Brady Deaton: Global Food Security, Poverty and Malnutrition: The Critical Role of Plant and Soil Science Research and Education - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Title: Brady Deaton: Global Food Security, Poverty and Malnutrition: The Critical Role of Plant and Soil Science Research and Education


1
  • Global Food Security, Poverty and Malnutrition
  • The Critical Role of Plant and Soil Science
    Research and Education
  •  
  • Synergy in Science Partnering for Solutions
  • 2015 Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, Minnesota
  • November 18, 2015
  • Brady J. Deaton, Executive Director
  • Deaton Institute
  • University of Missouri

2
The Global Challenge
  • About 870 million people suffer from chronic
    hunger
  • More than 3.5 million children die from
    undernutrition each year
  • The worlds population will increase to more than
    9 billion by 2050
  • Food production will have to increase by 60 by
    2050 to feed the world
  • Agricultural production will be significantly
    impacted by climate change

3
Business as Usual Challenges and Threats
Continued Scarcity
  • Challenges
  • Climate change
  • Water scarcity
  • Biofuel demand
  • Income
  • Population growth
  • Growing threats to
  • Land Water
  • Environmental preservation Biodiversity
  • Enhanced investment in agricultural research
    technological change Game-changer for
    productivity and food security
  • Lack sufficient knowledge on
  • Disaggregated impacts of specific technologies by
    country
  • Agroclimatic zone Source IFPRI

Higher food prices
4
Food price spikes and volatility
Projected changes in global agricultural
commodity prices, 2010-2050
Global cereal prices (US/ton)
Source Rosegrant et al. 2013 Notes The changes
are calculated assuming current policies are
maintained
Source Data from FAO 2014
5
Despite progress, poverty, hunger, and
undernutrition persist
Prevalence of poverty (US 1.25/day, 2005 PPP),
()
Prevalence of undernourishment ()
Source FAO 2015
Source PovCalNet 2015
Source Muthayya et al. 2015
6
Child stunting
Source USAID and IFPRI, Harvest Choice maps
7
Agricultural growth reduces hunger
  • Agricultural growth enhances hunger reduction
  • Increases household incomes and diversifies diets
  • Reduces food prices to benefit poor net food
    buyers
  • Creates employment stimulates rural nonfarm
    economy
  • Generates government revenues
  • Subsectoral growth matters (e.g. small vs. large
    farms staple vs. cash crops)
  • Whether subsectoral growth reduces hunger depends
    on
  • Its linkages with rest of economy
  • Its initial size and geographic concentration
  • Its growth potential
  • Market opportunities

Calorie deficiency-growth elasticities, Tanzania
(2000-07)
Source Fan and Brzeska 2012
Source Pauw and Thurlow 2010
8
Sustainability
  • Meets the needs of the present without
    compromising the ability of future generations to
    meet their own needs (Brundtland Report UN World
    Commission on Environment and Development, 1987)
  • Environmental stewardship
  • Economic viability
  • Social responsibility

9
Leveraging Science and Technology for Global
Food SecurityRob Bertram
U.S. Agency for International
Development
10
Innovation Laboratories for Collaborative Research
25 Laboratories with Strong Research and HICD
Focus
  • 60 colleges and university partners in 38 states,
    including 13 minority serving institutions
  • Globally competed, several developing country
    institutions are now leading projects
  • 14 labs target mission-selected local value
    chains
  • 3 labs leverage significant resources and
    technology from private companies

11
CGIAR Centers
CGIAR System
15 centers, 8,500 scientists and staff
12
Innovations in plant breeding
13
Examples - Biotech in Program for Advanced
Research on Animal and Plant Diseases
Using genetic engineering to solve problems
difficult to address with conventional breeding
around pest diseases to increase resilience to
biotic stresses
Cassava Resistant to mosaic disease / brown
streak in E. Africa
Disease resistant Potato in S. Asia
Source Chris Rey, University of the
Witwatersrand, South Africa
Insect resistant cowpea in W. Africa
Insect resistant Eggplant in S. Asia
14
Biotech in Program for Climate Resilient Cereals
Using genetic engineering to increase the natural
resource and fertilizer use efficiency and
resilience to climate change of major staples in
Africa
Nitrogen use efficient, water use efficient,
saline tolerant NERICA Rice
Nitrogen use efficient Maize
Source Pioneer
Source Saharah Moon Chapotin
15
FTF Research Strategy
Overarching Goal Emerged Sustainable
Intensification
16
  • Sustainable Intensification
  • Increased productivity per unit land, labor,
    capital, etc
  • Considers whole-farm household issues
  • Efficient, prudent use of inputs
  • Conserve or enhance natural resources
  • Increased resilience
  • Livelihood lens takes into account
    socio-economic, nutritional, gender, cultural
    conditions

17
Example Nitrogen efficient technologies
Impact of nitrogen efficient technologies on
yields in 2050, change
Impact of nitrogen efficient technologies on kcal
availability/person/day in 2050, change
Impact of nitrogen efficient technologies on of
malnourished children in 2050, change
Source Rosegrant et al. 2014
18
We have to intensify agriculture, but sustainably
  • The challenge is to achieve sustainable
    transformation via smallholder farmers
  • Existing and future technologies are essential
  • Context for technology scale-up is crucial
  • Integration of multiple technologies is needed
  • Reduce risk

19
New Ways of Doing Business under Feed the Future
  • Country-led
  • Focus on Women and Gender
  • Integrate Nutrition and Agriculture
  • Support Sustainable Intensification of
    Smallholders
  • Increase Economic Resilience
  • Strengthen Capacity of Local Institutions
  • ME to support real-time learning
  • Impact analysis to build a strong evidence base

20
Empower women in agriculture
Gender inequality leads to inefficient allocation
of resources
  • Gender equality in agriculture leads to
  • Higher agricultural output productivity gains
  • Reduced hunger and malnutrition, esp. for next
    generation
  • Improved rural livelihoodsxamples of
    interventions
  • Strengthen land rights
  • Improve access to inputs and credit
  • Provide agricultural training and information

Picture source Farming First and FAO 2014
21
Rhoda Manganya supports 7 people on 1/2 ha.
Today she uses improved maize varieties and
fertilizers, but only because of what else she
does.
22
I started keeping pigs and goats to support my
children in schooland buying of salt, sugar,
soap, relish.
23
Raising profitability, reducing risks for
smallholders
  • Economic
  • Promote price stabilization mechanisms
  • Institutional reforms link smallholders to value
    chains
  • Smallholder-friendly financing, index insurance
  • Service provision approaches to capitalizaition
  • Strengthen land rights for smallholders
  • Environmental and Social
  • Advance smallholder-friendly climate-smart
    sustainable technologies
  • Scale up productive and cross-sectoral social
    safety nets

24
  • Operational Principles of Agricultural
    Sustainability
  • Increased land use efficiency in the production
    of agricultural crops with no increased external
    costs to the community
  • Improved efficiency of production and gains in
    net family income, even if that comes from
    off-farm work (NOTE this makes important
    assumptions about the theory of development being
    employed)
  • Improved farm assets that lead to future
    productivity gains
  • Contributions to natural resource conservation
    and improvement
  • Improved nutrition and health status of the
    family, particularly of children.
  • Source Deaton Institute (2015)

25
  • Critical Components of Sustainability Amenable to
    Your Actions
  • Capital formation at the production levelpublic
    or private
  • Attention to Governance components of projects
    and policies
  • Application of frontier/scientific technology
  • Appropriate financing mechanisms

26
www.feedthefuture.gov
27
  • Thank you
  • Looking Forward to the
  • Panel Discussion

28
Global Cereal Yield Trends, 1966-2006 5000
Grain Yield (kg ha )
1.3
Maize Yield
y 2260 62.5x r2 0.94
4000 3000
Rice Yield y 2097 53.5x r2 0.98
2.8
2000
Wheat Yield
y 1373 40.1x r2 0.97 1000
1966
1976
1986
1996
2006
Year
THESE RATES OF INCREASE ARE NOT FAST ENOUGH TO
MEET

EXPECTED DEMAND ON EXISTING FARM LAND! source
FAOSTAT
29
How Does Agriculture Affect Nutrition?
  • Food Consumed
  • Calories
  • Protein
  • Micronutrients
  • Income Invested in
  • Diverse diet, nutrient-rich foods
  • Health care and education
  • Sustainable livelihood for year-round food and
    health care access
  • Gender roles within the Food System
  • Maximizing womens control of income
  • Managing time and energy demands

30
Critical Points Related to Nutrition-Sensitive
Agriculture
  • Target production of nutrient-rich crops, ideally
    those that include nutrients lacking in diet
  • Include behavior change communication component
    specifically aimed at consumption of target crops
  • Ensure target crop availability in local markets
    and support consumption education
  • Measure outcomes, including intermediate targets
    such as consumption and market availability

31
  • Critical Components of Sustainability Amenable to
    Your Actions
  • Capital formation at the production levelpublic
    or private
  • Attention to Governance components of projects
    and policies
  • Application of frontier/scientific technology
  • Appropriate financing mechanisms

32
Briefing of the Mid-Term Review Mission
Rome, 29 April 2013 Progress and Achievements
of the Kagera River Basin Transboundary Agro-
ecosystem Management project (GCP/RAF/424/GFF)
Sally Bunning, Senior Officer (LTU) Stefan
Schlingloff, Budget Holder
33
Kagera Basin Challenges
State Degradation (soil erosion fertility
loss, less water quality flow, loss of
vegetation cover, biodiversity ecosystem
functions) Impacts poverty, food insecurity,
conflict over resources, youth out- migration
(labour shortage)
To treat these symptoms we need to address the
causes Direct Pressures reduced farm size,
fragmented, poor land use/ management practices,
differential access (herds land) ?
conflict Drivers population growth, market
driven crop/ livestock intensification (urban
demand), low knowledge base, lack of support
(policy, incentives)
4
34
3 Capacity Development Knowledge
SLM Technologies - Selection process Support by
Iwona Piechowiak
UGANDA 8 of 12 technologies Agroforestry
UPLOADING in WOCAT DB
RWANDA 6 of 12 technologies
TANZANIA 5 of 14 technologies
Grass strips in Kamonyi district
Infiltration Ditches in banana plantation
Fences to protect from animal interference on
grazing land
Trenches in Rulindo district
Water harvesting ditches
Eucalyptus and pine trees for soil cover
improvement
Bench terraces in Kayonza district
Mulching in banana/coffee plantation
Fanya Juu Terraces Improved Fallowing
Agroforestry Indigenous spp. and livestock
watering points
Banana mulching and planting pits
Check dams for gully rehabilitation
Compost use for soil fertility replenishment
Enhanced plankton production in a fish pond
Tree planting
Surface run off water harvesting
Bee - keeping
Fodder reserves for cattle
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