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The Geography of Agriculture

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Title: The Geography of Agriculture


1
The Geography of Agriculture
2
The Geography of Agriculture
  • Agricultures Origins and History
  • Classifying Agricultural Regions
  • The Von ThÜnen Model and Location Analysis
  • The Green Revolution
  • Genetic Modification of Crops

3
History of Agriculture
  • Hunter-Gatherers
  • Neolithic Revolution
  • Domestication of Plants and Animals
  • Diffusion of Agriculture
  • Agricultural Industrialization
  • The Green Revolution
  • Hybrids, scientific application of fertilizer,
    pesticide, and water
  • Modern Agribusiness
  • Genetic Engineering of Crops

4
Neolithic Revolution
  • Primary effects
  • Urbanization
  • Social stratification
  • Occupational specialization
  • Increased population densities
  • Secondary effects
  • Endemic diseases
  • Famine

5
  • Origins of Agriculture

Which of these areas are considered cultural
hearths?
6
Agricultural Revolutions
  • Technology allows much greater production
    (surplus) with less human labor, but often has
    high social and environmental costs.
  • Metal plows, Reapers, Cotton Gin
  • Tractors (Internal Combustion Engine)?
  • Combines
  • Chemical Pesticides/Fertilizers
  • Hybrid Crops
  • Genetically-modified Crops

7
How does agriculture correlate to development?
  • In terms of of population that farms?
  • Type of farming?
  • Types of crops/Products produced?
  • Distribution of end product?
  • Anything else you can think of?

8
Classifying Agricultural Regions
  • Commercial Agriculture
  • Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming
  • Dairy Farming
  • Grain Farming
  • Livestock Ranching
  • Mediterranean Agriculture
  • Truck Farming
  • Subsistence Agriculture
  • Shifting Cultivation
  • Pastoral Nomadism
  • Intensive Subsistence Agriculture

9
Subsistence Agriculture Regions
10
Shifting Cultivation
  • Vegetation slashed and then burned. Soil
    remains fertile for 2-3 years. Then people move
    on.
  • where tropical rainforests. Amazon, Central and
    West Africa, Southeast Asia
  • Crops upland rice (S.E. Asia), maize and manioc
    (S. America), millet and sorghum (Africa)?
  • Declining at hands of ranching and logging.

11
Pastoral Nomadism
  • The breeding and herding of domesticated animals
    for subsistence.
  • where arid and semi-arid areas of N. Africa,
    Middle East, Central Asia
  • animals Camel, Goats, Sheep, Cattle
  • transhumance seasonal migrations from highlands
    to lowlands
  • Most nomads are being pressured into sedentary
    life as land is used for agriculture or mining.

Bedouin Shepherd
Somali Nomad and Tent
12
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture
  • Wet Rice Dominant
  • where S.E. Asia, E. India, S.E. China
  • very labor intensive production of rice,
    including transfer to sawah, or paddies
  • most important source of food in Asia
  • grown on flat, or terraced land
  • Double cropping is used in warm winter areas of
    S. China and Taiwan

The Fields of Bali
Thai Rice Farmers
13
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14
Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming
  • Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming
  • Where Ohio to Dakotas, centered on Iowa much of
    Europe from France to Russia
  • crops corn (most common), soybeans
  • In U.S. 80 of product fed to pigs and cattle
  • Highly inefficient use of natural resources
  • Pounds of grain to make 1 lb. beef 10
  • Gallons of water to make 1 1b wheat 25
  • Gallons of water to make 1 1b. beef 2500

15
AgribusinessThe industrialization of agriculture
  • Modern commercial farming is very dependent on
    inputs of chemical fertilizer, pesticides,
    herbicides.
  • Oil is required to make fertilizer and
    pesticides.
  • It takes 10 calories of energy to create 1
    calorie of food in modern agriculture.
  • Small farmer cant buy needed equipment and
    supplies.
  • Fewer than 2 of U.S. population works in
    agriculture.

16
Commercial Agriculture
  • Value-Added
  • Very little of the value of most commercial
    products comes from the raw materials
  • adding value is the key to high profit margins
  • (value chain)

Roughly 6 of the price of cereal is the cost of
the grain.
17
Dairy Farming
  • Where near urban areas in N.E. United States,
    Southeast Canada, N.W. Europe
  • - Over 90 of cows milk is produced in
    developed countries. Value is added as cheese,
    yogurt, etc.

Dairy Farm, Wisconsin
Von Thunens theories are the beginning of
location economics and analysis (1826)Locational
Theory butter and cheese more common than milk
with increasing distance from cities and in
West. Milkshed historically defined by
spoilage threat refrigerated trucks changed
this.
18
Grain Farming
  • Where worldwide, but U.S. and Russia predominant
  • Crops wheat
  • winter wheat Kansas, Colorado, Oklahoma
  • spring wheat Dakotas, Montana, southern Canada
  • Highly mechanized combines, worth hundreds of
    thousands of dollars, migrate northward in U.S.,
    following the harvest.

19
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20
Livestock Ranching
  • Where arid or semi-arid areas of western U.S.,
    Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, Spain and Portugal.
  • History initially open range, now sedentary with
    transportation changes.

Environmental effects 1) overgrazing has
damaged much of the worlds arid grasslands (lt 1
of U.S. remain!)? 2) destruction of the
rainforest is motivated by Brazilian desires for
fashionable cattle ranches
21
Mediterranean Agriculture
  • Where areas surrounding the Mediterranean,
    California, Oregon, Chile, South Africa,
    Australia
  • Climate has summer dry season. Landscape is
    mountainous.
  • Highly valuable crops olives, grapes, nuts,
    fruits and vegetables winter wheat
  • California high quality land is being lost to
    suburbanization initially offset by irrigation

22

Commercial Gardening and Fruit Farming
  • Where U.S. Southeast, New England, near cities
    around the world
  • crops high profit vegetables and fruits demanded
    by wealthy urban populations apples, asparagus,
    cherries, lettuce, tomatoes, etc.
  • mechanization such truck farming is highly
    mechanized and labor costs are further reduced by
    the use of cheap immigrant (and illegal) labor.
  • distribution situated near urban markets.

23

Plantation Farming
  • large scale mono-cropping of profitable products
    not able to be grown in Europe or U.S.
  • where tropical lowland Periphery
  • crops cotton, sugar cane, coffee, rubber, cocoa,
    bananas, tea, coconuts, palm oil.
  • What are potential problems with this type of
    agriculture? Environmental? Social?

24

Making Sense of the Map of US Agricultural Regions
25
Boserup SubsistenceAgriculture and Population
  • Necessity is the mother of invention
  • http//playroom.crescentschool.org/geography/Human
    /UnitVAgricultural/esterboserup.htm
  • Intensification of Food Production 4 ways
  • Forest Fallow (20 yrs)
  • Bush Fallow (10 yrs)
  • Short/ Field Fallow (2 yrs)
  • Multicropping (never fallow)
  • Annual Cropping
  • (fallow for a few months)

26
Does Boserup seem related to another theory?
  • Boserup
  • Population determines agricultural methods.
  • People will find a way (inventions) to produce
    more food this is called intensification.
  • High population can be an advantage forces
    people to invent/ adjust.
  • Cant change lifestyle, so we need to change
    subsistence methods.
  • Malthus
  • Agriculture determines population.
  • People will begin to die off when the food supply
    cant keep up.
  • High population a problem, agriculture cant keep
    up.
  • Deals with food supply and population, not just
    subsistence agriculture like Boserup.

27
The Green Revolution in Agriculture
28
The Green Revolution in Agriculture
The term green revolution refers to the
development and adoption of high yielding cereal
grains in the less developed world during the
1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. Very large short term
gains in grain output have allowed food supplies
to grow faster than populations, until very
recently.
  • Green Revolution History
  • Acreage and Yield Trends
  • Technical Problems
  • Ethical Issues

29
History of Green Revolution
1943 Rockefeller Foundation begins work on short
stature hybrid corn in Mexico 1960s Hybrid
strains of rice, wheat, and corn show great
success in S.E. Asia, and Latin America. 1970
Head of Mexican corn program, Borlaug, wins Nobel
Peace Prize 1990s Growth in food supply
continues, but slows to below the rate of
population growth, as the results of
unsustainable farming practices take effect.
30
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31
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32
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33
Acreage and Yield Trends
  • Gains were made by
  • Dwarf varieties plants are bred to allocate
    more of their photosynthetic output to grain and
    less to vegetative parts.
  • Planting in closer rows, allowed by herbicides,
    increases yields.
  • Bred to be less sensitive to day length, thus
    double-cropping is more plausible.
  • Very sensitive to inputs of fertilizer and water.

34
Technical and Resource Limitation Problems
  • Heavy Use of Fresh Water
  • High Dependence on Technology and Machinery
    Provided/Sold by Core Countries
  • Heavy Use of Pesticides and Fertilizer
  • Reduced Genetic Diversity / Increased Blight
    Vulnerability
  • Questionable Overall Sustainability
  • Case Study India
  • http//www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?story
    Id102893816

35
Ethical Issues
  • Starvation of many prevented, but extra food may
    lead to higher birth rates.
  • Life expectancy in less developed countries
    increased by 10 years in less than two decades
    (43 in 1950s to 53 in 1970s).
  • Dependency on core countries increased rich-poor
    gap increased.
  • Wealthy farmers and multinational companies do
    well, small farmers become wage laborers or
    unemployed dependent.
  • More at risk? More people malnourished/starving
    today than in 1950 (but lower as a percentage).
  • U.S. spends 10,000,000,000 year on farm
    subsidies, damaging farmers and markets in LDCs.

36
Biotechnology in Agriculture
  • Cloning
  • Recombinant DNA
  • BT Corn Debate (transgenic maize)?
  • Are genetically modified foods safe?
  • Harvest of Fear
  • http//www.pbs.org/wgbh/harvest/

37

Agricultural Success?
  • Our incredible successes as a species are
    largely derived from this choice, but the biggest
    threats to our existence stem from the same
    decision. Jared Diamond, 1999
  • Emergence of new human diseases from animal
    diseases (i.e. smallpox, measles)?
  • Dense urban populations allow spread/persistence
    of disease
  • Lower standard of living for many people.
  • Archaeological evidence of serious
    mal-nourishment among early farmers.
  • Many modern impoverished and malnourished
    farmers.
  • Famine virtually non-existent in hunter-gatherer
    societies.
  • Increased susceptibility to plant blights and
    increased dependence on complex economic systems.
  • Environmental degradation
  • topsoil loss (75 in U.S.), desertification,
    eutrophication, PCBs in fish, DDT and other
    pesticides
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