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Intro to Ag Geography

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Title: Intro to Ag Geography


1
Intro to Ag Geography
  • What is the message of this talk?
  • What was the most surprising thing you learned?
  • http//www.ted.com/talks/jonathan_foley_the_other_
    inconvenient_truth.html

1
2
Unit 9 Agriculture
2
3
Todays Objectives
  • Describe the origins of Agriculture, including
    1st, 2nd and 3rd Agricultural Revolutions.
  • Explain the high tech outlook for Agriculture
    with agribusiness and GMOs.
  • Differentiate between agriculture in LDCs and
    MDCs.
  • Define describe agriculture regions.

3
4
Agriculture
  • Importance of AG
  • Everyone dependent on food
  • AG occupies more land area than any other econ
    activity
  • AG employs 45 - almost half of worlds labor (in
    Africa and Asia over 50 are farmers)
  • W/out AG you could not have any cities or urban
    areas

4
5
AG Intro contd
  • AG practices one of the most fundamental
    differences between MDCs and LDCs
  • Big Questions.
  • Where is AG distributed across the earth?
  • How does farming vary around the globe?
  • Why does farming vary across the globe?

5
6
Origins of AG
  • Agriculture purposeful modification of earths
    surface to plant crops or raise livestock for
    human sustenance
  • AG began when humans domesticated plants and
    animals for use
  • Origins of AG predate recorded human history

6
7
Before AG
  • Hunter/gatherer
  • societies
  • follow game
  • and seasonal
  • growth

7
8
1st AG Revolution
  • _at_ 10,000 yrs ago late 18th C
  • Domestication conscious manipulation of
    plants/animals
  • Invention of AG evolved slowly and over time
    through accident and experimentation
  • 1st rev
  • hunter/gatherer to semi-sedentary

8
9
Carl Sauer
  • Expert on 1st Rev
  • Occurred in time of plenty, not famine
  • Multiple hearths occurred independently in
    several places
  • Seed cultivation in Fertile Crescent (Iraq) - _at_
    10,000 yrs ago
  • Yams in hill country of SE Asia _at_ 10,000 yrs ago
  • Root crops corn in Mesoamerica (Mayans) _at_ 5,000
    yrs ago
  • Likely discovered by women by accident

9
10
10
11
1st AG Revolution contd
  • AG Diffusion spread by relocation - migration
    colonialism (Columbian Exchange)

11
12
1st AG Revolution contd
  • Today diffusion is hierarchical starts in
    research centers of MDCs moves to smaller farms
    or LDCs
  • Diff can be bad/accidental (ex kudzu the vine
    that ate the South)

12
13
AG Diffusion accidental - kudzu
13
14
2nd AG Revolution
  • Began in W. Eur in 1600s transformed W. Eur and
    N. America
  • Intensified AG by promoting higher yields per
    acre and per farmer
  • Used crop rotation, fertilizers, improved collars
    for draft animals

14
15
  • Farmers create surplus, people can live in cities
    and buy AG products at market
  • Move from rural to urban

15
16
2nd AG revolution contd
  • Late 1700s Industrial Revolution
    mechanization
  • Tractors, reapers, threshers replaced human labor
  • Better transportation RR, steamboats,
    refrigerated cars, etc. allows farmers to ship
    food products further to urban markets

16
17
2nd AG rev contd
  • Industrial Revolution
  • Changes in transportation
  • increase
  • market area for
  • farmers produce

17
18
3rd AG Rev
  • The Green Revolution
  • 1940s-1960s
  • MDCs transfer tech to LDCs
  • Main practices
  • Artificial fertilizer
  • Irrigation
  • Insecticides and pesticides
  • Mechanical machinery
  • Crossbreeding/hybridization (naturally not in a
    lab)
  • .ALL produce higher yields

18
19
3rd Rev / Green Rev
  • Multinational Corps encourage LDCs to focus on
    specialty crops monoculture for export instead
    of producing food for local consumption
  • Successful in some LDCs but detrimental in others
  • New tech devastated land
  • Bad for environment
  • Unsustainable farming
  • Changes in social culture structures

19
20
Today the Future..High Tech AG Agribusiness
  • Computerized irrigation, remote sensing,
    long-term weather predictions, GMOs
  • GMOs genetically modified foods genes altered
    in a lab for disease resistance, increased
    productivity, increased nutritional value
  • BIG debateU.S. pro feed developing world
    Europe anti Franken food

20
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GMOs
21
22
Today and Future.
  • Agribusiness multinational giant corporations
    dominate much of worlds AG market
  • demise of family farm
  • AG is BIG, expensive business (control land,
    tech, machinery, shipping, packaging, etc.)
  • Globalization of AG free trade, WTO

22
23
Geog looks at WHERE crops are produced around the
globe.affected by.
  • Environment (Environmental Determinism)rice
    needs lots of water, grapes need cool wet winters
    and hot dry summers, etc. Possibilismgreen
    houses, irrigation
  • Culture rice in Asia, corn in MX, wheat in
    US/Eur, no pork in Middle East, etc.

23
24
What crops are produced where
  • Economic grow crop that makes greatest profit
    (von Thunen model)

24
25
Geog looks at HOW crops grown
  • Labor Intensive lots of people and few tools V.
    Capital Intensive little human labor, but
    tools, machinery
  • Intensive AG- greater yields off smaller areas
    (future of farming as AG land is lost) V.
    Extensive AG needs lots of land, not efficient
    (wide spread ranching)

25
26
HOW crops grown contd
  • Intensive/extensive and capital intensive/labor
    intensive spectrums are independent of each
    other..examples?
  • Subsistence AG (LDCs) V. Commercial AG (MDCs)
    see handout

26
27
27
28
Agriculture Regions
28
29
AG Regions in LDCs
  • 1.Shifting Cultivation in rainforests
  • Slash and Burn clear land by slashing vegetation
    and burning debris
  • Swidden land thats been cleared for farming
  • Land often owned by village not indiv.
  • Cannot support dense populations
  • Soil depletes rapidlyleads to deforestation

29
30
AG in LDCs -
  • Shifting cultivation deforestation

30
31
AG Regions in LDCs
  • 2.) Pastoral Nomadism nomadic herders
  • Dry mntn regions of Africa and Asia where harsh
    climate prevent plants
  • Herders cover wide area searching for food for
    herd
  • Transhumance seasonal migration
  • Use animals - food, clothing, milk, skins
  • Type of animal varies depending on culture and
    physical region (i.e. camel, sheep, goat, horse,
    etc.)

31
32
AG in LDCs -
  • Pastoral Nomadism

32
33
AG Regions in LDCs
  • 3.) Intensive Subsistence
  • High yield for small area of land
  • Densely pop areas of Asia
  • Often w/ wet rice in Asia
  • W/ wheat and barley in India and China
  • Double cropping 2 crops/harvests per year
  • Crop Rotation preserves soil nutrients

33
34
AG Regions in LDCs
  • 4.) Plantation Farming
  • Found in tropics/subtropics
  • Large farm specializes in 1-2 cash crops (coffee,
    sugar, cotton)
  • Often controlled/owned by MDC
  • Labor comes from LDC
  • Crops exported for sale, not sold locally

34
35
AG Regions in MDCs
  • 1.) Mixed Crop/Livestock Farming
  • Western N. America, S. America, Australia
  • Integrate crops and livestock crops (soybeans
    and corn) fed to animals
  • Employ crop rotation

35
36
AG Regions in MDCs
  • 2.) Dairying
  • Near large urban areas (NE United States, SE
    Canada, NW Eur)
  • Close to city b/c product perishable (esp
    milkcheese butter can come from further away)
  • Milk Shed - how far out can supply milk w/out
    spoiling
  • These farms are expensive and labor intensive

36
37
AG in MDCs Dairy Farms
37
38
AG Regions in MDCs
  • 3.) Grain Farming wheat, corn, barley, oats,
    millet
  • grains grown for human consumption
  • Sale to manufacturers for food production
    (cereal, bread, flour)
  • US by far greatest exporter of grain (Great
    Plains bread basket)

38
39
AG in MDCs grain farming
39
40
AG Regions in MDCs
  • 4.) Livestock Ranching
  • Commercial grazing of livestock (cattle beef)
    over extensive areas
  • Big in western US (i.e. ranchers) and Argentina
    semi-arid areas

40
41
AG Regions in MDCs
  • 5.) Mediterranean AG
  • Mediterranean climates of W. Eur, CA, Chile
  • Variety of fruits and vegetables for human
    consumption olives, grapes, avocadoes, nuts,
    etc.
  • Olives and grapes most valuable cash
    crops..olive oil and wine

41
42
AG in MDCs - Mediterranean
42
43
AG Regions in MDCs
  • 6.) Truck Farming commercial gardening and
    fruit farming
  • American SE long growing season and humid
  • Apples, tomatoes, cucumbers, cabbage, cherries,
    etc.
  • Truck was a word for barter and these items
    were originally produced for local marketstoday
    produced for large scale food processors

43
44
Truck Farming
  • Apples, squash, lettuce, cabbage,
  • peppers, cucumbers, potatoes,
  • peaches, tomatoes, green beans

44
45
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46
Bell Ringer
  • Where did agriculture originate and when?
  • Why is the 3rd agricultural revolution called the
    Green Revolution?
  • What are some criticisms of the Green Revolution?

47
Todays Objectives
  • Explain how scientists use genetic engineering to
    create plants that can survive being sprayed by
    weedkiller or can create their own pest defenses.
  • Evaluate what effects these genetically
    engineered plants may have on the environment.
  • Speculate on whether the proteins produced by
    inserted genes might be dangerous, either because
    the proteins themselves are allergenic or because
    they might alter the plant's chemistry, making it
    toxic.
  • Examine the need for genetically engineered
    foods, including the claim that these foods will
    help reduce starvation and improve nutrition in
    developing countries.

48
Harvest of Fear
  • What is the difference between traditional plant
    breeding and breeding done through genetic
    engineering?
  • Where do you think genetic engineering is
    politically/culturally acceptable? For what
    reasons?

49
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50
Bell Ringer
  • Consumers want meat that is .?
  • How many different companies were involved in the
    mislabeled horsemeat?
  • What do you think are the pros and cons of
    agribusiness?
  • When is the next time you are going to eat a
    burger?!

51
Todays Objectives
  • Connect agriculture in MDCs to world climate
    zones.
  • Explore the issues for Commercial Farming,
    including transportation, overproduction, and
    price supports.
  • Analyze, apply and evaluate von Thunens model
    for agriculture locations.

51
52
  • Finish Harvest of Fear

52
53
  • Ag in MDCs and Koppen Model

53
54
Issues for Commercial Farmers
  • 1.) Access to markets distance from market
    influences crop choice
  • Von Thunens Model 19th C Germany
  • Noticed lands w/ same physical geog were being
    used for diff AG products
  • Farmers consider 2 costs land and transporting
    goods to market
  • Land cost most expensive near market decreases
    w/ distance

54
55
Von Thunen contd
  • Products w/ intensive land use, high
    transportation costs, and in high demand located
    near market (i.e. highly perishable items, bulky
    heavy items.dairy, fruits, veggies). These
    generate higher prices and farmers can afford
    more expensive land nearest market

55
56
Von Thunen contd
  • Products in less demand, w/ more extensive land
    use or cheaper to transport are found further
    from market where land is cheaper (ranching,
    mixed farming, orchards)
  • Formula can farmer make profit?
  • P V (E T)
  • Profit commodity value (production cost
    transportation cost)

56
57
Von Thunen contd
  • The model concentric rings coming out of market
  • 1. nearest, perishable items diff to transport
    (berries, milk, tomatoes)
  • 2. forestry wood heavy and diff to transport
  • 3. mixed farming pigs, poultry
  • 4. wheat, barley, grains, livestock

57
58
Von Thunen Model
58
59
Contemporary Variables of the Model?
  • Modern transportation more efficient
  • Transportation costs no longer proportional to
    distance
  • Wood (2 forestry) no longer needed for fuel
  • Technology has decreased permissibility
    (refrigerated cars, canning, etc.)
  • Model still relevant today?????

59
60
Issues for Commercial Farmers - OVERPRODUCION
  • Tech allows farmers to produce more than demanded
    (too much product, not enough profit)
  • Ex US govnt pays 4B in cotton subsidies,
    farmers make 3B off crop
  • Subsidies govnt pays to produce less spends _at_
    10B annually
  • Govnt also buys surplus and donates to foreign
    countries

60
61
(No Transcript)
62
Bell Ringer
63
Todays Objectives
64
  • Shifting Cultivation in the Amazon Response Group
    activity

65
65
66
Bell Ringer
  • Blood on the Scarcrow John Cougar Mellencamp

66
67
Todays Objectives
67
68
  • Ag in LDCs and Koppen Model

68
69
Issues for Subsistence Farmers
  • 1.) rapidly increasing pop must feed more
    people on same land (GMOs?)
  • 2.) Trying to grow food for export for
    development and not just for consumption
  • Strategies.
  • Expand land areas and increase productivity of
    land already in use
  • Identify new food sources
  • When there is surplus, export, to bring in

69
70
Future of Farming..
  • Intensive AG is replacing Extensive AGgenerate
    more food on smaller plots of land
  • Ex Feedlots concentrate raising livestock in
    smaller space and use hormones and other
    fattening grains to prepare cattle for slaughter
    at a more rapid pace and in a smaller space

70
71
Future of Farming.
  • Biotechnology techniques to modify living
    organism and improve plant and animal species and
    production (GMOs)
  • Agribusiness includes food production, canning,
    refining, packing, etc.
  • Little farmer goes out of business
  • Transnational Corp profit goes to company
  • Can get any fruit/fresh produce all over the
    globe at any time of year

71
72
AG and the Environment
  • Negative impacts on Env
  • Pesticides (DDT) harm wildlife,
  • pollute lakes, rivers, etc.
  • Erosion loss of fertile topsoil
  • fertile topsoil accumulates slowly
  • takes hundreds of yrs to rebuild
  • Salinization soil in dry area is
  • irrigated, water evaporates quickly
  • and leaves salty residue
  • Urban Sprawl takes over good
  • AG land

72
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AG and the Environment
  • Deforestation slash and burn in rainforests
    (debt for nature swap see article)
  • Desertification degradation of landturns into
    desert b/c of extensive planting or grazing
  • Conclusion.greater tech often correlates w/
    destruction of env.

73
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RESOURCES
  • Natural Resources
  • Renewable resources w/ a theoretically
    unlimited supplyenv continues to replace them
    (i.e. soil, timber). Note we can use renewable
    resources faster than they can reproduce
    themselves

76
77
  • Nonrenewable cannot be replaced by nature a
    finite supply that will be exhausted (minerals,
    coal, oil, copper)

77
78
Fishing
  • Accounts for 20 of human and animal protein
    consumption (higher in some countries)
  • 3 Sources
  • Inland catch ponds, lakes 7
  • Fish Farms controlled/contained environment
    32
  • Marine catch oceans continental shelf 100
    miles out 61

78
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Fishing Problems.
  • Over fishing catch is surpassing reproduction
    rates endangered supplies.
  • Tragedy of the Commons oceans open seas,
    communal property, all take too much
  • Pollution of coastal waters

79
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Fishing
  • Aquaculture fish farming breed fish in ponds,
    lakes, canals, or fenced off in coastal bays
  • Accounts for 30 of total fish harvest in recent
    yrs
  • Fastest growing sector of world economy

80
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