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Properties of Matter

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Chemistry Ms. Piela Intensive vs Extensive Properties Intensive: does NOT depend on how much substance there is Density Color Extensive: DOES depend on how much ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Properties of Matter


1
Properties of Matter
  • Chemistry
  • Ms. Piela

2
Physical Properties
  • A property of a substance that can be measured or
    observed without changing its composition
  • Examples
  • Size/Shape
  • Density
  • Mass
  • Melting point/Boiling point/
  • Freezing point

3
Physical Change
  • Any change that occurs to a substance that does
    not change its chemical composition
  • Examples
  • Cutting
  • Breaking
  • Melting
  • Boiling

4
Intensive vs Extensive Properties
  • Intensive does NOT depend on how much substance
    there is
  • Density
  • Color
  • Extensive DOES depend on how much substance
    there is
  • Weight
  • Length

5
Physical Change
  • Example
  • Which of the following are physical changes?
    (Circle all that apply)
  • Making caramel from sugar
  • Carving a wooden figure
  • Freezing mercury
  • dissolving salt in water

6
Chemical Properties
  • A property of a substance that can be measured or
    observed and changes its composition
  • Examples
  • Reactivity
  • Water
  • Oxygen
  • pH

7
Chemical Properties Changes
  • For chemical changes to occur, a chemical
    reaction must take place
  • Chemical reactions are the rearrangement of atoms
    and molecules that forms new substances
  • Example
  • CH4 2 O2 ? CO2 2 H2O

8
Chemical Change
  • Demo Example Burning Magnesium
  • 2 Mg O2 ? 2 MgO
  • Reactants are the initial substances before a
    reaction
  • Products are substance formed in a reaction
  • Chemical change is any change in chemical
    composition that forms a new substance
  • Examples
  • Rusting
  • Decomposing compost

9
Evidence of a Chemical Change
  • Evolution of a gas
  • Formation of a precipitate
  • Precipitates are solids that form in a solution
  • Release or absorption of energy
  • i.e. heat released, light given off, sound
  • Color change in a reaction system

10
  • Practice Problem 1
  • Which of the following are chemical changes and
    which are physical changes?
  • Cracking an egg
  • Removing a stain with bleach
  • Burning a candle
  • Melting butter

11
  • Practice Problem 2
  • For the following, identify them as chemical
    property, chemical change, physical property, or
    physical change
  • Decomposition of mercury (II) oxide
  • Iron reacts with oxygen, while gold does not
  • Oxygen is colorless, odorless, and soluble
    (dissolves) in water
  • Under extreme pressures, oxygen will liquefy

12
Physical vs. Chemical Recap
13
Classification of Matter
  • What is matter?
  • Anything that has mass and takes up space
  • Examples
  • Desks
  • Air
  • Lazy Students
  • Insane Science Teachers

14
States of Matter
  • Solids
  • have definite shape and definite volume
  • Example
  • Diamonds
  • Particles are slow and will vibrate in place
  • Liquids
  • have indefinite shape and definite volume
  • Example
  • Water
  • Particles move faster and slide past one another

15
States of Matter
  • Gases
  • Have indefinite shape and indefinite volume
  • Example
  • Air
  • Particles move fast with large spaces in between

16
States of Matter
17
Classification of Matter
18
Substances Mixtures
  • Pure substances are substances that contain only
    one kind of matter
  • Example
  • Water (H2O), Oxygen (O2), Iron (Fe)
  • Mixtures are physical blends of one or more pure
    substances
  • Example
  • Salad, Soup

19
Mixtures
  • Homogeneous mixtures are mixtures with uniform
    composition
  • Examples Milk, Gas, Air
  • Heterogeneous mixtures are mixtures that do not
    have uniform composition
  • Examples Salad, Soup

20
Mixtures
  • Example Problem
  • Determine whether the following examples are
    heterogeneous mixtures or homogeneous mixtures
  • Stainless steel
  • Italian Dressing
  • Maple syrup
  • Chocolate chip cookie

21
Elements Compounds
  • Elements are the simplest form of matter
  • Examples Carbon (C), Gold (Au), Mercury (Hg)
  • Compounds are two or more elements chemically
    combined
  • Examples
  • Water (H2O), Sugar (C6H12O6)
  • (not O2, N2)

22
Practice Problem Answers
  • Practice 1
  • CH4 Compound
  • S8 Element
  • Concrete Heterogeneous
  • Distilled water Compound
  • Salt water Homogeneous
  • CH2O Compound
  • Practice 2
  • Mixture. A physical blend of two substances
  • Practice 3
  • Blue solid is compound. Cant determine others
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