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Chapter 7 Assessing and Teaching Reading: Phonological Awareness, Phonics, and Word Recognition


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Title: Chapter 7 Assessing and Teaching Reading: Phonological Awareness, Phonics, and Word Recognition

Chapter 7 Assessing and Teaching Reading
Phonological Awareness, Phonics, and Word
  • By Margaret, Marlo, Sarah and Branda

Teaching Reading
  • Special Education teachers spend a great deal of
    time teaching reading. Why is it so important?
  • Reading is a prerequisite skill for content-area
    classes such as social studies and science.
  • Reading is essential for employment.
  • If students do not learn to read by the end of
    third grade, their chances of having reading
    difficulties through adulthood is 50.

Reading and Reading Instruction
  • When teaching reading, there are two overarching
  • Reading is a skilled and strategic process in
    which learning to decode and read words
    accurately and rapidly is essential Reading
    requires using the attentional, perceptual,
    memory, and retrieval processes to automatically
    identify or decode words. Decoding or word
    recognition is the process of automatically
    recognizing words. When a word is unknown, the
    reader uses syntax and context to help decode.
  • Students with learning disabilities have a
    particularly difficult time demonstrating how to
    blend and segment words. This causes them to
    focus more on the process of decoding rather than

Emergent and Beginning Readers
  • Emergent Readers
  • Pretend to read favorite print.
  • Can read what they have written, even if no one
    else can.
  • Recognize some concrete words (i.e. names,
  • Recognize and generate rhyming words.
  • Name letters and words that begin with that
  • Beginning Readers
  • Identify letters by name
  • Say the common sounds of letters.
  • Blend the sounds represented by letters into
    decodable words.
  • Read irregular words.
  • Read words, then sentences, and then longer text.

Reading and Reading Instruction (contd)
  • The second overarching concept is
  • Reading entails understanding the text and
    depends on active engagement and interpretation
    by the reader When readers read they make
    predictions, summarize, question and clarify when
    concepts are not clear.
  • Students who have trouble reading do not
    automatically monitor their comprehension or
    engage in strategic behavior to restore meaning.

Phonological Awareness, Letter-Sound
Correspondence, and Phonics
  • Phonological Awareness knowing and demonstrating
    that spoken language can be broken down into
    smaller units (words, syllables, phonemes), which
    can be manipulated within an alphabetic system.
  • Phonemic awareness is the ability to recognize
    the smallest sound units of spoken language and
    how they can be separated, blended and
  • In order to apply these skills to reading, they
    need to understand phonics (how sound maps to
    print or knowing how the letter sounds and names
    relate to each other).
  • Children who have problems with blending and
    segmenting have the most difficulty reading.

Development of Phonological Awareness
  • The primary focus of phonemic awareness with
    young children is not rhyming, but rather the
    focus of individual sounds and how each sound can
    be represented by a letter or group of letters.
    Skills such as rhyming and alliteration come
  • The most important goal of phonemic awareness is
    learning to manipulate sounds by blending and
    segmenting. Linking sounds to print should be the
    immediate goal.
  • Developmental sequence is important when teaching
    reading. For example, teaching segmenting and
    blending words and syllables before segmenting
    and blending onset-rimes and phonemes.
  • Children always develop skills at different
    times, therefore instruction at phoneme level
    should never be delayed due to lack of a skill.

Teaching Phonological Awareness and Phonics
  • The majority students who are at risk for reading
    difficulties can benefit most from explicit
    instruction phonological awareness, particularly
    blending, segmenting, and manipulating sounds.
  • Teaching phonological awareness includes
  • Listening for words with the same sound
  • Clapping the number of words in a sentence,
    syllables in a words, and phonemes in words
  • Blending and segmenting words by syllables and
  • Segmenting and manipulating sounds and syllables

Elkonin Procedure
  • The Elkonin Procedure is a technique used to
    assist in blending and segmenting skills.
  • This is a phonological task where students listen
    to a word and push a marker, block, or other
    small object into a printed square for each sound
    they hear. As students gain knowledge of the
    letter-sound relationships they can write letters
    in the boxes.
  • When teaching students who are having difficulty,
    it is important to know the difficulties and
    focus instruction according to the level of

Guidelines for Teaching Phonological Awareness
  • Consider the students levels of development and
    the tasks that need to be mastered.
  • MODEL each activity.
  • Use manipulative and movement to make auditory
    and oral tasks more visible.
  • Move from easier to more difficult tasks
    considering level of development (syllables,
    onset-rimes, phonemes), phoneme position
    (initial, final, medial), number of sounds in a
    word, and phonological features of the words
    (consonants are easier than stops or clipped
  • Provide feedback and opportunities for practice
    and review.
  • Make learning fun.

Response to Intervention
  • How do we know if students are responding to
  • Have students received scientifically based
    reading instruction from their classroom teacher?
  • Have students received adequate opportunities to
    respond, obtain feedback, and see modeling to
    scaffold their learning?
  • How does the performance of students with low
    response compare to other students in the class?
  • Have the students with low phonemic awareness
    received small group opportunities?
  • Is progress monitoring data available to show the
    scope of the students progress?

Progress Monitoring
  • Progress monitoring in phonemic awareness assists
    teachers in identifying students who are at risk
    for failing to acquire phonemic awareness skills.
  • These tests and progress-monitoring measures may
    be useful to make decisions about what methods
    will accurately measure student progress
  • STAR Early Literacy computer-adaptive procedure
    that provides ongoing assessment of early
    literacy skills.
  • AIMSweb Systems Offer progress monitoring tools
    for letter naming, letter sound, phoneme
    segmentation, and nonsense word fluency.
  • YOP-Singer Test of Phoneme Segmentation- Students
    segment phonemes and are given credit if they say
    all the sounds in the word correctly.
  • Phone-Segmentation Fluency- Students are given 60
    seconds to get as many phonemes correct as
  • Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing
    (CTOPP)- Assesses phonological awareness,
    phonological memory, and rapid naming ability.

Teaching Letter-Sound Correspondences Consonants
  • The largest division of phonemes is consonants
    (C) or vowels (V).
  • Voiced and Voiceless consonants can be taught by
    allowing students to place their fingers on their
    larynxes and feeling the vibrations. This method
    allows them to decode or spell a word.
  • Important points to remember when teaching
  • CVC words that begin with continuants(can be
    blended smoothly with the next sound f, s, v, w,
    z, sh, zh, th) and end with stops(clipped sounds
    b, d, g ,j, k, p, t) are generally the easiest
    for blending the sounds.
  • In some programs, when blending stops it is
    suggested to bounce the stop sounds , such as
    /b-b-b-a-t-t-t/ for bat.
  • Nasal sounds are difficult to hear, sound
    different in the middle of words, and are often
    omitted or substituted by emergent readers and
  • Students may have problems hearing the difference
    between /wh/ and /w. because many Americans
    pronounce them in the same manner (witch and
  • The sounds /r/ and /l/ can be difficult for some
    students because they ate some of the last sounds
    students learn to articulate and because their
    pronunciation varies across languages.
  • When students omit sounds in words it is helpful
    to have them compare the words in written form to
    see the letter they have omitted.

Teaching Letter- Sound Correspondences Vowels
  • The vowel sounds have different spelling
    patterns. Sometimes the same spelling pattern has
    different sounds (ea in beat and bread).
  • For students with decoding difficulties, it is
    helpful to teach the frequency of the sounds for
    a vowel combination so when decoding an
    unfamiliar word, they can try the various sounds.
  • Schwa is the vowel sound that is often found in
    unaccented syllables (suppose, familiar, sofa,
    mission) and is the most frequently occurring
    vowel sound.
  • Students who are learning English as a second
    language may not have fluency in all English
  • Common phonological confusions
  • /b/ pronounced as /p/, /v/ pronounced as /b/,
    /ch/ pronounced as /sh/, /j/ pronounced as /h/,
    /l/ pronounced as /y/

Guidelines for Teaching Letter- Sound
  • Teaching a core set of frequently used consonants
    and short vowel sounds that represent clear
    sounds and nonreversible letter forms (/a/, /i/,
    /d/, /f/, /g/, /h/, /l/, /n/, /p/, /s/, /t/).
  • Beginning immediately to blend and segment sounds
    to read and spell the words and read the words in
    decodable text.
  • Separating the introduction of letter sounds with
    similar auditory or visual features.
  • Using a consistent keyword to assist students in
    hearing and remembering the sound (a for apple).
  • Teaching that some letters can represent more
    than one sound.
  • Teaching that different letters can make the same
    sound (s and c).
  • Teaching that sound scan be represented by a
    single letter or combination of letters.
  • Adding a kinesthetic component by having students
    trace or write the letter as they say the sound.
  • Having students use mirrors and feel their mouths
    to see and feel how sounds are different.
  • Color- coding consonant and vowel so that the two
    categories of sound are highlighted.

Letter-Sound Correspondences
  • Knowing letter-sound correspondences is a key
    element in understanding the alphabetic principle
    and learning to decode and spell unknown words.
  • However, if letter-sound relationships are not
    put to use, they will be ineffective.
  • Students need to understand the purpose for the
    relationships and how to apply them to reading
    and writing activities.
  • Students must be able to apply knowledge in
    phonological awareness, letter-sound
    relationships, and the alphabetic principle to
    word identification and decoding.

Word Identification, Decoding, and Word Study
  • By Sarah

Whats a Sight Word?
  • A word a student can read quickly and
    automatically with little delay
  • Accessed from memory

Decoding Strategies for Identifying Words
  • Phonics Analysis
  • Onset-Rime
  • Synthetic and Analytic Phonics
  • Structure Analysis
  • Syllabication
  • Automatic Word Recognition
  • Syntax and Semantic

Phonic Analysis
  • Identify and Blend Letter-Sound Correspondence
    into Words
  • Converting letters in to sounds
  • Blending sounds to form a word
  • Searching memory to find a known word that
    resembles those blended sounds.

Ways to Teach Phonics
  • Cue the student to say each sound and then have
    them say it fast.
  • Demonstrate and have the student point to each
    letter as they say the sound and then have the
    student sweep their hand under the word when
    saying it.
  • Place letters apart when saying the sounds, and
    then push the letters together when you say it
  • Begin with a simple VC and CVC words then move to
    more complex sound patterns

  • Use common spelling patterns to decode words by
  • Also know as word families

Synthetic and Analytic Phonics
  • Teaching sound by sound
  • ( /p/ /a/ /n/) pan

Structure Analysis
  • Use knowledge of word structures such as compound
    words, root words, suffixes, prefixes, endings to
    decode words and assist with meaning

  • Use common types of syllables
  • When teaching emphasize that each syllable has
    one vowel sound
  • Game time

Automatic Word Recognition
  • Automatically recognize high frequency words and
    less phonetically frequent words
  • Look around the room

Syntax and Semantics
  • Word Order (syntax)
  • Context (semantics)
  • Ask the student
  • Does that make sense?
  • Does that sound right?
  • Decoding Steps
  • Phonics
  • Structural Analysis
  • Syllabication
  • Then cross check from comprehension

Explicit Code Instruction
  • Marlo

How can the use of explicit and implicit code
instruction be compared?
  • Jamal
  • Third Grader
  • Lowest reading level in his class (1st grade)
  • Not making progress
  • Teacher helps him pronounce 30 of words
  • Cannot remember previously know words
  • Knows fewer than 30 sight words
  • Applies inconsistent strategies
  • Has difficulty with letter-sound relationships
    (cannot sound-out)
  • Has difficulty blending
  • Generally gets the meaning of a text
  • Good oral skills
  • Good life references
  • Math skills are third grade
  • Lupita
  • Third Grader
  • Reading at a 1st grade level
  • Sight vocabulary of 40 words in Spanish and 25 in
  • Is in a bilingual program that initially taught
    reading in Spanish and then transitioned to more
    English last year
  • Reading is slow and laborious
  • Has difficulty remembering words
  • Decoding strategies rely on sounding out words
  • Does not know many of the letter-sound
  • Has problems blending
  • Oral language in both languages is low
  • Shy about responding in class
  • Basic math is understood but not word problems

Tips for the Beginning
  • In the beginning
  • Determine students current strategies as well as
    what has been used in the past
  • Instructional strategies, techniques, approaches
  • How consistently, for how long and with what
  • If school has RTI
  • Data about past reading experiences may be

Explicit vs. Implicit
  • Beginning reading approaches that emphasize
    explicit, direct teaching of phonological
    awareness and word identification strategies that
    rely on using phonics, onset-rime, and structural
    analysis result in greater gains in word
    recognition and comprehension than approaches in
    which phonological awareness and phonics are more
    implicitly taught (National Reading Panel,

Explicit vs. Implicit
  • Explicit
  • Synthetic phonics
  • Builds from part to whole
  • Begins with instruction of letters with their
    associated sounds
  • Then teaches blending and building (blending
    sounds into syllables and then into words)
  • Implicit
  • Analytical phonics
  • Moves from whole o the smallest part
  • Phonemes are not pronounced in isolation
  • Analyze a set of words for commonalities
  • Use comparison and identification to deduce what
    to read
  • Blending and building are not taught
  • Use shape, beginning and ending words and context

Explicit Code Instruction
  • Emphasizes three instructional features
  • Systematic instruction of letter-sound
  • Scaffolded instruction
  • Multiple opportunities for practice and review
  • Reading materials for these approaches are
    controlled aka decodable text.

Explicit Code Instruction
  • Linguistic Approach Onset-Rime and Word Families
  • Uses controlled text and word families (-at,
    -ight, and ent) to teach word recognition.
    Particularly useful for students with reading
  • A category CVC words
  • B category CVCe words
  • C category long-vowels and vowel pairs
  • D category r-controlled vowels

Explicit Code Instruction
  • Linguistic Approach Onset-Rime and Word Families
    (Evidence-Based Practice)
  • Procedures Built on onset-rime
  • In teaching onset-rime, words are segmented and
    blended at the onset-rime level and taught in
    related groups or Word Families
  • Readers such as 7-13 give extensive practice with
    word families
  • When a student cant identify a word family word
  • Synthetic decoding
  • Analogy

Explicit Code Instruction
  • Linguistic Approach Onset-Rime and Word Families
    (Evidence-Based Practice)
  • Comments and Cautions
  • Some students will benefit from onset-rime and
    phoneme level decoding (c-a-t vs c-at)
  • Texts provide limited opportunities for
    development of comprehension
  • Some words introduced in a family may represent
    unfamiliar concepts such as the fog in the bog.

Explicit Code Instruction
  • Reading Mastery and Corrective Reading
  • Highly structured, systematic reading programs
    use direct instruction model for teaching
  • Directly teach individual sound-symbol
    relationships, blending of sounds, and how to
  • Decoding and comprehension
  • Reading Mastery elementary level
  • Corrective Reading grades 4 through 12
  • Taught in small to medium sized groups

Explicit Code Instruction
  • Reading Mastery and Corrective Reading
    (Evidence-Based Practice)
  • Procedures Built on Principles of direct
  • Some include
  • Rely on strategies
  • Introduction, guided practice, independent
    practice, review
  • One skill at a time
  • Prerequisite skills taught first
  • Patterns taught before exceptions (gave and made
    before have)
  • Easy skills taught before more difficult ones
  • Monitor
  • Reinforce
  • Teachers are given specific procedures and
    scripted lessons
  • Corrective Reading Standard Print/ Reading
    Mastery Modified Print at Beginning

Explicit Code Instruction
  • Reading Mastery and Corrective Reading
    (Evidence-Based Practice)
  • Comments and Cautions
  • Effective for improving reading skills of
    students with reading difficulties and students
    with disadvantaged backgrounds
  • Also good for students with behavior problems
  • Heavy on oral presentation and responses
  • Highly scripted, modifications are difficult
  • Non-standard print used in Reading Mastery makes
    access more difficult

Explicit Code Instruction
  • Phonic Remedial Reading Lessons
  • Developed in 1930s for students with mild mental
  • Direct instruction
  • Minimal change
  • One response to one symbol
  • Progress form easy to hard
  • Frequent review and over-learning
  • Corrective feedback
  • Verbal mediation
  • Multisensory learning
  • Intensive- to be used with no more than 2 3

Explicit Code Instruction
  • Phonic Remedial Reading Lessons (Evidence-Based
  • Procedures
  • Developing readiness (learning sound-symbol
  • Each lesson sound out each word in a line, one
    letter at a time, then give complete word
  • Barely any change from lesson to lesson (maybe
    just the first consonant)
  • Progress to slowly change more and more of the
    words (first consonant, last consonant, both,
    space between letters)

Explicit Code Instruction
  • Phonic Remedial Reading Lessons (Evidence-Based
  • Comments and Cautions
  • Systematic and intense
  • Places little emphasis on comprehension
  • Suggest using other books to give opportunities
    for other identification and comprehension

Explicit Code Instruction
  • English-Language Learners and Reading
  • To What extent are the practices identified for
    phonological awareness and phonics appropriate
    for students who are ELLs?
  • If they are appropriate, how can teachers
    facilitate their acquisition of these skills in
  • We know much more about teaching students with
    reading difficulties who are English speaking
    than those who are ELLs.
  • Is a growing base of information
  • Given direct early instruction in reading
  • Bilingual students with significant reading
    problems who participated in 22 tutoring sessions
    (explicit approach) significantly improved
    compared to controls
  • More structured, systematic approach resulted in
    better outcomes than approaches that didnt
    include these tactics
  • Young students taught to read in English made
    many gains and sustained them, outperforming
    comparison students
  • Balance is Key

Explicit Code Instruction
  • Multisensory Structured Language Instruction
  • Systematic, explicit, using alphabetic principal,
    phonics and structural analysis, decoding and
    incorporate visual, auditory, kinesthetic and
    tactile modalities
  • Developed in 1930s
  • Build associations between modalities
  • Tracing words with finger
  • Spelling through writing
  • Designed for students with dyslexia or who are
    experiencing difficulties learning to read

Explicit Code Instruction
  • Multisensory Structured Language Instruction
  • Instructional Features
  • Multisensory presentation
  • Moves from easy to difficult and provides review
  • Explicit teaching of all concepts, skills and
  • Systematic practice of decoding and spelling
    skills (word, sentence and text levels)
  • Diagnostic teaching (more individual)
  • Synthetic methods (parts to whole whole broken
    down to parts)

Explicit Code Instruction
  • Multisensory Structured Language Instruction
    (Evidence-Based Practice)
  • Comments and Cautions
  • Designed and used as remedial programs for
    students who have not learned to read
    successfully in another program
  • Clinical case studies show their benefit when
    teaching older students with reading disabilities
    (make substantial gains)
  • Best employed by teachers who have been trained
    in multisensory procedures
  • In general, programs emphasize decoding skills an
    do not build comprehension skills (combine)

Explicit Code Instruction
  • Word Study Making Words, Word Building and Word
  • Stressed as a way of learning relationships
    between speech sounds and print, of building word
    recognition and spelling skills, and of
    developing vocabulary
  • Learning and behavior problems opportunities to
    construct words using magnetic letters, letter
    tiles or laminated letters provides experience in
    manipulating sounds to find out how the words are
  • EX Start with letters /s/, /t/, /r/, /n/, and
    /a/. Ask what two words make the word at? Ask
    students to add a letter sound to the beginning
    to make sat. Progress to using all of the
    magnetic letters to create different words.

Explicit Code Instruction
  • Word Study Making Words, Word Building and Word
    Walls (Evidence-Based Practice)
  • Procedures
  • Many activities word sorts, building words,
    word walls
  • Making words specific set of letters, make
    series of words starting with easiest number of
    letters and moving to harder ones until the
    mystery word (Scratch) is made.
  • Step 1
  • Give students bag of required letters and have
    them identify them. Teacher writes a numeral on
    the board for the number of letters the students
    are to put in their word. Usually start with two
    such as at. Then moving to three cat or
    art. Eventually use all letters.
  • Step 2
  • Word Sorting Put up all the words on a sentence
    strip and ask students how they are alike. Have
    them sort by spelling patterns. Find all the c
    words or art words so that students can see
  • Step 3
  • Making Words Quickly Making Words Log Have
    students write as many words as they can in 2
    minutes using that days letters

Explicit Code Instruction
  • Word Study Making Words, Word Building and Word
    Walls (Evidence-Based Practice)
  • Comments and Cautions
  • Effective and efficient way to organize word
    identification instruction
  • Students report they enjoy the activity
  • May be important to develop other activities that
    will teach word families to less able readers

Implicit Code Instruction
  • Branda

Implicit Code Instruction
  • Places more emphasis on context clues (pictures,
    clues, etc.)
  • Teaches initial site words
  • Emphasis on Sentence level not phoneme level (I
    see dog or I see cat vs. The fat cat sat on a

Implicit Code Instruction Approaches
  • Modified Language Experience Approach
  • This approach is used for students who have
    difficulty reading
  • It can be used individually or in groups
  • The teacher uses a story the students writes,
    about events, persons, or things of their choice
    Language experience story
  • The students should have experience with the
    topic they choose
  • This approach is to be used over several days
  • This approach provides a method for teaching
    children initial skills in reading by utilizing
    the students memory, oral language, and
    background experiences (recognition of sight

Implicit Code Instruction continued
  • Fernald Method (VAKT)
  • This technique has 4 stages through which
    students progress as they learn to identify
    unknown words more effectively.
  • Stage one students choose words they do not know
    and trace these word until they are able to write
    each word from memory
  • Stage two Student does not need to trace the
    word to learn it. The teacher writes the word.
    Then the student says the word as they write it,
    and writes the word without looking at the word
  • Stage three Student is able to learn word
    directly from the printed word.
  • Stage four Student is able to recognize new
    words from their similarity to words the student
    has already learned.
  • This approach works, but it is very time
    consuming. Only use if other attempts have

Techniques for Building Sight Words
  • Sigh word association Procedure
  • This technique uses corrective feedback, drill,
    and practice to assist students in associating
    spoken words to written form.
  • This technique is useful for students who are
    learning to identify words across various context
    or texts, or students who need more help identify
    new words then their current reading group
  • When using this strategy remember three important
    cautions, Stress reading text and other decoding
    strategies, make sure students understand the
    meaning of the words, and give students ample
    chances to read these words in context.

Techniques for Building Sight Word (continued)
  • Picture Association Technique
  • This technique uses key pictures to help students
    associate a spoken word with its written form.
  • This technique allows students to form a visual
    image of the word to facilitate their
    identification of words.
  • This should be used as a supplemental technique,
    and the students should be given opportunities to
    read the word in text.

Techniques for Building Sight Words (continued)
  • Sentence-Word Association Technique
  • This technique allows students to associate
    unknown words with familiar spoken words, phrase,
    or sentence.

Other Helpful Techniques to learn unknown words
  • Vowel Match
  • Provides students with practice in decoding words
    that have various vowel sounds.
  • Sight Word Bingo
  • This techniques help students to practice
    recognizing words
  • Compound Concentration
  • Gives students practice in identifying compound
    words, and helps them to understand how to form
    compound words.
  • Go Fish for Rimes
  • Gives students practice in reading and
    identifying words with rimes.

  • Any Questions?

(No Transcript)