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Middle Childhood: Physical


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Title: Middle Childhood: Physical

Middle Childhood Physical Cognitive
  • Chapter 9
  • Development Across the Lifespan

Physical Development in Middle Childhood Slow
but Steady
  • Beginning at about age 6 and continuing to age
    12, children go through middle childhood. This
    period is often referred to as the "school
  • In what ways do children grow during the school
    years, and what factors influence their growth?

Compared with the swift growth during the first 5
years, physical growth during middle childhood is
slow but steady.
  • School-aged children grow, on average, 2 to 3
    inches per year.
  • This is the only time during the life span when
    girls are, on average, taller than boys.
  • By age 11, the average girl is 4' 10".
  • The average 11-year-old boy is 4' 9 1/2 ".

(physical growth during middle childhood,
  • During middle childhood, both boys and girls gain
    from 5 to 7 pounds a year.
  • Variations of a half a foot in children the same
    age are not uncommon.
  • Height and weight variations can be affected by
    poor nutrition and racial or ethnic background.
  • Smaller children in areas with poor nutrition
    (possibly related in part to racial/ethnic
    differences too)

(No Transcript)
Promoting Growth with Hormones A controversy
  • Available only the last decade, prototropin and
    other artificial human growth hormones are being
    taken by over 20,000 abnormally short children.
  • Some developmentalists question whether shortness
    is serious enough to warrant drug intervention.
  • The drug is costly and may lead to premature
    puberty (which can restrict later growth).
  • These artificial hormones are effective adding
    over a foot of height

Nutrition is also linked to physical
development during middle childhood
  • Proper nutrition is linked to positive
    personality traits
  • more alert
  • more energy
  • more persistent
  • more self confidence
  • More involved with peers
  • more positive emotions
  • more often
  • less anxiety
  • more investigative

Nutritional Benefits
Children with more nutritious diets had more
energy self confidence.
(Nutrition and physical development during
middle childhood, continued)
  • Undernutrition Malnutrition definitely lead to
    physical, social and cognitive difficulties for
    children in middle childhood
  • BUT, Overnutrition (the intake of too many
    calories) also presents problems!

(Nutrition and physical development during
middle childhood, continued)
  • Obesity is defined as body weight that is more
    than 20 above the average for a person of a
    given height and weight.
  • 10 of all children are obese.
  • This proportion has risen 54 since the 1960s

Balanced Diet?
Recent studies have found that childrens diets
are almost opposite the diet recommended by the
US department of agriculture, which can lead to
an increase in obesity.
(Nutrition and physical development during
middle childhood, continued)
  • Despite growing rates of obesity, American
    society places a strong emphasis on thinness.
  • Concern about weight increasingly borders on
    obsession in the United States (especially for
  • Research indicates that a substantial number of 6
    year old girls worry about becoming fat
  • 40 of 9 10 year olds are trying to
    lose weight!
  • WHY? Mostly due to our societys preoccupation
    with being slim

Despite the focus on thinness in the U.S., the
number of obese children is increasing.
  • Obesity can be caused by a combination of genetic
    and social characteristics.
  • School-age children tend to engage in little
    exercise and are not particularly fit.
  • The correlation between TV viewing and obesity is

Even without regular exercise, however,
childrens gross fine motor skills develop
substantially during the school years.
  • Fine Motor Skills
  • These continue to advance
  • Increased levels of myelin around the nerve cells
    raise the speed of messages traveling to muscles
  • Gross Motor Skills
  • Important advances, including muscle coordination
  • Gender differences likely the result of societal
    messages/expectations rather than motor skill

Gross Motor Skills
Gross motor skills continue to develop and
advance across the middle childhood years.
Physical in Middle Childhood Motor Development
Main Points
  • School-age children's gross and fine motor skills
    develop substantially over middle childhood.
  • An important improvement in gross motor skills is
    muscle coordination.
  • Fine motor skills advance because of increases in
    the amount of myelin insulating the brain neurons.

Health During Middle Childhood
  • For most children in the U.S., the common cold
    is about the most serious illness that occurs
    during middle childhood.
  • BUT colds are not uncommon during middle
  • 1 in 9 has a chronic, persistent condition
  • Although life threatening illnesses have declined
    over the past 50 years, some chronic illnesses
    have become more prevalent

One illness that has increased in prevalence
  • ASTHMA, a chronic condition characterized by
    periodic attacks of wheezing, coughing, and
    shortness of breath, has increased significantly
    in the last several decades.
  • Asthma attacks are triggered by a variety of
  • respiratory infections
  • allergic reactions to airborne irritants
  • Stress
  • exercise

(asthma, continued)
  • Children can use an aerosol container with
    special mouthpiece to spray drugs into the lungs.
  • Some researchers believe the increase in asthma
    is due to pollution, dust due to better insulated
    buildings, and poverty

Rising Rates of Asthma
Sine the 1980s, the rate of asthma among
children has almost doubled! Pollution, and
better methods of detecting the disease are
reasons this is so.
Health during middle childhood Psychological
  • It is important that psychological disorders
    not be ignored in school age children (which
    often occurs because symptoms are different than
    those of adults)
  • Childhood depression is one psychological issue
    often overlooked by teachers and parents.
  • 2-5 of school age children suffer from
  • For 1 depression is severe (express suicidal

Health during middle childhood Psychological
  • All kids are sad sometimes. This is different
    than depression (depth of sadness, length
  • Childhood depression is also characterized by the
    expression of exaggerated fears, clinginess, or
    avoidance of everyday activities.
  • In older children it may produce sulking, school
    problems, and acts of delinquency.
  • It can be treated with a variety of approaches.

Approaches to treating childhood depression
  • Psychological Counseling
  • Effective!
  • Drugs
  • Controversial!
  • About 200,000 Prozac prescriptions written in
    1996 for kids aged 6-12 (a 300 increase over the
    previous year!)
  • Criticisms not approved for use with children
    and teens lack of long term effectiveness of the
    drug consequences to developing brains lead in
    for further drug use

Another psychological issue that surfaces
during middle childhood anxiety disorders
(8-9 of children)
  • Intense, uncontrollable anxiety about situations
    that most people would not find bothersome
  • Specific stimuli (germs, school)
  • Generalized anxiety (source can not be
  • It is important not to ignore psychological
    issues during childhood!
  • disruptive to the childs life
  • children with psychological problems are at
    higher risk for future disorders during adulthood

More Impacts on Development Children with
Special Needs
  • One student in a thousand requires special
    education services relating to VISUAL IMPAIRMENT,
    legally defined as difficulties in seeing that
    may include blindness (less than or 20/200 after
    correction) or partial sightedness (20/70 after
  • Visual impairments can also include the inability
    to see up-close and disabilities in color, depth,
    and light perception.

(Children with Special Needs, continued)
  • AUDITORY IMPAIRMENT, a special need that involves
    the loss of hearing or some aspect of hearing,
    affects one to two percent of school-age children
    and can vary across a number of dimensions.
  • The loss may be limited to certain frequencies.
  • Loss in infancy is more severe than after age 3.
  • Children who have little or no exposure to the
    sound of language are unable to understand or
    produce oral language themselves.
  • Abstract thinking may be affected.

(Children with Special Needs, continued)
  • Auditory impairments are sometimes accompanied by
    SPEECH IMPAIRMENTS, speech that is impaired when
    it deviates so much from the speech of others
    that it calls attention to itself, interferes
    with communication, or produces maladjustments in
    the speaker.
  • 3 to 5 of school-age children have speech
  • STUTTERING, a substantial disruption in the
    rhythm and fluency of speech is the most common
    speech impairment.

(Children with Special Needs, continued)
  • Some 2.3 million school-age children in the U.S.
    are officially labeled as having LEARNING
    DISABILITIES, difficulties in the acquisition and
    use of listening, speaking, reading, writing,
    reasoning, or mathematical abilities.
  • Some suffer from dyslexia, a reading disability
    that can result in the reversal of letters during
    reading and writing, confusion between left and
    right, and difficulties in spelling

(Children with Special Needs, continued)
    is a learning disability marked by inattention,
    impulsiveness, a low tolerance for frustration,
    and generally a great deal of inappropriate
  • 3 to 5 percent of school-age children are
    estimated to have ADHD (3.5 million Americans
    under age 18!).
  • Ritalin or Dexadrine are stimulants used to
    reduce hyperactivity levels in children with

Overprescribing Ritalin?
U.S. doctors prescribe Ritalin for ADHD more
frequently. Some experts argue the drug is
  • If a child is suspected of having ADHD or a
    learning disability, it is important that she or
    he be evaluated by a specialist.
  • Teachers parents should be alert to the
    possibility that speech, auditory, and visual
    problems may be impacting a child (grades,
    friendships, etc.)

Intellectual Development in Middle Childhood
Piagetian Approaches to Cognitive Advances
  • The school-age child enters the CONCRETE
    OPERATIONAL STAGE, the period of cognitive
    development between 7 and 12 years of age,
  • Characterized by the active, and appropriate use
    of logic.
  • Children at this stage can easily solve
    conservation problemslogic used over appearance.
  • (for example whether the amount of liquid stays
    the same although poured into different shaped

(No Transcript)
(more about Piagets views of intellectual
  • Because they are less egocentric, they can take
    multiple aspects of a situation into account, a
    process known as DECENTERING
  • They attain the concept of reversibility,
    realizing that a stimulus can be reversed,
    returning to its original form.

Decentering Reversibility
So, during middle childhood, cognitive advances
continue and the development of concrete
operational skills becomes more established.
  • Children at this stage can understand such
    concepts as relationships between time and speed

At the beginning of the concrete operational
stage, kids reason that the 2 cars on these
routes are traveling the same speed even though
they arrive at the same time. Later, they realize
the correct relationship between speed distance.
  • Despite the obvious advances that occur during
    the concrete operational stage, children still
    experience a big limitation in their thinking
    They are still tied to concrete physical reality!
  • (no understanding of abstract/hypothetical/logic)

A brief critique of Piagets views of
intellectual development
  • Piaget is criticized for underestimating
    children's abilities and for exaggerating the
    universality of the progression through the
  • Research suggest that Piaget was more right than
  • Cross-cultural research increasingly implies
    children universally achieve concrete operations,
    and that training with conservation tasks
    improves performance.

Conservation Training
Rural Aborigine children trail their urban
counterparts in the development of their
understanding of conservation with training,they
catch up.
Information Processing in Middle Childhood
  • Children become increasingly able to handle
    information because their memories improve.
  • MEMORY is the process by which information is
    initially encoded, stored, and retrieved.
  • Encoding is the process by which information is
    initially recorded in a form usable to memory.
  • The information must be stored, or placed and
    maintained in the memory system.
  • Information must be retrieved, located and
    brought into awareness.

(Information Processing in Middle Childhood,
continued )
  • During middle childhood, short-term memory
    capacity improves significantly.
  • META-MEMORY, an understanding about the processes
    that underlie memory emerge and improve during
    middle childhood.
  • Children use control strategies, conscious,
    intentionally used tactics to improve cognitive
  • Children can be trained to use control strategies
    and improve memory.

Vygotsky's Approach to Cognitive Development
Classroom Instruction
  • Vygotsky's approach has been particularly
    influential in the development of several
    classroom practices.
  • Classrooms are seen as places where children
    should have the opportunity to try out new
  • Specifically, Vygotsky suggests that children
    should focus on activities that involve
    interaction with others.

(Vygotsky's Approach, continued)
  • Cooperative learning is a strategy used in
    education that incorporates several aspects of
    Vygotsky's theory (kids work together to achieve
  • Reciprocal teaching, a technique where students
    are taught to skim the content of a passage,
    raise questions about its central point,
    summarize the passage, and finally, predict what
    will happen next, help lead students through the
    zone of proximal development.
  • Significant success rates with raising reading
    comprehension levels

Language Development During Middle Childhood
  • Vocabulary continues to increase during the
    school years.
  • School-age children's mastery of grammar
  • Children's understanding of syntax, the rules
    that indicate how words and phrases can be
    combined to form sentences, grows during
  • Certain phonemes, units of sound, remain
    troublesome (j, v, h, zh).

(Language Development During Middle Childhood,
  • School-age children may have difficulty decoding
    sentences when the meaning depends on intonation,
    or tone of voice.
  • Children become more competent in their use of
    pragmatics, the rules governing the use of
    language to communicate in a social context.
  • Language helps children control their behavior.
  • One of the most significant developments in
    middle childhood is the increase in
    METALINGUISTIC AWARENESS, an understanding of
    one's own use of language.

(Language Development During Middle Childhood,
  • ? BILINGUALISM is the use of more than one
  • English is a second language for more than 32
    million Americans.
  • Being bilingual may have cognitive advantages.
  • greater cognitive flexibility
  • greater metalinguistic awareness
  • may improve scores on IQ tests

The Voices of America
The number of U.S. residents over the age of five
who speak a language other than English at home.
(Language Development During Middle Childhood,
  • The effectiveness of language immersion programs
    where subjects are taught in a foreign language
    show mixed results.
  • All subjects in a school taught in a foreign
  • Benefits include increased self esteem
  • Negative results common when minority groups
    immersed in English only programs
  • Positive results when children (especially
    majority group children) are learning languages
    not spoken by the dominant culture

The Ebonics Controversy
  • Issues revolving around Ebonics (derived from
    combo of ebony and phonics), or Black English, or
    African American Vernacular English raises
    important issues that are social as well as

The word/concept has been in use since the
1970s, but mainstreamed by the Oakland school
  • They declared Ebonics a distinctive language,
    ordered initial instruction to be in Ebonics for
    those speaking it
  • With a month, the board revoked its decision due
    to national controversy the board said they
    never meant students to learn anything other than
    standard English, but had wanted recognition that
    African American students may need instruction to
    make the leap from Ebonics at home to standard

(The Ebonics Controversy, continued)
  • Linguists debate a dialect of standard English?
    Or a language of its own with rules, etc.?
  • Most educators/linguists would agree that any
    nonstandard English is not an inferior form of
    language, but a different one.
  • The controversy raises important issues about
    development social linguistic!

Schooling in Middle Childhood
  • School marks the time when society formally
    attempts to transfer its body of knowledge,
    beliefs, values, and accumulated wisdom to new
  • In the U. S., a primary school education is both
    a universal right and a legal requirement.
  • More than 160 million of the world's children do
    not have access to education.
  • Close to a billion people (2/3 of them women) are
    illiterate throughout their lives.

The Plague of Illiteracy
(Schooling in Middle Childhood, continued)
  • In developing countries, females receive less
    formal education than males.
  • In developed countries, women still receive less
    education than men on average, particularly in
    science technology topics.
  • Why?
  • -Widespread cultural parental biases favoring
    males over females

When are kids ready for school?
  • Recent research suggests that age is not a
    critical indicator of when children should start
  • Some research suggests that delaying childrens
    entrance into school based on age may actually be
  • Developmental readiness is a better measure
    (family support, etc.)

Reading Learning Meaning
  • ? Development of reading skill generally occurs
    in several broad, frequently overlapping stages.
  • Stage 0
  • lasts from birth to the start of first grade
  • children learn the essential prerequisites for
    reading, including identification of the letters
    in the alphabet, writing their names, and reading
    a few words.

(stages of reading development, continued)
  • Stage 1
  • first and second grade
  • is the first real reading, but it is largely
    phonological decoding skill where children can
    sound out words by sounding out and blending

(Development of reading skill, continued)
  • Stage 2, typically around second and third
    grades, children learn to read aloud with
  • Stage 3 extends from fourth to eighth grades
    where reading becomes a means to an end and an
    enjoyable way to learn.
  • Stage 4 is where the child understands reading in
    terms of reflecting multiple points of view.

(summary table in text)
? There is an ongoing debate among educators
regarding the most effective way to teach reading.
  • Code-based approaches to reading emphasize
    phonics and how letters and sounds are combined
    to make words.
  • Whole-language approaches to reading are based on
    the notion that children should learn to read as
    they learn to talk, by exposure to complete
    writing and being immersed in literature.
  • The National Research Council, in a landmark
    decision in 1998, argued that the optimum
    approach was to use a combination of elements
    from both approaches.

Educational Trends
  • Schooling in the early 2000s is changing!
  • Return to the fundamentals (reading, writing,
  • Individual accountability stressed (teachers
  • Increased attention to issues of student
    diversity multiculturalism.
  • Demographics in U.S. shifting!

Changes in the Face of America
  • By the year 2050, non-Hispanic Caucasians will
    likely become a minority of the total U.S.

Multicultural Education
  • Culture is a set of behaviors, beliefs, values,
    and expectations shared by members of a
    particular society.
  • Subcultural groups are particular racial, ethnic,
    religious, socio-economic or gender groups within
    a given culture.
  • In recent years the goal has been to establish
    MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION to help minority students
    develop competence in the culture of the majority
    group while maintaining positive group identities
    that build on their original culture

Multicultural education
is based on several models
  • The CULTURAL ASSIMILATION MODEL fosters the view
    of the American society as the proverbial melting
  • More recent trends are based on the PLURALISTIC
    SOCIETY MODEL, which is the concept that American
    society is made up of diverse, coequal cultural
    groups that should preserve their individual
    cultural features (tossed salad ).

(Multicultural education models, continued)
  • Today, most educators recommend that children
    develop a BICULTURAL IDENTITY, by maintaining
    their original cultural identity while
    integrating into the dominant culture
  • (the individual as a member of 2 cultures,
    without having to choose!)

Intelligence Determining Individual Strengths
  • ? INTELLIGENCE is the capacity to understand the
    world, think rationally, and use resources
    effectively when faced with challenges.
  • Alfred Binet's pioneering efforts in intelligence
    testing left three important legacies.
  • 1) He defined intelligence pragmatically as
    that which his test measured,
  • 2) Intelligence tests should be reasonable
    indicators of school success.

Binet Intelligence, continued
  • He invented the concept of IQ, INTELLIGENCE
    QUOTIENT, a measure of intelligence that takes
    into account a student's mental and chronological
  • (MA ) CA X 100 IQ.
  • MENTAL AGE is the typical intelligence level
    found for people at a given chronological age.
  • CHRONOLOGICAL (OR PHYSICAL) AGE is the actual age
    of the child taking the intelligence test.

Binet Intelligence, continued
  • Scores today are deviation IQ scores, so that the
    degree of deviation from the average (100)
    permits a calculation of the proportion of people
    who have similar scores.
  • 2/3 of all people fall within 15 points of the
  • As scores rise and fall beyond the average range,
    the percentage of people falls significantly.

Measuring IQ in the Present Day
  • Intelligence tests today share an underlying
    premise that intelligence is composed of a
    single, unitary mental ability factor, commonly
    called "g".
  • 3 main assessment instruments used today
    test that consists of a series of items that vary
    according to the age of the person being tested.

(Measuring IQ in the Present Day, continued)
    CHILDREN-REVISED (WISC-III) is a test for
    children that provides separate measures of
    verbal and performance (or nonverbal) skills as
    well as a total score.
    (WAIS-III) is a test for adults that provides
    separate measures of verbal and performance (or
    nonverbal) skills as well as a total score.

Measuring Intelligence
The Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children
includes items that assess both verbal and
performance skills.
Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children takes
another approach to assessing intelligence.
  • looks at ability to use step-by-step thinking
    and integrate stimuli
  • allows the child to use gestures and languages
    other than English, making testing more valid and
    equitable for kids that use English as a second
  • IMPORTANT POINT! Think critically about
    assessment instruments (norm groups, locations,
    ages, etc.)

What do IQ scores from these tests mean?
  • Reasonably good predictors of school performance
  • NOT good predictors of performance outside of
  • Frequently inaccurate at predicting future
    success, income, etc.!

More than IQ tests Alternative Conceptions of
  • The intelligence tests frequently used in schools
    assume that intelligence is a single, mental
  • Many theorists now dispute the notion that
    intelligence is unidimensional (that g or a
    single unitary mental ability factor exists).

Some developmentalists believe 2 types of
intelligence should be focused on instead
  • Some psychologists suggest there are two kinds of
  • FLUID INTELLIGENCE is the ability to deal with
    new problems and situations.
    information, skills, and strategies that people
    have acquired through education and prior
    experiences, and through their previous use of
    fluid intelligence

Still Another View of intelligence
  • Howard Gardner suggests there are 8 distinct
    intelligences (that work together at times).
  • Musical intelligence
  • Bodily kinesthetic intelligence
  • Logical mathematical intelligence
  • Linguistic intelligence
  • Spatial intelligence
  • Interpersonal intelligence
  • Intrapersonal intelligence
  • Naturalist intelligence

(See summary table in text)
Another View of intelligence Robert Sternberg
  • Sternberg suggests that intelligence is best
    thought of in terms of information processing
    (people store material for later use in solving
    intellectual tasks).
  • Robert Sternberg developed the TRIARCHIC THEORY
    OF INTELLIGENCE, which states that intelligence
    consists of three aspects of information
    processing componential, experiential, and

(Robert Sternberg developed the TRIARCHIC THEORY
  • The componential element reflects how people
    process and analyze information.
  • The experiential element is the insightful
  • The contextual deals with practical intelligence
    - the demands of everyday environment.

  • The question of how to interpret differences
    between intelligence scores of different cultural
    groups is a major controversy.
  • If intelligence is primarily determined by
    heredity and largely fixed at birth, attempts to
    alter intelligence will not be successful.
  • If intelligence is largely environmentally
    determined, modifying social conditions is a
    promising strategy for increasing intelligence.

The Bell Curve Controversy
  • Hernstein and Murray, in the book The Bell Curve
    (1994), argue that IQ is primarily inherited
    that ethnic differences in intelligence exist.
  • Most developmentalists disagree with The Bell
  • Environmental factors rather than inherited
  • Discriminatory/biased test questions
  • Less important to know the degree of
    intelligence related to genetic and environmental
    factors and more important to improve conditions
    and experiences so that all children can reach
    their full potential.

Below Intelligence Test Norms Mental Retardation
  • MENTAL RETARDATION, defined as a significantly
    subaverage level of intellectual functioning that
    occurs with related limitations in two or more
    skill areas, is found in approximately 1 to 3
    percent of the school-age population.
  • Mentally retardation is typically measured by IQ

(Mental Retardation, continued)
  1. 90 percent are classified as MILD RETARDATION,
    where IQ is in the range of 50 or 55 to 70.
  2. can reach 3rd to 6th grade level in school
  3. can hold jobs and function independently

(Mental Retardation, continued)
  • 5 to 10 percent are classified as MODERATE
    RETARDATION, where IQ is from 35 or 40 to 50 or
  • slow to develop language and motor skills
  • generally cannot progress beyond 2nd grade
  • capable of training and social skills but
    typically need supervision

(Mental Retardation, continued)
  • Those with SEVERE RETARDATION, IQs ranging from
    20 or 25 to 35 or 40, and PROFOUND RETARDATION,
    where IQ is below 20 or 25 are the most limited.
  • no speech
  • poor motor control
  • need 24-hour care

Above Intelligence Test Norms The
Intellectually Gifted
  • 3 to 5 of school-age children are GIFTED AND
    TALENTED, who show evidence of high performance
    capability in areas such as intellectual,
    creative, artistic, leadership capacity, or
    specific academic fields.
  • Contrary to stereotypes, research shows that
    highly intelligent people also tend to be
    outgoing, well adjusted, and popular

Above Intelligence Test Norms, continued
  • ? Two approaches to educating the gifted and
    talented exist.
  • ACCELERATION, where special programs allow gifted
    students to move ahead at their own pace, even if
    this means skipping to higher grade levels.
  • ENRICHMENT is an approach through which students
    are kept at grade level but are enrolled in
    special programs and given individual activities
    to allow greater depth of study in a given topic.

Mainstreaming Ending Segregation by Intelligence
  • Public law 94-142 (the Education for all
    Handicapped Children Act) requires that children
    with special needs receive a full education in
    the least restrictive environment (the setting
    most similar to that of children without special
  • Supporters of mainstreaming point out that
    special needs children must ultimately function
    in a normal environment, and greater experience
    with their peers will help with this

  • Full inclusion supporters want all students, no
    matter how severe the disability, to be included
    in regular classrooms.
  • Controversial!
  • Some concern exists that these students may be
    overlooked in a regular classroom environment

  • Childrens physical cognitive development
    clearly continues in the middle childhood years.
  • Review Key terms
  • Concepts,
  • Keep up with your reading!
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