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Human Geography By James Rubenstein

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Human Geography By James Rubenstein ... Sudden drop in birth rate due to changing social customs ... Mathews * What do Detroit s and Laredo's Population Pyramids ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Human Geography By James Rubenstein


1
Human Geography By James Rubenstein
  • Chapter 2
  • Key Issue 3
  • Why is Population Increasing at Different Rates
    in Different Countries?

2
Demographic Transition
  • The five stages of change in populations through
    which society progresses.

3
Stages of Demographic Transition
  • Stage 1 Low Growth
  • Stage 2 High Growth
  • Stage 3 Moderate Growth
  • Stage 4 Low Growth
  • Stage 5 Negative Growth
  • not in text

4
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5
World Populations and Growth Rates
6
Stage 1 Low Growth
7
Stage 1 Characteristics
  • Humans were hunters and gatherers
  • NIR was essentially zero
  • WP was perhaps ½ million
  • The WP increased and decreased with the
    availability of food

8
Agricultural Revolution
  • A time, between 8000 B.C. and 1750 A.D., when
    human beings domesticated plants and animals.

9
Effects of the Agricultural Revolution
  • A larger, more stable supply of food
  • More people could survive
  • WP increased from about 5 to 800 million
  • War and disease still took toll
  • Still Stage 1 until 1750 A.D.
  • No country is at stage 1 today

10
Stage 2 High Growth
11
Industrial Revolution
  • A conjunction of major improvements in industrial
    technology that transformed the process of
    manufacturing goods and delivering them to market.

12
Stage 2 Characteristics
  • Unprecedented level of wealth
  • Increased agricultural production fed the
    rapidly growing population
  • people freed to work in factories
  • Improved sanitation and personal hygiene

13
Medical Revolution
  • Medical technology invented in Europe and North
    America, diffused to LDCs of Africa, Asia, and
    Latin America.

14
Medical Revolution
  • Edward Jenner developed a smallpox vaccination
    in 1796
  • Penicillin and other vaccines and insecticides
    were developed to combat diseases

15
Effects of the Industrial and Medical Revolutions
  • CDR suddenly plummeted
  • WP grew 10 times faster
  • At first, accelerating population growth
  • then, growth rate slowed, but large gap remained
    between births and deaths.

16
Stage 2 Transition Dates
  • Europe and North America about 1800
  • Africa, Asia, and Latin America about 1950

17
Stage 3 Moderate Growth
18
Stage 3 Characteristics
  • Begins with a sudden decline of CBR
  • CBR is still greater than CDR
  • The NIR is more modest than Stage 2
  • CDR declines due to new technology
  • CBR changes due to social changes

19
Social Changes
  • People choose to have fewer children
  • Delayed reaction to decline in IMR

20
Economic Changes
  • Children living on farms shared the chores
  • As technology improved, people moved from the
    farm to the city
  • Children living in the cities are not economic
    assets to their families
  • Urban homes too small to accommodate large
    families

21
Stage 3 Transition Dates
  • Europe and North America moved in the first half
    of the twentieth century
  • Asia, and Latin America in recent years
  • Africa still in Stage 2

22
Stage 4 Low Growth
23
Zero Population Growth (ZPG)
  • When the CBR and CDR are near equal, the NIR
    approaches zero (measured by a lack of change in
    the TFR over a long period).

24
Stage 4 Characteristics
  • A country with many immigrants must decrease TFR
    to achieve ZPG
  • CBR can be slightly higher then CDR, with some
    females dying before they reach childbearing
    years.

25
Stage 4 Transition Dates
  • Most of Europe reached Stage 4 since 1970s
  • The United States TFR went below ZPG
    (replacement level of 2.1) in 2000, but
    immigration prevents them from reaching Stage 4

26
Social Customs in Stage 4
  • More women enter work force
  • Working parents must employ preschool care
    during work hours
  • Wider variety of birth-control
  • Participation in entertainment and recreational
    activities not suitable for children

27
Stage 5Negative Growth
28
Negative Growth
  • The CBR is lower than the CDR

29
Negative Growth as result of fifty years of
Communism in some Eastern European, most notably
  • Russia
  • Hungary
  • Germany (Eastern)

30
Reasons for Negative Growth
  • Very strong family planning programs
  • Deep-seated pessimism about having children in
    an uncertain world

31
The Demographic Transition in England
  • England has reached Stage 4
  • 1000 years of population information available
  • Boundaries unchanged
  • Migration limited

32
Stage 1 Characteristics
  • In 1066, population was 1 million
  • In 1250, the population declined from 4 to 2
    million
  • By 1750, the population had reached only 6
    million

33
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34
Stage 2 Characteristics
  • By 1800, the CBR remained high, but CDR declined
  • Industrial Revolution increased food supply and
    improved health care
  • By early 1900s, population increased from 6 to
    30 million (NIR 1.4)

35
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36
Stage 3 Characteristics
  • Between 1880 and early 1900s
  • While CDR declined, the CBR declined rapidly
  • Between 1880 and 1970, the population increased
    from 26 to 49 million (NIR .07)

37
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38
Stage 4 Characteristics
  • Since 1970s, CBR has varied between 12 to 14 per
    1000, while CDR has varied between 10 to 12 per
    1000
  • Population has increased due to immigration from
    former colonies
  • Population is currently around 52 million

39
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40
Population Pyramids
A countrys stage of demographic transition gives
a distinctive population structure which can be
easily viewed in a population pyramid.
41
Population Pyramids
  • A bar graph that displays a countrys population
    by age and gender groups.

42
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43
Characteristics of Population Pyramids
  • population shown in five-year age groups
  • length of the bar represents of total
    population in that group
  • males shown on left side and women on right

44
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45
Age Distribution
Structure of populations are important in
understanding similarities and differences among
countries.
46
Dependency Ratio
  • The number of people who are too young or too old
    to work, compared to the number of people in
    their productive years.
  • 0 14 (too young)
  • 15 64 (productive years)
  • 65 (too old)

47
Dependency Ratio in Demographic Transition
  • 11 dependency in stage 2
  • 13 dependency in stage 4
  • 101 young to old in stage 2
  • 11 young to old in stage 4

48
Population Under 15
  • In LDCs 1/3rd of population are under 15 (stage
    2)
  • In European and North America, 1/5th of
    population under 15 (in/near stage 4)

49
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50
  • The large percentage of children in stage 2
    countries strain the resources to provide needed
    services to the dependent group.

51
Percentage of PopulationOver 65
  • Exceed 15 in Europe
  • Less than 5 in Sub-Sahara Africa

52
  • More than 1/4th of all government expenditures in
    the U.S., Canada, Japan, and some European
    countries go to Social Security, health care, and
    other programs for older people.

53
Sex Ratio
  • The number of males per hundred females in the
    population.

54
Sex Ratio Facts
  • In general more males are born than females, but
    males have a higher death rate.
  • Societies with a high rate of immigration
    typically have more males than females. Why?

55
The shape of a communitys population pyramid
tells a lot about its distinctive character.
56
What do Detroits and Laredo's Population
Pyramids tell us?
57
Detroit, Michigan82 African Americans
58
Laredo, Texas94 Hispanic
59
Detroit and Laredo have relatively broad-based
pyramids, because the birth rates of the cities
majorities are high.
60
What do Honolulus and Cedar Rapids' Population
Pyramids tell us?
61
Honolulu, Hawaii 66 Asian-American and/or
Native Hawaiian
62
Cedar Rapids, Iowa92 White
63
The birth rates of Honolulu and Cedar Rapids
communities are low among those Asian Americans
and European-descendent communities respectively.
64
Whats happening in Naples, Florida?
65
42 over 65in Naples, Florida
Retirement Community
66
Whats happening in Unalaska, Alaska?
67
Military Base
68
Whats happening in Lawrence, Kansas?
69
College Town
70
View Demographic Transition as reflected in
Population Pyramids.
71
Examples of Demographic Transition
  • Cape Verde Stage 2 (High Growth)
  • Chile Stage 3 (Moderate Growth)
  • Denmark Stage 4 (Low Growth)

72
Cape Verde Stage 2
  • Between 1941 and 1942, CDR was 74/1000 due to
    severe famine (stage 1).
  • An anti-malarial campaign since 1950 tripled the
    population (NIR of 3.) stage 2
  • CDR dropped from 27-17 in 1950, to 10 in the
    1970s.

73
Fluctuations in CBR
  • Severe famine in the 1940s.
  • Lower birth rates in the 1960s, due to few women
    in prime childbearing years (1940s famine).
  • Higher birth rates in 1950s and 1980s (larger
    number of women in childbearing years).

74
What is the long term effect of severe famine?
  • Lower birth rates in the 1960s, due to few women
    in prime childbearing years (1940s famine).
  • Higher birth rates in 1950s and 1980s (larger
    number of women in childbearing years).

75
Cape Verde
76
Chiles Transition History
  • Entered 20th century in Stage 1
  • 1930s infusion of medical technology stage 2.
  • 1960s vigorous governmental family-planning
    policy stage 3.
  • Reversed policies in 1970s delay in stage 4.

77
Chile
78
Denmark Stage 4
  • Stage 3 in late 19th century.
  • ZPG in 1970s, population increase due to
    immigration.
  • of young and elderly nearly same.

79
Denmark
80
Why will CDR increase in Denmarks future?
  • Elderly will begin dying off.

81
Demographic Transition and World Population Growth
82
Status of Current World Growth
  • No countries in stage 1.
  • Few countries in stage 4.
  • Most countries in stage 2 and 3.

83
Four-stages of Demographic Transition are
characterized by two breaks in the past
  • 1. Sudden drop in death rate due to technological
    innovations (everywhere).
  • 2. Sudden drop in birth rate due to changing
    social customs (in a few countries).
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