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Creating Successful, Research-Based Reading Interventions for Struggling Readers— that Work! PA058

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Creating Successful, Research-Based Reading Interventions for Struggling Readers that Work! #PA058 Elizabeth D. Palacios, Ph.D., LSSP Liz_Palacios_at_baylor.edu – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Creating Successful, Research-Based Reading Interventions for Struggling Readers— that Work! PA058


1
Creating Successful, Research-Based Reading
Interventions for Struggling Readersthat
Work!PA058
  • Elizabeth D. Palacios, Ph.D., LSSP
  • Liz_Palacios_at_baylor.edu
  • Floyd Harrison, Graduate Student
  • School Psychology Graduate Program
  • Department of Educational Psychology
  • Baylor University, Waco, Texas
  • (254) 710-4683
  • NASP 2005 Annual Convention, Atlanta, GA

2
Definition of Reading Disabilities
  • Willcutt Pennington (2000) define a reading
    disability as a developmental disorder
    characterized by significant underachievement on
    standardized tests on single-word reading,
    reading fluency, and reading comprehension,
    usually resulting from impaired phonological
    processing

3
Most reading experts agree
  • that a reading disability
  • has a biological basis is due to a congenital
    neurological condition
  • persists into adolescents adulthood (Richek,
    Caldwell, Jennings, Lerner, 2002)
  • has perceptual, cognitive, language dimensions
  • often leads to difficulties in many areas of life
    as the individual matures (Hynd, 1992)

4
Common Practice
  • Reading disabilities are most often diagnosed on
    the basis of a significant discrepancy between a
    childs learning potential (Intelligence Quotient
    score) and his/her reading achievement (reading
    achievement score)

5
Developmental Patterns
  • children who get off to a poor start in reading
    rarely
  • catch up (Torgesen, 1998)
  • Children do not simply grow out of it
  • Research indicates that 74 of children
    significantly delayed in 3rd grade remain
    significantly delayed at the end of high school
  • (Shaywitz, et al., 2000)

Proficient Readers Impaired Readers
Grade levels of reading skills over time.
6
By adolescence
  • the primary indications of a reading disability
    are
  • difficulty with fluency when reading aloud
  • a very slow reading rate
  • poor spelling (especially in the context of
    spontaneous writing, rather than on a spelling
    test)

7
Components of Reading
  • According to the National Institutes of Health
    Human Development (NICHD) of the National
    Institutes of Health (NIH), reading components
    include
  • Phonological Awareness
  • Phonics Rules
  • Rate
  • Fluency
  • Comprehension

8
Reading Interventions
  • Torgesen proposes 3 general principles for
    reading interventions
  • Instruction must be more explicit comprehensive
  • Instruction must be more intensive
  • Instruction must be more supportive

9
Reading Interventions continued
  • Fletcher Lyon describe the common components of
    effective intervention as
  • Explicitly teaching how to articulate positions
    mouth movements associated with each phoneme
  • Comprehensive intensive instruction
  • Repetition
  • Experiences in different contexts
  • Individualized tutoring
  • High interest books for reading silently
  • Comprehension strategies
  • Vocabulary development
  • Practice for fluency rate

10
Struggling Readers
  • There is an alarming rage of juvenile offenders
    with disabilities (an estimated 30-50 of
    students in correctional system need special
    services)
  • 2 - 8 school-age children have reading
    disabilities compared to 30 - 60 of students
    involved with the juvenile justice system
  • These figures are perhaps higher since many
    students in the juvenile justice system remain
    undiagnosed

11
Behavior Health Institute (BHI) Center for
Learning Development
  • BHI developed a reading intervention program for
    male adolescents placed in a long-term
    residential juvenile justice facility located in
    Central Texas.
  • Due to the high correlation of learning
    disabilities and juvenile delinquency, the
    juvenile detention center seemed the ideal place
    to pilot an innovative reading program.

12
BHI Reading Intervention Program
  • PARTICIPANTS
  • 22 participants (ages 12 through 17)
  • Average age of group was 14 yrs., 9 mos.
  • Participants were Central Texas students in
    grades 5 through 11
  • PROCEDURE
  • Students were referred to the program based upon
    low scores on a reading pronunciation test
    (WRAT-Reading)

13
BHI Reading Intervention Program
  • PROCEDURE (CONTINUED)
  • A more comprehensive reading assessment was then
    administered
  • Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization Test (LAC)
    determines the level of phonological awareness
    skills
  • Gray Oral Reading Test (GORT) measures the
    reading rate, reading fluency, reading
    comprehension

14
BHI Reading Intervention Program
  • The comprehensive reading program is
    approximately 12 weeks (120 hours)
  • The intensive program addresses phonological
    awareness, phonics skills, reading fluency,
    reading rate, reading comprehension
  • Small groups of 4 to 5 students are each assigned
    a station where he interacts with the different
    components of the intensive program

15
BHI Reading Intervention Program
  • These stations provide direct instruction by a
  • reading specialist
  • interactive computer program
  • oral silent reading
  • practice of newly acquired skills
  • The student works at each station for
    approximately 20 minutes and then rotates to the
    next station until all stations are completed

16
BHI Reading Intervention Program
  • RESULTS
  • After 12 weeks of intensive reading intervention
    (2 hours per day for an average of 120 hours),
    the average grade level for
  • Phonological awareness increased by 2.9 grade
    levels
  • Fluency increased 1.7 grade level
  • Rate increased 1.8 grade level
  • Comprehension increased 2.3 grade levels

17
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18
First Station LiPs
  • Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing Program for Reading,
    Spelling, Speech (LiPS)
  • Program
  • Only a small portion of the program is utilized
  • Students manipulate blocks to match nonsense
    words
  • The instructor works through many lists of words
  • The words become longer more complex as the
    student progresses

19
LiPS Program (continued)
  • Benefits
  • Develops phonological processing skills
  • Stimulates phonemic awareness
  • Enables students to become self-correcting in
    reading, spelling, speech
  • Drawbacks
  • Requires one-on-one attention
  • Requires the instructor to have precise speech
    patterns

20
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21
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22
Second Station Earobics
  • Program
  • teaches more advanced phonological awareness,
    auditory processing, phonics, cognitive skills,
    as well as language skills required for
    comprehension

23
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25
Third Station Lexia Reading S.O.S. (Strategies
for Older Students)
  • Program
  • Computer-based phonemic awareness decoding
    program
  • Wide selection of game-like sections teach a
    variety of phonics decoding skills
  • Lesson content builds with each of five levels
  • Automatic branching to specific skill areas lets
    the students practice the unit they need
  • Progress can be monitored easily by student
    teacher

26
Lexia Reading S.O.S (continued)
  • Benefits
  • Students develop automatic word recognition
    skills
  • Activities build phonemic awareness, sound-symbol
    correspondence, decoding skills, comprehension
    skills
  • Can be used with a wide range of students 4th
    through 12th grade
  • Drawbacks
  • No grades are provided by the program (only units
    completed or passed)

27
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28
Fourth Station Read Naturally
  • Program
  • Audio tape reading program
  • Student is allowed one minute to read a selection
    cold
  • Student places a mark where he/she had to stop
    after one minute
  • Student graphs the number of words read in one
    minute
  • Student listens repeatedly to an audio tape of a
    person reading slowly

29
Fourth Station Read Naturally
  • (continued)
  • Student answers comprehension questions over
    reading material
  • Student practices reading the selection alone
  • Teacher retimes the student as he/she attempts to
    increase the number of words read in one minute
  • Student graphs the final number of words read

30
Fourth Station Read Naturally
  • (continued)
  • Benefits
  • Partner reading with tape builds fluency
    vocabulary
  • Comprehension skills are developed by questioning
  • Graphing provides progress monitoring
  • Students like the challenging race like nature
    of the program
  • Drawbacks
  • Difficult for teacher to know if students are
    listening to the tapes
  • Mixed levels are sometimes embarrassing for
    students

31
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33
Fifth Station PLATO/AEC A Learning Programs
  • Plato Program
  • Focuses on reading comprehension skills
  • Computer-based curriculum takes each student
    through a series of lessons addressing
    informational text, expository texts,
    literature
  • American Education Corp. Advanced Learning
    System
  • Computer-based Language Arts Reading program
  • Teaches skills from 1st to the 5th grade level
  • Student takes practice test then real test over
    lesson
  • All tests are 10 multiple choice questions
  • Lessons build on each other
  • Benefits
  • Student is able to practice, learn, and test his
    ability in the area of vocabulary reading
    comprehension

34
Sixth Station Don Johnstons Books
  • Program
  • High-interest, controlled-vocabulary reading
    series
  • Narrated computer books on CDs
  • Includes CD, paperback book, audiocassette
  • Students read a chapter one page at a time
  • Students answer quizzes (cloze passage or
    multiple choice) after each chapter
  • Quizzes are graded immediately the student
    receives instant feedback

35
Sixth Station Don Johnstons Books (continued)
  • Benefits
  • Large choice of mature titles
  • Students like the choices available
  • Real number grades are provided
  • Build fluency through more reading experience
  • Drawbacks
  • Limited number of levels 2/3 and 4/5
  • Under-motivated students may just listen to the
    CD not read the text

36
BHI Reading Intervention Program
  • DISCUSSION
  • Through intense, direct, and interactive reading
    instruction older students are able to improve
    their reading skills that most children learn at
    an early age
  • Those students who have already suffered through
    years of humiliation discouragement are able to
    experience school success
  • Further research is needed to determine if this
    reading program can produce even a larger gain if
    delivered over a longer period of time for a
    greater number of hours

37
Contact Information
  • Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing (LiPS)
  • 800-554-1819 www.lindamoodbell.com
  • Earobics -
  • www.enablemart.com/products_detail.asp?id451
  • Lexia Learning Systems Reading S.O.S
  • School Version - 800-435-3942 www.lexialearning.c
    om
  • Read Naturally
  • 800-788-4085, www.readnaturally.com
  • Plato 1,000 1 station
  • American Education Corporation Advanced Learning
    System
  • 800-34A-PLUS www.amered.com
  • Don Johnstons Start-to-Finish books
  • 800-999-4660 www.donjohnston.com

38
For More Information
BHI Center for Learning Development cld_at_hot.rr
.com (254) 751-0922
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