What is systems engineering?
  • Systems Engineering is an interdisciplinary
    approach and means to enable the realization of
    successful systems. It focuses on defining
    customer needs and required functionality early
    in the development cycle, documenting
    requirements, and then proceeding with design
    synthesis and system validation while considering
    the complete problem. Systems Engineering
    considers both the business and the technical
    needs of all customers with the goal of providing
    a quality product that meets the user needs
    (INCOSE).

7
Why is Systems Engineering of interest to
Environmental Engineers?
  • Environmental systems thinking
  • Holism, hierarchy, partitioning, lifecycles
  • Managing environmental projects and systems
  • Requirements, users, systems architecture etc
  • Integrate environment and sustainability into
    large projects

8
Key concepts
  • V-diagram
  • Left shift
  • Requirements capture
  • Systems integration
  • Systems design team

9
Systems Engineering SPMTE
Stages
When
Defines
Processes
Defines
What
Supported by
Methods
How
Defines
What How
Tools
Enhances
What How
Environment
Enhances
10
The V diagram
11
The V diagram
Validation
User Satisfaction
Verification
User Requirements
Acceptance Tests
Verification
System Requirements
System Tests
Partitioning
Verification
Architectural Design
Integration Tests
Integration
Sub-system Development
Sub-system Tests
12
Left shift
13
Left shift
Effort
Left Shift
Typical
The cost of problems
Time
Avoiding unnecessary work Avoiding rework
Delivery
14
Requirements and Acceptance
Customers/Users Needs
Statement Of Requirements
Method Of Acceptance
Customer Supplier Divide
Suppliers Development Strategy
For every requirement there must be an
unambiguous method of acceptance
All derived requirements should be traceable to
the customer requirements
Requirements and acceptance methods shouldbe
related changing one forces a change in the
other
15
Requirements and Architectural Design
Stakeholder Requirements
System Requirements
Architectural Design
16
Requirements Elaboration
Functional Modelling
Statement Of Need
Stakeholder Requirements
System Requirements
Sub-system Requirements
Usage Modelling
Performance Modelling
Architectural Design
Requirements cannot be elaborated to
sub-systemlevel without a concurrent modelling
process
17
System of Systems Integration
Different overlays provide different capability
Connectivity overlays
Asset Map
18
Integration of Specialisations
A system engineer does not need to know
everything but should know what the limits of
his/her knowledge is.
Systems Engineer
System
Domain Systems Engineers
Domain Engineers
Component
Domain
19
System Design Team
  • Platform for SE to organise and lead the
    technical aspects of the development
  • Develops requirements at all levels
  • System architecture
  • System design
  • Fabrication
  • Test
  • Installation
  • Acceptance

The SE should have a major say in the function
and make-up of such a group. (Reilly 1993)
20
Syndicate exercise
  • How would you set up a systems design team to
    deliver an upgrade of the Act On CO2 carbon
    footprint calculator to incorporate indirect
    carbon impacts of waste and water?

21
Syndicate exercise
http//actonco2.direct.gov.uk/index.html
22
Syndicate exercise
  • What is the role of the systems engineer?
  • What other roles are needed?
  • How would you left-shift?
  • How would you follow the v-diagram?
  • How would you capture requirements?

23
Sustainable Systems Engineering Management
24
Tools for sustainable systems
  • Part of the context of a project
  • Policy drivers
  • Requirements capture and testing
  • One of the specialisations in the System Design
    Team

25
Systems Engineering and Sustainable Development
  • Limits
  • People
  • Politics
  • Equity
  • Uncertainty and complexity?
  • Fallacy of control?

26
SEM and Sustainable Development
  • Soft systems
  • Stakeholders
  • All systems are soft systems?
  • Defining system boundaries
  • The planet?
  • Local and global
  • Defining goals and objectives

27
SEM and Sustainable Development
  • Bottom up emergence
  • Top-down architecture design and control
  • Dynamic systems, dynamic requirements
  • Responsiveness to environmental and social change

28
SEM What is it good for?
  • Large projects
  • Integration of systems and sub-systems
  • Capturing requirements
  • Testing requirements

29
SEM What does it need to work on?
  • Stakeholders
  • Client management
  • Participation, deliberation
  • Modesty?
  • Dynamic systems, complexity, emergence, bottom up

30
Environmental Systems Engineers cf technical
experts
  • Participatory v contributory knowledge
  • Integrators
  • Environment
  • Technology
  • People

31
Integrating sustainability into large projects
  • The Natural Step
  • Environmental Management Systems
  • Life Cycle Assessment
  • Sustainability assessment

32
The Natural Step
  • www.naturalstep.org

33
Basic scientific principles
  • Nothing disappears
  • Conservation of matter
  • First law of thermodynamics
  • Everything spreads
  • Second law of thermodynamics
  • There is value in structure
  • Economics and ecosystems
  • Photosynthesis pays the bills

34
The funnel
35
Four System Conditions
  • In a sustainable society, nature is not subject
    to systematically increasing
  • concentrations of substances extracted from the
    earths crust
  • concentrations of substances produced by society
  • degradation by physical means
  • and, in that society, people are no subject to
    conditions that systematically undermine their
    capacity to meet their needs

36
Manfred Max-Neefs Nine Human Needs
  • Subsistence
  • Protection
  • Affection
  • Understanding
  • Participation
  • Leisure
  • Creation
  • Identity
  • Freedom

37
Backcasting
  • Start from vision of sustainable system
  • Work backwards to develop plans and actions to
    achieve change

38
ABCD Process
39
Pret a Manger
  • Charity run food for homeless shelters,
    diverted four tonnes per week from landfill
  • Electric vans, reduce CO2 emssions by 3 tonnes
    per year
  • Changing packaging saved 8 tonnes of waste to
    landfill per year
  • Electricity from 100 renewable sources

40
ICI Paints and Forum for the Future
  • TNS framework to develop user friendly Life Cycle
    Assessment tool
  • Used for senior managers to highlight most
    harmful points in supply chain, process and
    product life
  • Identify high level strategic priorities for
    improving sustainability

41
The Natural Step References
  • www.naturalstep.org
  • Cook D. (2004) The Natural Step Totnes, Green
    Books.

42
Environmental Management Systems
43
Environmental Management Systems
  • Manage environmental issues systematically,
    efficiently and efficiently
  • Part of overall management system
  • Produce corporate environmental plan which will
    lead to improved environmental performance

44
Drivers for implementing EMS
  • Energy efficiency
  • Waste minimisation
  • Green image
  • Competitive advantage
  • Supply chain pressures
  • Environmental legislation protectin
  • Staff morale and corporate social responsibility

45
EMS Improving Environmental Performance
  • Setting goals and objectives
  • Identify, obtain and organise resources
  • Identify and assess options
  • Assess risks and priorities
  • Implement selected set of options
  • Audit performance and provide feedback
  • Apply environmental management tools

46
EMS Factors for Success
  • Commitment and senior levels
  • Integration with business plan
  • Goals and objectives set at senior levels
  • Feedback on success with appropriate adjustments
  • Continual improvement

47
Integrated Management System
48
Environmental Management Programme
  • Schedules, resources and responsibilities
  • Specific actions and priorities
  • Individual processes, projects, products,
    services, sites and facilities
  • Dynamic and revised regularly

49
  • EMS
  • EMP
  • Systematic and comprehensive
  • Proactive
  • Corporate level commitment
  • Feedback and continual improvement
  • Teamwork
  • Relatively independent subsystems
  • Applied sciences and engineering
  • Focus on error-free operations
  • Data on day-to-day operations

50
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51
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52
Environmental Policy Statement
  • High level goals and commitment from senior
    management
  • Protect the environment
  • Prevent pollution
  • Continuously monitor and improve performance

53
Basic Management Model
54
Planning
  • Objectives and targets
  • Procedures and programmes
  • Assign responsibility
  • Needs assessment
  • Baseline audit

55
Strategies for implementation
  • Incremental
  • Test unit
  • System-wide
  • Build-your-own
  • Bailout

56
Feedback
  • Auditing, measuring, monitoring
  • Registration with certifying body

57
Standardising EMS
  • ISO 14000
  • Followed on from ISO 9000, Total Quality
    Management
  • EMAS
  • European
  • Eco-Management and Audit Scheme

58
ISO 14000
  • Series of standards and guidance
  • 14001 Environmental Management System
    Specification
  • 14004 Environmental Management System Guideline
  • Auditing, Labelling, Performance Evaluation, Life
    Cycle Assessment

59
ISO 14001
  • Not specific environmental performance standards
  • Framework for holistic, strategic approach
  • Generic requirements
  • Assurance to management and employees
  • External stakeholders
  • Customers
  • Regulations

60
Criticisms of EMS
  • Organisations set own objectives and targets
  • Does not guarantee improved performance
  • Audits focus on the EMS, not on environmental
    performance
  • Environment may be forgotten once EMS standard is
    achieved

61
Criticisms of EMS
  • Do not set limits on environmental performance
  • Pollution, energy, resource use etc
  • Too bureaucratic
  • Can be used as a smokescreen or for marketing to
    clients and stakeholders

62
EMS References
  • Kirkland L., Wolfwillow Environmental and
    Thompson D. (2002) Environmental Management
    Systems, chapter 2 in D. Thompson (ed.) Tools for
    Environmental Management, Gabriola Island, New
    Society Publishers, 19-42.
  • Netherwood A. (1996) Environmental Management
    Systems, chapter 3 in R. Welford (ed.) Corporate
    Environmental Management 1 (2nd edition), London,
    Earthscan, 37-60.
  • Tinsley S. and Pillai I. (2006) Environmental
    Management Systems London, Earthscan.

63
Life Cycle Assessment
64
Life Cycle Assessment
  • Cradle to Grave, Cradle to Cradle
  • Map and measure all environmental impacts of a
    product
  • Inform strategies for improving environmental
    performance
  • Decisions about products and services

65
Syndicate exercise
  • Draw the life cycle of a can of Coca-Cola
  • Choose either the can or the drink

66
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67
Life Cycle Assessment
  • Objective process
  • Product, process or activity
  • Identify and quantify energy and material use,
    and releases to the environment
  • Evaluate and implement opportunities for
    improvement
  • Only environmental impacts

68
Entire Life Cycle
  • Extraction
  • Processing
  • Manufacturing
  • Transport and distribution
  • Use, Reuse, Recycling
  • Maintenance
  • Disposal

69
Life Cycle Assessment
  • Provide complete a picture as possible
  • Contribute to understanding environmental
    consequences of human activities
  • Provide decision makers with information

70
Users of LCA
  • Product designers
  • Shareholders, financiers, insurers
  • Customers
  • Environmental and consumer groups
  • Regulators

71
LCA Methodology(Society for Environmental
Toxicity and Chemistry)
  • Goal and scope definition
  • Inventory analysis
  • Environmental impact assessment
  • Improvements assessment
  • ISO 14040

72
Goal and scope definition
  • Purpose
  • Assumptions
  • Functional unit
  • Boundaries
  • Data

73
Inventory analysis
  • All activities and processes
  • Quantitative list of inputs and outputs
  • Materials and energy

74
Environmental impact assessment
  • Assess potential effect on the environment from
    the inventory
  • Compile and evaluate different impacts
  • Different assessment methods
  • Score them according to agreed criteria
  • Result in single score or index for comparison

75
Nappies
  • Cloth versus disposable nappy debate
  • DEFRA Report 2008
  • http//randd.defra.gov.uk/Document.aspx?DocumentW
    R0705_7589_FRP.pdf

76
Strengths of LCA
  • Complete systems overview
  • Identifies critical elements
  • Identifies knowledge gaps
  • Guidelines for action
  • Increases awareness
  • Global view, rather than singles issues
  • Provides data for environmental decisions and
    debate

77
Limitations of LCA
  • Static snapshot in time
  • Quality depends on data, boundaries, assumptions
    etc.
  • Results may be difficult to evaluate
  • Limited knowledge of complex processes
  • Both scientific and subjective criteria
  • Costs a lot of time and money

78
Life Cycle Assessment References
  • Higgins A. and Thompson D. (2002) Life Cycle
    Assessment, chapter 18 in D. Thompson (ed.) Tools
    for Environmental Management, Gabriola Island,
    New Society Publishers, 293-306.
  • Jonson G. (1996) LCA a tool for measuring
    environmental performance Leatherhead, Surrey.
  • Welford R. (1996) Life Cycle Assessment, chapter
    8 in R. Welford (ed.) Corporate Environmental
    Management 1 (2nd edition), London, Earthscan,
    138-147.
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