(12) Solid Earth. The student knows that Earth contains energy, water, mineral, and rock resources and that use of these resources impacts Earth's subsystems. The student is expected to: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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(12) Solid Earth. The student knows that Earth contains energy, water, mineral, and rock resources and that use of these resources impacts Earth's subsystems. The student is expected to:

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Title: (12) Solid Earth. The student knows that Earth contains energy, water, mineral, and rock resources and that use of these resources impacts Earth's subsystems. The student is expected to:


1
Earth and Space TEK 12
(12) Solid Earth. The student knows that Earth
contains energy, water, mineral, and rock
resources and that use of these resources impacts
Earth's subsystems. The student is expected
to   (c)  discriminate between renewable and
nonrenewable resources based upon rate of
formation and use   (d)  analyze the economics
of resources from discovery to disposal,
including technological advances, resource type,
concentration and location, waste disposal and
recycling, and environmental costs
and Students will understand that human-induced
environmental problems can be local, regional,
or global, such as Urban air pollution acid
rain ozone depletion global warming.
Students will understand the process of human
waste management, such as Landfills wastewater
treatment
2
Nonrenewable Resources
Rate of Formation, and Use
  • Weve spent a great amount of time recently
    talking about the formation of fossil fuels,
    rocks and minerals, their use and the
    environmental cost of their overconsumption.
  • Nonrenewable resources are natural resources
    which cannot be produced, grown, generated, or
    used on a scale which can sustain its consumption
    rate, once depleted there is no more available
    for future needs. They include all resources that
    once consumed, CANNOT be replenished in a timely
    manner within a human lifetime. They include, but
    are not limited to
  • Fossil Fuels
  • Precious metals and gems
  • Radioactive fuels (uranium and plutonium)

3
Nonrenewable Resources
Rate of Formation, and Use
These nonrenewable resources all take
excruciatingly long periods of time to form
within the Earth. Remember, the fossil fuels we
are now consuming took over 300 million years of
cooking within the Earth! This is part of
what makes them nonrenewable. They take so long
to form, that if we use them to exhaustion, they
are essentially gone.
  • According to the 2010 International Energy
    Outlook, as of Jan. 1, 2010, proved world oil
    reserves were estimated at 1,354 billion barrels.
    Globally, we consume 80 million barrels of oil a
    day. Current estimates of proven reserves
  • 118 years of coal left
  • 46 years of oil left
  • 59 years of natural gas left
  • at current production and consumption levels

Proved reserves are accessible, and cost
effective (profitable to drill or mine).
4
Renewable Resources
Rate of Formation, and Use
  • Renewable resources are
  • ones that can be replenished naturally. Some of
    these resources, like sunlight, air, wind, etc.,
    are continuously available and their quantity is
    not noticeably affected by human consumption.
    This type of renewable resource is known as
    inexhaustible.
  • Many renewable resources do not have such a rapid
    recovery rate, these resources are susceptible to
    depletion by over-use. Resources from a human use
    perspective are classified as renewable only so
    long as the rate of replenishment/recovery
    exceeds that of the rate of consumption.
  • Examples include water, soil, lumberetc.

5
Economics of Resources
Discovery to Disposal
  • Resources come from diverse realms, including
    economics, biology, computer science, land
    management, and even human resources, and is
    linked to the concepts of
  • competition
  • sustainability
  • conservation, and
  • stewardship

Competition occurs when many organisms require
and fight for the same resources. In order to
sustain resources, we must find suitable
alternatives, or find ways to allocate or
conserve those that we rely upon.
Conservation occurs when resources are saved for
such a time that they might be needed. Put
some away now, and save for the
future Stewardship is an ethic that embodies the
planning and management of resources. Ethics is a
branch of philosophy that determines right and
wrong.
6
This is Monarch Mining Company, and they
discovered a way to extract oil from shale,
traditionally a filthy resource, in an economic
(cheap) and more environmentally friendly
waycalled coal gasification. One drawback,
however, is that even though this form of coal
mining produces less CO2 emissions, it does rely
on the Green River to cool the processproducing
thermal pollution.
While there is cost involved in the discovery of
a natural resource, economics determines if the
benefit (profit) outweighs the expense. For
resources such as fossil fuels, the cost of
extraction and production has never exceeded the
profit potential.
7
Economics of Resources
Technological Advances
Technological advances allow society to produce
more output from the existing mix of resources.
These advances may take the form of less costly
methods of producing existing output or may
result in the production of new (or substantially
improved) commodities. Society clearly gains
from the production of either more output or more
highly valued output.
8
Economics of Resources
Resource Type, Concentration, and Location
9
Economics of Resources
Waste Disposal, and Recycling
The economics of resource use must also include a
portion for waste disposal. Nearly every resource
we use has a depleted form or waste product that
must be dealt with. There is, most certainly, a
cost as well. One cost is economic.
While recycling is also expensive, the cost is
defrayed because many of the recycled objects can
be made into something else, requiring less
energy than the manufacture of the original item,
both in terms of resource use and cost of
original manufacture.
Plastics may become degraded after the recycling
process, largely due to environmental factors
such as light, heat and weathering. When
plastics are recycled they must add stabilizers,
fillers, and modifiers to the materials, which
means they are never as good as the original
product.
10
Economics of Resources
Environmental Costs
  • Human-induced environmental problems can be
    local, regional, or global, such as
  • Urban air pollution
  • acid rain
  • ozone depletion
  • global warming.

This question, of course, is about environmental
ethics. Remember, ethics is about what is right,
and wrong. Stewardship of our Earth is one of the
roles we must play in order to be successful. The
Earth can most assuredly survive whatever we
throw at her. Shes shown us that in the past.
The biggest question iscan HUMANS survive what
they are doing to the Earth right now? Are we
living in a sustainable manner? Can we do better?
Where economics are concerned, there is always a
fine line to walk when considering the
environment. Are we to be a people who use and
abuse the Earth we live on without concern for
future generations, only seeing the benefit here
and now? Or should we consider the legacy we
leave behind, and preserve and cherish the
environment for all those who may follow?
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