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Environmental Science Chapter 3 The Dynamic Earth

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Environmental Science Chapter 3 The Dynamic Earth Mr. Manskopf All notes can be found at http://www.manskopf.com Big Ideas The Earth is a dynamic system consisting of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Environmental Science Chapter 3 The Dynamic Earth


1
Environmental Science Chapter 3 The Dynamic Earth
  • Mr. Manskopf
  • All notes can be found at http//www.manskopf.com

2
Big Ideas
  • The Earth is a dynamic system consisting of the
    geosphere, the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and
    the biosphere.
  • The Earths geosphere is a complex system that is
    constantly changing impacting life on Earth.
  • A thin mixture of gasses that surrounds our
    planet makes life on Earth possible in many ways.
  • Life is contained in a very thin layer near the
    Earths surface that contains all that is needed
    for survival.
  • Water is a simple, yet complex molecule that
    shapes our world landscape, moderates our
    climate, provides habitat and most of all makes
    life possible

3
Has Earth always looked this way? Will it always
look this way?
4
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5
Section 1 The Geosphere
6
Section 1 Goals
  • Describe the main structure of the interior of
    the Earth
  • How does the plate tectonic theory explain
    earthquakes, mountain building and volcanoes?
  • Describe how wind and water alter Earths surface.

7
What is the Geosphere?
  • Geosphere consists of all the rocks, soil and
    loose rocks on Earth surface.
  • Most inside of Earth
  • About 6,000 km in radius

8
Earths Interior
  • 3 main layers inside Earth
  • Crust Solid outer layer, very thin
  • Composed of lighter elements
  • Less than 1 of mass
  • Thickest under continents (30 miles)
  • Earthquakes, mountains, mining all take place here

9
Earths Interior
  • Mantle beneath the crust, makes up most of the
    mass
  • Mostly liquid rock called magma
  • More than 2,000 miles thick
  • Convection currents moving liquid rock around

10
Earths Interior
  • Core innermost, hottest layer
  • Made of very dense metals like iron and nickel
  • HOW DO WE KNOW WHAT IS GOING ON INSIDE THE EARTH?

11
Earths Interior
12
Plate Tectonic Theory
Why dont we get Earthquake in Camden?
13
Why do the earthquakes seem to follow a pattern?
14
Plate Tectonic Theory
WHY DO MOUNTAIN BELTS FORM CHAINS?
15
Why do the locations of volcanoes form patterns?
16
Plate Tectonic Theory
  • Crust is broken into large pieces that are slowly
    moving around
  • Similar to chunks of ice floating on lake
  • Most plates
  • continent size
  • Move about
  • 2-5 cm/yr

17
Plate Tectonic Theory
  • Plate Boundaries where plates touch each other.
  • Creates earthquake, mountains and sometimes
    volcanoes
  • Convergent
  • Divergent
  • Transform

18
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19
Earthquakes
  • Vibrations of the Earths crust caused by rocks
    in the crust breaking
  • Faults are cracks in crust MOST are located near
    plate boundaries
  • Can we get Earthquakes in NJ???

20
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21
Earthquakes
  • Seismic Waves carry the energy of an earthquake
    through the Earth
  • Measured on the Richter Scale

22
http//earthquake.usgs.gov/ Earthquakes occur
ALL the time
What do you think kills most people in
earthquakes? How can we build safer buildings
and other structures?
23
Volcanoes
  • Volcano is a mountain built by when lava cools on
    the surface of the crust
  • Most common at Convergent and Divergent plate
    boundaries
  • 75 of volcanoes in the Ring of Fire around
    Pacific Ocean

24
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25
Volcanic Impacts
  • Local Impacts earthquakes, ash cloud, deadly
    gasses, mudslides
  • Global Impacts decreased temperatures due to ash
    blocking out sunlight

26
Rock Types
  • Igneous Rocks formed from cooled magma or lava
  • Sedimentary Rocks formed from compressed
    sediment like sand and mud
  • Metamorphic Rocks forms when other rocks are put
    under lots of heat and pressure

27
Rock Cycle
  • http//www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/
    content/investigations/es0602/es0602page02.cfm

28
Will this mountain continue to grow forever? WHY?
29
Which mountains are older? How can you tell?
30
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31
Wearing Down Earths Surface
  • Plate Tectonics Builds Mountains and creates new
    rocks
  • Erosion is the removal and transport of Earth
    materials like rocks
  • Water is main agent of erosion on Earth
  • Wind, waves, glaciers, and others

32
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33
Section 1 Review
  • Describe the main structure of the interior of
    the Earth
  • How does the plate tectonic theory explain
    earthquakes, mountain building and volcanoes?
  • Describe how wind and water alter Earths surface.

34
Section 2 The Atmosphere Goals
  • Describe the composition of the atmosphere
  • Describe the layers of the atmosphere
  • Explain the 3 ways heat is transferred in the
    atmosphere
  • Explain the greenhouse effect

35
Our Atmosphere
  • Atmosphere a THIN layer of gases surrounding our
    planet
  • Makes life possible
  • Provides vital gases for plants and animals
  • Blocks out harmful sun rays
  • Keeps temperature comfortable
  • Burns up meteoroids

36
Our Atmosphere
  • 78 Nitrogen
  • 21 Oxygen
  • 1 others like argon, methane, carbon dioxide
  • Dust, dirt, bacteria, viruses, ash, air
    pollution, salt, skin, bits of cloths, etc.

37
Atmosphere is a dynamic place
38
Layers of Atmosphere
  • Divided into 4 main layers according to changes
    in temperature

39
Layers of Atmosphere
  • Troposphere lowest layer, all weather occurs
    here, most dense layer,
  • Temperature and air pressure drop quickly as
    altitude increases

40
Layers of Atmosphere
  • Stratosphere layer above troposphere, contains
    ozone layer which blocks out harmful UV sun rays
  • Contains high levels of Ozone O3

41
Layers of Atmosphere
  • Mesosphere coldest layer as low as -93oC
  • Thermosphere hottest layer, but would not feel
    hot ???

42
Energy Transfer in Atmosphere
43
How does the air get warm?
  • Radiation is the transfer of energy across space
  • Stand out in the sun wearing a black shirt
  • Sun 93 million miles away
  • Travels at 186,000 mi/s
  • Only about 50 of solar energy is absorbed by
    Earths surface

44
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45
Energy Transfer
  • Conduction energy transfer when the 2 object
    with different temperatures touch
  • Air touching the ground warms by conduction
  • You touch a hot metal pan and burn your hand

46
Energy Transfer
  • Convection heat transfer by moving fluid (liquid
    or gas)
  • Hot air rising off the warm ground
  • Why does hot air rise?

47
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48
  • Explain how out atmosphere warms?
  • Why doesnt all the heat escape into space?

49
Greenhouse Effect
50
Greenhouse Effect
  • Gases in the atmosphere trap in heat not allowing
    it to escape into space
  • Mainly CO2, water vapor and methane gas
  • Natural process, well understood for centuries
  • Without those gases Earth is a very cold place

51
Our atmosphere is critical to life on Earth, yet
is very thin and fragile
52
Section 2 Review
  • Describe the composition of the atmosphere
  • Describe the layers of the atmosphere
  • Explain the 3 ways heat is transferred in the
    atmosphere
  • Explain the greenhouse effect

53
Section 3 Hydrosphere and Biosphere
  • Describe the main steps in the water cycle
  • Explain how the ocean is a dynamic system of
    current, waves, and tides
  • Explain why life is confined to the biosphere.

54
Hydrosphere
Hydrosphere includes all water on Earth Rivers,
lakes, streams, groundwater, glaciers, water
vapor, oceans, clouds, etc.
55
Water Cycle
56
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57
Where is most water found?
97 in Oceans, less than 3 is fresh water Most
freshwater is in glaciers and ice caps
58
Oceans
Cover 70 of Earths surface
59
Ocean Water
The sodium and chlorine NaCl form salt Why is it
salty? Which parts of oceans would be saltier?
60
Ocean Temperature Zones
61
How is it possible that England is 700 miles
further away from the equator than Camden, yet it
has much warmer winters?
62
Ocean Currents
63
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64
Ocean Current
  • Streamline movements of water in the oceans
  • Surface currents caused by wind only a few meters
    deep
  • Surface current impact climates worldwide moving
    heat from equator to polar regions

65
Ocean Motions Tides
Tides are caused by the gravity of the moon and
sun pulling water closer to them
66
Ocean Motions Waves
Waves are caused by wind Stronger Wind Bigger
Waves
67
Fresh Water
68
Fresh Water Groundwater
69
Groundwater
What do you think makes groundwater a good source
for water? What could be some problems with
using groundwater?
70
Biosphere
  • What makes life possible in the biosphere?
  • Sunlight
  • Moderate temperatures
  • Liquid Water
  • Gravity

71
Life starts with the plants Primary
Producers Where do YOU get your energy from?
72
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73
Section 3 Review
  • Describe the main steps in the water cycle
  • Explain how the ocean is a dynamic system of
    current, waves, and tides
  • Explain why life is confined to the biosphere.

74
Chapter 3
  • The Earth is a dynamic system consisting of the
    geosphere, the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and
    the biosphere.
  • The Earths geosphere is a complex system that is
    constantly changing impacting life on Earth.
  • A thin mixture of gasses that surrounds our
    planet makes life on Earth possible in many ways.
  • Life is contained in a very thin layer near the
    Earths surface that contains all that is needed
    for survival.
  • Water is a simple, yet complex molecule that
    shapes our world landscape, moderates our
    climate, provides habitat and most of all makes
    life possible

75
(No Transcript)
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