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Soil and Other Earth Materials


Types of soil and other Earth Materials. Science for Primary – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Soil and Other Earth Materials

Soil and Other Earth Material
Kinds of Soils
  • What are the kinds soils?

Loamy Soil
  • Pierie Soil / Grass Soil
  • Forest Soil
  • Tropical Soil
  • Organic Soil
  • Desert Soil
  • Tunara Soil
  • Sandy Soil
  • Clay Soil
  • Chalky Soil
  • Peaty Soil

Classifying Soils
By Texture Colour Water Retention
  • How do we classify soils?

  • Soil is made up of three types of particles
    sand, silt and clay. The texture of a type of
    soil depends on the amount of sand, silt and clay
    present in it

  • Different types of soils have different colours.
    Soil may be light or dark. The colour of a type
    of soil depends on the types of minerals present
    in the soil and weather it is fertile or not
  • Soils that are yellow or red usually contain the
    mineral iron.

  • White soil indicates the presence of the mineral
  • Dark coloured soil usually has a higher content
    of nutrients or dead plant and animal material.
    It is usually fertile.

Dark-coloured soil
White soil
Water Retention
  • Soil water retention refers to the ability of a
    soil to hold on water.
  • Let us compare the water retention of sand and
  • Sand and clay are placed in filter funnels lined
    with filter paper. Water is poured into the
    filterfunnels. The water that passes through the
    soil are collected using beakers.

We can observe that more water passes through
sand than clay. So, sand does not retain water as
well. The spaces between sand particles are
large. Thus water flows through sand quickly.
Movement of water
Filter Funnel
Sand Particle
Volume of water that flows through sand
We can observe that less water passes through
clay than sand. So, clay retain water as well
better than sand. The spaces between clay
particles are small. Thus water does not flows
through clay easily.
Movement of water
Filter Funnel
Volume of water that flows through sand
Uses of Soil
  • What are the uses of soil?

  • Soil is used in farming to grow crops for food.

Habitat for organisms
  • Other than plants, animals such as woodlice and
    snails live in soil.
  • Micro organism and fungi are also found in soil.

Raw materials
  • Soil is a raw material used to make glass, cement
    and pottery. Glass is made from sand. Cement is
    made from sand and clay.

Growing Plants in Soil
  • Why do we use soil in the growing of plants?

Growing Plants in Soil
The roots of plants hold soil together and
prevent soil erosion.
  • We use for growing plants. Soil
    provides plants with conditions needed for plant
    growth. To grow well, plants need
  • Water
  • Minerals
  • Air
  • Anchorage to the ground

Water is present as thin film around each soil
particle. Water moves from this thin film into
the root, then to the rest of the plant.
Air is present in the spaces between the soil
particles. The roots of plants take in air from
the soil too.
Soil contains minerals. These minerals are
dissolved in water. Plants obtain these minerals
when their roots take up water from the soil
Plants grow roots in soil to anchor themselves
firmly to the ground.
Types of soil for plant growth
Different types of soil support the growth of
different kinds of plants. Some plants can only
grow well in a particular type of soil. Let us
take a look at three common types of soil used
for growing plants.
Garden Soil
  • Garden soil contains a good mix of sand, silt and
    clay. It retains water well and has a good supply
    of oxgen. It also contains plenty of dead plant
    and animal matter and it is very fertile.
  • Garden soil is suitable for growing most plants
    such as hibiscus and rose.

Sandy Soil
  • Snady soil is made up largely of sand particles.
    It does not retain water well, however it has a
    good oxygen supply. It is not very fertile.
  • Sandy soil is suitable for growing plants that do
    not require a lot of water. Plants that are
    commonly found along the coast, such as coconut
    trees, palm trees and sea shrubs, grow well in
    sandy soil.

Clayey Soil
  • Clayey soil is made up largely of clay particles.
    It is often wet because it retains water well.
    Clayey soil is fertile but has a low oxgen
    supply. Clayey soil is suitable for growing
    plants that require a lot of water. Rice plants
    grow well in clayey soil.

Enhancing plant growth
  • The characteristic of a type of soil can be
    changed to make it more suitable for plants to
    grow in.

Increasing the amount of air in the soil
  • Soil can be loosened so that more air can enter
    it. Tools such as spades are used to loosen soil.
    When animals such as earthworms move and dig
    holes in the soil, air also enters the soil.

Increasing the amount of nutrients in the soil
  • To increase the fertility of soil, we can add
    fertilisers directly to the soil. The fertiliser
    is then taken in by plant roots. Fertilisers
    contain nutrients that are required for plant
  • Fertilisers can be natural or chemical. The cow
    dung is the natural fertilisers

Changing the amount of water in the soil
  • If the soil is too dry, we can it to make it
  • For clayey soil which is wet most of the time, we
    can add sand or decaying plant and animal matter
    to it. This breaks up the clay so thet the number
    of air spaces is increased. This allows water to
    flow through it more easily.

Other Earth Materials
  • What some other earth materials and how does Man
    use these materials ?

Other Earth Materials
  • Beside soil, other materials include rocks,
    minerals, metals, gases, water, and fossil fuels.

  • Rocks are found everywhere on land and in
    water. They are made up of one or more minerals.
    Granite and basalt are examples of rocks. Rocks
    are used for constructing roads and building.

  • Minerals are obtained from rocks. Gold, silver,
    and diamond are examples of minerals. Minerals
    are also used to construct building and to make

  • Metals are a type of mineral that can be obtained
    from ores. Ores are rocks that conatin a large
    amount of a certain mineral. However, ores need
    to be processed first before they can be used.
    For instance, iron ore has to be processed under
    high temperatures before we can
    obtain iron. Iron is used as a
    building material.

    Metals like copper are used
    to make wires

  • Gases in the air include nitrogen, oxygen and
    carbon dioxide. Nitrogen is used to preserve
    food. Oxygen is used in the making of steel.
    Carbon dioxide is used in fire extinguishers to
    put out fires.

  • Water is found in lakes, rivers, ponds, seas and
    oceans. Water is used to grow crops. It is also
    used for washing clothes and dishes, and in
    preparing food.

Fosil Fuels
  • Fosil fuels such as coal and oil provide energy.
    Fossil fuels are also used to make plastic.

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