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Matter: Properties

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Chapter 3 Matter Matter anything that has mass and takes up space Everything around us Chemistry the study of matter and the changes it undergoes Four States ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Matter: Properties


1
Matter Properties Change
  • Chapter 3

2
Matter
  • Matter anything that has mass and takes up
    space
  • Everything around us
  • Chemistry the study of matter and the changes
    it undergoes

3
Four States of Matter
  • Solids
  • particles vibrate but cant move around
  • fixed shape
  • fixed volume
  • incompressible

4
Four States of Matter
  • Liquids
  • particles can move around but are still close
    together
  • variable shape
  • fixed volume
  • Virtually incompressible

5
Four States of Matter
  • Gases
  • particles can separate and move throughout
    container
  • variable shape
  • variable volume
  • Easily compressed
  • Vapor gaseous state of a substance that is a
    liquid or solid at room temperature

6
Four States of Matter
  • Plasma
  • particles collide with enough energy to break
    into charged particles (/-)
  • gas-like, variableshape volume
  • stars, fluorescentlight bulbs, TV tubes

7
Physical Properties
  • Physical Property
  • can be observed without changing the identity of
    the substance

8
Physical Properties
  • Physical properties can be described as one of 2
    types
  • Extensive Property
  • depends on the amount of matter present (example
    length)
  • Intensive Property
  • depends on the identity of substance, not the
    amount (example scent)

9
Extensive vs. Intensive
  • Examples
  • boiling point
  • volume
  • mass
  • density
  • conductivity

10
Density a physical property
  • Derived units Combination of base units
  • Volume (m3 or cm3 or mL)
  • length ? length ? length
  • Or measured using a graduated cylinder

1 cm3 1 mL 1 dm3 1 L
  • Density (kg/m3 or g/cm3 or g/mL)
  • mass per volume

11
Density
  • An object has a volume of 825 cm3 and a density
    of 13.6 g/cm3. Find its mass.

GIVEN V D M ?
WORK
12
Density
  • A liquid has a density of 0.87 g/mL. What volume
    is occupied by 25 g of the liquid?

GIVEN D V M
WORK
13
Density
Mass (g)
Units of the slope
units of y units of x
g/cm3
Volume (cm3)
14
Proportions
  • Direct Proportion
  • Inverse Proportion

15
Percent Error
  • Indicates accuracy of a measurement

16
Percent Error
  • A student determines the density of a substance
    to be 1.40 g/mL. Find the error if the
    accepted value of the density is 1.36 g/mL.

17
Chemical Properties
  • Chemical Property
  • describes the ability of a substance to undergo
    changes in identity

18
Physical vs. Chemical Properties
  • Examples
  • melting point
  • flammable
  • density
  • magnetic
  • tarnishes in air

19
Physical Changes
  • Physical Change
  • changes the form of a substance without changing
    its identity
  • properties remain the same
  • Examples change in shape or size, dissolving,
    change in color by dying, all phase changes,

20
Phase Changes Physical
  • Evaporation
  • Condensation
  • Melting
  • Freezing
  • Sublimation

21
Chemical Changes
  • Process that involves one or more substances
    changing into a new substance
  • Commonly referred to as a chemical reaction
  • New substances have different compositions and
    properties from original substances

22
Chemical Changes
  • Signs of a Chemical Change
  • change in color or odor (not by dying)
  • formation of a gas (bubbling)
  • formation of a precipitate (solid)
  • change in light or heat

23
Physical vs. Chemical Changes
  • Examples
  • rusting iron
  • dissolving in water
  • burning a log
  • melting ice
  • grinding spices

24
What Type of Change?
25
Matter Flowchart
MATTER
yes
no
Can it be physically separated?
26
Pure Substances
  • Element
  • composed of identical atoms
  • EX copper wire, aluminum foil

27
Pure Substances
  • Compound
  • composed of 2 or more elements in a fixed ratio
  • properties differ from those of individual
    elements
  • EX table salt (NaCl)

28
Mixtures
  • Variable combination of 2 or more pure substances.

Heterogeneous
Homogeneous
29
Mixtures
  • Solution
  • homogeneous
  • very small particles
  • particles dont settle
  • EX rubbing alcohol

30
Mixtures
  • Heterogeneous
  • medium-sized to large-sized particles
  • particles may or may not settle
  • EX milk, fresh-squeezed lemonade

31
Mixtures
  • Examples
  • tea
  • muddy water
  • fog
  • saltwater
  • Italian salad dressing
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