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Tanzania Education System

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Title: Tanzania Education System


1
Tanzania Education System
2
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3
School Ownership
  • Public Schools owned by the Government
  • Community Schools owned by the local community
    together with the Government
  • Privately owned schools

4
Education System
  • 2-7-4-2-3
  • Pre-primary 2yrs Age between 56 yrs
  • Primary 7yrs
  • Secondary 4yrs
  • Higher (A) level Secondary 2yrs
  • Tertiary 3yrs

5
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6
Basic Education
  • Basic Education Includes
  • Pre-Primary Education
  • Primary Education
  • Secondary Education
  • Teachers Colleges / Vocational Colleges

7
PRIMARY EDUCATION(medium of Instruction is
Swahili)(There are currently about 15856 primary
schools)
  • Primary Education is a seven year education cycle
    after Pre-Primary.
  • t is universal and compulsory to all children
    from the age of 7 years.
  • Begins with STD I, on entry, and ends with STD
    VII in the final year.
  • Std VII examination is a Primary School Leaving
    Examination (PSLE), marking completion of the
    primary education cycle and it is used for
    selection of students into secondary education.

8
SECONDARY EDUCATION(medium of instruction is
English)(There are more than 4875 secondary
schools)
  • The 1st cycle is a 4 year O Level secondary
    education. The O level cycle begins with Form 1
    and ends with Form 4 final examination.
  • Selection and enrollment in O level government
    and non government secondary schools is made on
    the basis of a pre-set national standard cut-off
    points of performance in National Primary School
    Leaving Examination (PSLE).

9
SECONDARY EDUCATION contd
  • The 2nd cycle is a 2 year program of A- Level
    secondary education. The A level has Forms 5
    and 6.
  • (Selection and enrollment in advanced level
    secondary education is based on prescribed
    performance level in the relevant A-level subject
    combinations after attainment of appropriate
    credits in the Certificate of Secondary Education
    Examination (CSEE)).
  • Students with higher credits are selected for
    tertiary Education
  • Others join Teachers Colleges and other Higher
    Learning Technical Colleges both public and
    privately owned
  • -Others join privately owned colleges

10
TEACHER EDUCATION(There are 34 teachers Colleges)
  • Teachers Colleges / Vocational Colleges offer
    courses leading to Certificate awards in
    respective fields to those with O-level
    certificates and Diploma awards for those with
    A-level certificates.
  • Minimum admission requirement for Certificate and
    Diploma courses are determined by the form IV and
    form VI examination passes respectively.

11
Management Administration of Education
  • Two ministries coordinate and manage the
    Education Sector MoEVT and PMO-RALG (TAMISEMI)

12
MOEVT Roles
  • Curriculum Development Implements through its
    agency Tanzania Institute of Education (TIE).
  • Policy and Quality Control of Education
  • Responsible for Teachers Training Colleges
  • Examinations Implements through its examination
    agency The National Examination Council (NECTA)

13
PMO-RALG (TAMISEMI) Roles
  • Management of School Infrastructure
  • Employs and Manages Human Resource in Schools
  • Works Closely with Community School buildings
    construction and Asset acquirement
  • Works closely with MoEVT

14
PMO-RALG (TAMISEMI) Structure
  • Regional Education officer who works closely with
    the regional Development Director
  • District Education Office (DEO) for secondary and
    DEO for Primary the two of them are under the REO
    but works closely with the District Development
    Director

15
COMMON POSITIONS IN TZ SECONDARY SCHOOLS
/Teachers Colleges
16
  • Principal / Head of School (HOS) / Headmaster /
    Headmistress / Mkuu wa Shule
  • Responsible for all school administration
    decisions
  • Is supervized by respective DEO
  • Deputy Principal / Secondmaster / Secondmistress
    / Mkuu wa Shule Msaidizi
  • Responsible for the school when HOS is away
  • Responsible for day to day operations management
    and discipline
  • Internal Administrator for teaching and
    non-teaching staff
  • Academic Master / Mtaaluma wa Shule
  • Responsible for logistics of the school,
    timetable, supplies (such as chalk, paper,
    dusters, filing of records, student files, scheme
    of work), and coordinating school exams

17
  • Classmaster / Classmistress / Mlezi wa Darasa
  • Tutor assigned to a particular class or stream
  • Responsible for supervising weekly tests,
    recording final marks, and filling out character
    assessment forms
  • Teacher on Duty (TOD) / Mwalimu wa Zamu
  • Rotating tutor position responsible for all
    student-related matters for a week at school
  • Examples of duties Giving permission to leave
    school, school cleanliness, attendance,
    discipline, making sure meal time goes smoothly,
    bed-checks
  • Discipline Master / Mwalimu wa Nidhamu
  • First step in discipline process
  • Sports Tutor / Mwalimu wa Mchezo
  • Responsible for sports activities and equipment

18
Other supporting positions
  • Student leaders prefects and monitors
  • Storekeeper / Boharia
  • Maintenance tutor / Mwalimu wa matengenezo
  • Accountant / Mhasibu
  • Personal Secretary / Katibu Muhtasi
  • Office Attendants / Wahudumu
  • Cooks / Wapishi
  • Guards / Walinzi

19
Questions??
20
Paradigm Shift
  • COMPETENCE-BASED TEACHING/LEARNING APPROACH AND
    ASSESSMENT
  • (CBTL)

21
Secondary Education Curriculum
  • Ordinary Level (Forms 1-4) Students are required
    to study at least 7 subjects These include
  • Civics, Geography, English, Biology
  • History, Kiswahili and Basic Mathematics
  • 2. Advanced Level (Forms 5 - 6) a student
    specializes in a combination of three subjects
    (minimum )
  • The curriculum review cycle in Tanzania is 8
    years. Review of O-level syllabi is over, that of
    A-level is in progress.

22
Secondary Education CurriculumContd
  • The existing review cycle is due to
  • Serious social problems i.e. HIV/AIDS, Poor
    gender relations, environmental destruction
  • Serious scientific and technological changes in
    the world i.e. information and communication
    technology
  • Serious changes in the pedagogy and
    teaching/learning methods
  • Major shift in curriculum paradigm

23
What do you envisage to be the roles of
students and those of teachers in the following
teaching and learning approaches?
  • 1. Teacher centered Vs Learner centered.
  • 2. Content Vs Competence.
  • 3. Knowledge inheritance Vs Knowledge
    construction.
  • 4. Product Vs Process.
  • 5. End of lesson evaluation Vs Classroom
    assessment.
  • 6. Behaviorism theory of learning Vs
    Constructivism theory.
  • 7. Memorization of facts Vs Higher order thinking
    skills. 

24
Secondary Education CurriculumContd
  • Elements of the reviewed curriculum
  • Competence development
  • Learner-Centered teaching
  • Co-operative learning
  • Assessment and Constructivism

25
Secondary Education CurriculumContd
  • Competences placed in the reviewed
  • curriculum falls into 6 main groups
  • Communication
  • Numeracy
  • Creative and critical thinking
  • Technology
  • Interpersonal competences
  • Self learning/Independent learning competence

26
Communication
  • The focus is on improving learners understanding
    of the language demands in the required areas of
    learning. As such the learner shall be able to
  • Use a range of language experiences for
    developing knowledge of a subject area
  • Convey and use information, instructions, ideas
    and feelings appropriately and effectively in a
    range of different social and cultural context
  • Use language for different audiences and purposes
    relevant to oneself and the subject area
  • Understand and use the vocabulary, structures and
    forms of expressions which characterize each area
    of study.

27
Numeracy
  • Basic mathematics skills and numeracy are
    fundamental for strengthening in all other fields
    of learning. Through this competence students
    shall have the ability to
  • Organize information to support logic and
    reasoning
  • Recognize and use numerical patterns and
    relationships confidentially and competently
  • Recognize, understand, analyse and respond to
    information which is presented in numerical and
    mathematical forms such as graphs, tables and
    charts as applied within the subject area.
  • Use a range of instruments including electronics
    confidently and competently.
  • Provide basic estimates and calculations
    accurately and proficiently

28
Crreative and critical thinking
  • This competence consists of two aspects
  • Analytical-involving critical evaluation of data,
    identifying and defining problems, identifying
    probable causes and suggesting possible
    solutions.
  • Conceptual-involving ability to think in abstract
    terms to see a big picture and and understand how
    the different parts fit together.

29
Technology
  • Being competent in Technology students
  • will appreciate the value and limitation of
  • technology in society and participate in the
  • shaping of public policies related to
  • technological change

30
Technology Contd
  • As such learners will develop abilities to
  • Realize their roles and responsibilities related
    to technological changes
  • Develop modern view of technology and appreciate
    its value and limitation in the society
  • Make decisions related to technological
    developments for positive development of the
    individual and society.
  • Make appropriate use of technology in solving
    problems at the individual and community level.
  • In particular the competence helps in
    finding and gathering information from multiple
    sources and apply that information creatively to
    specific tasks and problems

31
Interpersonal Competencies
  • Elements of Learner-centeredness in teaching.
  • The learner learns by doing a variety of logical
    and planned activities
  • The lesson is built on what the learner already
    knows
  • Learner past experiences are respected
  • The learner seek knowledge by interacting with
    the teacher, the peer, the T/L materials and the
    subject content
  • Teaching and Assessment are done by covering all
    the 6 levels of the cognitive domain
  • The teacher is a facilitator of learning rather
    than a provider of knowledge

32
Self learning/Independent learning competence
33
Perceptions on CBTL
  • The main thrust of the shift of Paradigm was to
    put the competence based curriculum at the heart
    of what is taught and learned along with
    constructivist methods of delivering subject
    content
  • CBTL aims at engaging students in a learning
    culture
  • Through CBTL Students will work harder than their
    teachers and will develop motivation,
    self-discipline and self-awareness to become
    successful learners in terms of outcomes.
  • CBTL promotes integrated learning and makes the
    classroom and the school in general an active
    learning community.

34
Teachers Role in CBTL
  • Unlike in content-based T/L, the teacher has no
    role of- a direct knowledge transmitter Instead
  • The teacher is to influence cognitive development
    and knowledge construction
  • To facilitate learning through use of guidance
    strategies and provision of tools such as problem
    solving and inquiry-based learning activities.
  • Generally, the teachers roles in CBTL approach
    are Motivator, Facilitator and class Manager.
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