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Chapter 4: Cultural Geography

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Title: Introduction to Geography Author: IRAPP Last modified by: Kieran McLaughlin Created Date: 1/11/2004 9:12:13 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 4: Cultural Geography


1
  • Chapter 4 Cultural Geography

2
Cultural Geography
  • Describes everything about the way people live
  • Clothes
  • Diet
  • Artifacts a thing made by skill
  • Customs patterns of behavior
  • Interpersonal arrangements, family structure,
    educational methods
  • Culture is not static constantly changing
  • Forces of cultural change
  • Evolutionism - sources of change are embedded in
    culture
  • Diffusionism cultures spread and are adapted

3
Theories of Cultural Evolution
  • Theory of human stages
  • Marcus Tarentius Varro (Roman General 116-27
    B.C.)
  • Hunter-gatherers
  • Pastoral nomadism
  • Transhumanance regular and seasonal movements
  • Settled agriculture
  • Subsistence and commercial agriculture
  • Historical materialism technology has increased
    humans control over the environment
  • Karl Marx founder of theory
  • Technology and human progressive control of the
    environment would increase abundance for all
  • Cornucopian View Conflicts with Malthusianism

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5
Cultures and Environments
  • Environmental determinism - human events can be
    entirely explained by the effects of the
    environment
  • Cultural ecology - societies adapt to their
    environment
  • Challenge-response theory (Toynbee) a difficult
    environment causes people to build a civilization
  • Possibilism - Physical environment influences,
    but does not control, human events, choices and
    constraints are based on cultural, economic,
    political and technological factors

6
Cultural Diffusion (Causes)
  • Global communication, transportation, trade
  • Circulation interconnectedness, use of
    materials from around the world
  • Clark Wissler
  • Geographical culture centers
  • Places where cultures are developed
  • One of the founders of cultural anthropology,
    professor at Yale
  • Diffusion does not explain all distributions
    phenomenon can occur independently
    spontaneously (concept of zero conceived by
    Mayans and Hindus)

7
Folk Culture
  • Cultures that preserve traditions often bound
    by distinctive, religion, nationality, or
    language
  • Characteristics
  • Conservative, resistant to change, distinctive
    religions
  • Urban folk cultures
  • Immigrant groups preserving native culture
  • Examples
  • Diffusion of house types in the US
  • Amish

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9
Popular Culture
  • Culture of people who embrace innovation and
    conform to changing norms
  • Rapid diffusion
  • Mass culture
  • Food, clothing, items that are mass produced
  • Mass taste some loss of individuality and
    cultural identity
  • Geographic variation of market penetration
  • Marketing of popular culture

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12
Identity Behavioral Geography
  • Culture groups
  • Few or many characteristics in common (can share
    language or many characteristics)
  • Subculture Italian Americans, Eagles Fans
  • Races - concept is open to question
  • Humans are a single species
  • Secondary biological characteristics blood
    types (eat right for your type)
  • Ethnic groups
  • Ethnocentrism judging other cultures by ones
    own standards

13
Behavioral Geography
  • Subfield of cultural geography
  • Studies our perception of the world around us and
    how our perception influences our behavior
  • Walter Lippman
  • World outside the way things really are
  • Pictures in our head may be based on
    preconceptions
  • Cognitive Behavioralism theory
  • People react to the environment as they perceive
    it

14
Culture Realms (Regions) entire area where a
culture prevails
  • Delineation/ definition of regions
  • Visual clues
  • Settlement patterns
  • Architecture
  • Clothing
  • Regionalism share
  • particular characteristics

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18
Trade Cultural Diffusion
  • Stabilizing forces
  • Infrastructure peoples fixed assets in a place
    (pipelines, highways, airports, housing, etc.)
  • Inertia the force that keeps things stable
  • Historical Geography studies the past and how
    geographical distributions have changed
  • Impact of trade
  • Economic geography study of how people make
    their living, how economies develop, and what
    people trade.
  • Historical Consciousness a people sense of
    their own history

19
Impact of World Trade
  • Self sufficiency /cultural isolation - usually
    accompany each other
  • Trade cultural change
  • Systems of production and change
  • Felt needs things people begin to think they
    need
  • Specialization of production trade leads to
    this.

20
Acceleration of Diffusion
  • Travel and transportation
  • Friction of distance has decreased over the last
    two hundred years
  • Movement of information
  • Annihilation of space caused by the electronic
    highway
  • Cyberspace extension of reality through global
    electronic means
  • Clash of civilizations
  • Shatterbelts areas where distinct cultures meet
    might experience virtually unending strife.

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22
Relative World Coverage in New York Times for two
months in 2003
23
European Culture
  • Pervasive Western model
  • Consumer goods
  • Education
  • Technology
  • Housing
  • Presumption of superiority
  • Acculturation of Western life

24
Voyages of Contact
  • World exploration and conquest
  • Impact of Chinese initiative
  • European seaborne empires
  • Commercial Revolution
  • Global diffusion
  • Europe as clearinghouse of info and products
  • Relocation of goods and services

25
Major European Voyages of Exploration
26
Europes Increased Power
  • Industrial Revolution (1750-1850 in Europe)
  • Increased productivity
  • Steam Engine
  • Exploration and conquest
  • Stimulated industry
  • Money economy
  • Creation of stock markets
  • Agricultural Revolution
  • Created labor supply for industry

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29
Cultural Imperialism substitution of one set of
cultural traditions for another, by force or be
degrading those who fail to acculturate
  • Systematic eradication of native culture
    government schools, Christian missionaries
  • Imposition of Western culture
  • Reference group behavior people who wish to
    belong to the dominant group abandon their
    traditions
  • Self-Westernization
  • Japan, China, Turkey to some degree saved them
    from western rule
  • Internal colonialism westernized elite

30
Westernization Today
  • Dress and lifestyle as status symbols young and
    wealthy are often the most cosmopolitan
  • Role of media
  • Implanting Western values
  • TV programs, movies, videos
  • Tourism indigenous people exposed to western
    culture, often make places tourist friendly
  • Education elite educated at western
    Universities

31
Americas Role
  • World view of America
  • Military power
  • Role of global peacekeeper (troops in 148
    countries, 2001)
  • Sole superpower spends more money on defense
    than next ten leading countries combined
  • Economic power
  • About one quarter of world economy
  • Popular culture
  • Most recognized brands
  • Challenging local traditions
  • Political influence

32
Vocab Chapter 4
  • Custom repetitive act of the group, performed
    so that it becomes a characteristic of a group
  • Habit a repetitive act that a particular
    individual performs
  • Taboo restriction on behavior caused by a
    social custom
  • Terroir French term referring to the
    contribution of a locations distinctive physical
    features to the way food tastes
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