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Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment


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Title: Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment

Declaration of the United Nations Conference on
the Human Environment The United Nations
Conference on the Human Environment (also known
as the Stockholm Conference) was an international
conference convened under United Nations auspices
held in Stockholm Sweden, from June 5-16,1972.
It was the UN's first major conference on
international environmental issues, and marked a
turning point in the development of international
environmental politics. It is widely recognized
as the beginning of modern political and public
awareness of global environmental problems. The
meeting agreed upon a Declaration containing 26
principles concerning the environment and
development an Action Plan with 109
recommendations, and a Resolution.
  • Two issue were addresses
  • The use of CFCs (haloalkanes), which seemed to be
    responsible for the depletion of the ozone layer.
  • 2. Global warming was mentioned.
  • Apart from increasing awareness of environmental
    issues among public and governments (for example,
    many governments subsequently created
  • Ministries for the Environment and/or national
    agencies for environmental monitoring and
  • the Stockholm Conference laid framework for
    future environmental cooperation led to the
    creation of global and regional environmental
    monitoring networks and the creation of the
    United Nations Environment Programme.

United Nations Environment
Programme The UN Environment Programme (or
UNEP) coordinates United Nations environmental
activities, assisting developing countries in
implementing environmentally sound policies and
encourages sustainable development through sound
environmental practices. It was founded as a
result of the United Nations Conference on the
Human Environment in June 1972 and is
headquartered in Nairobi, Kenya. UNEP also has
six regional offices and various country
offices. UNEP is the designated authority of the
United Nations system in environmental issues at
the global and regional level.
UNEP activities cover a wide range of issues
regarding the atmosphere, marine and terrestrial
ecosystems. Earth's atmosphere is a layer of
gases surrounding the planet Earth that is
retained by the Earth's gravity. It contains
roughly (by molar content/volume) 78.08
nitrogen, 20.95 oxygen, 0.93 argon, 0.038
carbon dioxide, trace amounts of other gases, and
a variable amount (average around 1) of water
vapor. This mixture of gases is commonly known as
air. The atmosphere protects life on Earth by
absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation and
reducing international environmental conventions,
promoting environmental science temperature
extremes between day and night.
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  • Atmospheric gases scatter blue light more than
    other wavelengths, giving the Earth a blue halo
    when seen from space.
  • Nitrogen78.0842
  • Oxygen20.9463
  • Argon0.93422
  • Carbon dioxide0.0384
  • Water vaporabout 1
  • Other0.002
  • Layer of Atmosphere
  • Troposphere
  • Stratosphere
  • Mesosphere
  • Thermosphere
  • Exosphere

  • The Global Environmental Problem / Environmental
    Disaster/ Accident
  • Global Warming And Green House Effect
  • Ozone Layer Depletion
  • Acid Rain
  • Climate Change
  • Environmental Pollution
  • Nuclear Disaster ( Hiroshima and Nagashaki)
  • Bhopal Gas Tragedy 1984
  • Chernobyl Disaster

Chernobyl disaster The Chernobyl disaster was a
nuclear reactor accident in the Chernobyl Nuclear
Power Plant in the Soviet Union. It was the
worst nuclear power plant accident in history and
the only instance so far of level 7 on the
International Nuclear Event Scale, resulting in
a severe release of radioactivity into the
environment following a massive power excursion
which destroyed the reactor. Thirty people died
in the explosion, but most deaths from the
accident were attributed to fallout On 26 April
1986 at 012344 a.m. (UTC3) reactor number four
at the Chernobyl plant, near Pripyat in the
Ukrainian SSR, exploded. Further explosions and
the resulting fire sent a plume of highly
radioactive fallout into the atmosphere and over
an extensive geographical area. Nearly thirty
to forty times more fallout was released than had
been by the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and
The plume drifted over extensive parts of the
western Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, Western
Europe, Northern Europe, and eastern North
America. Large areas in Ukraine, Belarus, and
Russia were badly contaminated, resulting in the
evacuation and resettlement of over 336,000
people. According to official post-Soviet
data,2 about 60 of the radioactive fallout
landed in Belarus. The 2005 report prepared by
the Chernobyl Forum, led by the International
Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and World Health
Organization (WHO), attributed 56 direct deaths
(47 accident workers, and nine children with
thyroid cancer), and estimated that there may be
4,000 extra cancer cases among the approximately
600,000 most highly exposed and 5,000 among the 6
million living nearby.
Chernobyl after the disaster. Reactor 4 (image
center). Turbine building (image lower left).
Reactor 3 (center right)
The Bhopal disaster The Bhopal disaster was an
industrial disaster that occurred in the city of
Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India, resulting in the
immediate deaths of more than 3,000 people,
according to the Indian Supreme Court. A more
probable figure is that 8,000 died within two
weeks, and it is estimated that the same number
have since died from gas related diseases.
However, testimonies from doctors who provided
medical assistance during the tragedy claim over
15,000 were dead in the first month and
approximately 20,000 in total. The incident
took place in the early hours of the morning of
December 3, 1984, in the heart of the city of
Bhopal in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. A
Union Carbide subsidiary pesticide plant released
40 tonnes of methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas, killing
approximately 3,800 people instantly. The Bhopal
disaster is frequently cited as the world's worst
industrial disaster
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Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki The
Fat Man mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear
explosion over Nagasaki rises 18 km (11 mi,
60,000 ft) into the air from the hypocenter. The
atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were
nuclear attacks at the end of World War II
against the Empire of Japan by the United States
at the order of U.S. President Harry S. Truman on
August 6 and 9, 1945. After six months of
intense firebombing of 67 other Japanese cities,
the nuclear weapon "Little Boy" was dropped on
the city of Hiroshima on Monday, August 6, 1945,
followed on August 9 by the detonation of the
"Fat Man" nuclear bomb over Nagasaki.
The bombs killed as many as 140,000 people in
Hiroshima and 80,000 in Nagasaki by the end of
1945, roughly half on the days of the
bombings. Since then, thousands more have died
from injuries or illness attributed to exposure
to radiation released by the bombs. In both
cities, the overwhelming majority of the dead
were civilians. Six days after the detonation
over Nagasaki, on August 15, Japan announced its
surrender to the Allied Powers, signing the
Instrument of Surrender on September 2,
officially ending the Pacific War and therefore
World War II. (Germany had signed its
Instrument of Surrender on May 7, ending the war
in Europe.) The bombings led, in part, to
post-war Japan adopting Three Non-Nuclear
Principles, forbidding that nation from nuclear
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Causes of Global Warming
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Causes of Global Warming
  • Defination of Environment
  • The term environment means which surrounding
    around us and is considered as composite term
    for the condition in which organism live.
  • Environment is the sum total of all social,
    economical, biological, physical ad chemical
    factor which constitute the surrounding of the
    man who is both the creator and moulder of the
  • As we look around at the area in which we live,
    we see that our surroundings were originally a
    natural landscape such as a
  • Forest
  • a river
  • a mountain
  • a desert,
  • or a combination of these elements.

  • Most of us live in landscapes that have been
    heavily modified by human beings, in villages,
    towns or cities.
  • But even those of us who live in cities get our
    food supply from Surrounding villages and these
    in turn are dependent on natural landscapes such
  • Forests
  • Grasslands
  • rivers, seashores,
  • for resources such as water for agriculture
  • fuel wood, fodder, and fish.
  • Thus our daily lives are linked with our
    surroundings and inevitably affects them.
  • We use water to drink and for other day-to-day
  • We breathe air
  • we use resources which food is made and we
    depend on the community of living plants and
    animals which form a web of life, of which we
    are also a part.

Everything around us forms our environment and
our lives depend on keeping its vital systems as
intact as possible. Our dependence on nature is
so great that we cannot continue to live without
protecting the earths environmental
resources. Thus most traditions refer to our
environment as Mother Nature and most
traditional societies have learned that
respecting nature is vital for their livelihoods.
This has led to many cultural practices that
helped traditional societies protect and preserve
their natural resources. Respect for nature and
all living creatures is not new to India
All our traditions are based on these
values. Emperor Ashokas edict proclaimed that
all forms of life are important for our well
being in Fourth Century BC. Over the past 200
years however, modern societies began to believe
that easy answers to the question of producing
more resources could be provided by means of
technological innovations. For example, though
growing more food by using fertilizers and
pesticides, developing better strains of domestic
animals and crops, irrigating farmland through
mega dams and developing industry, led to rapid
economic growth, the ill effects of this type of
development, led to environmental degradation.
The industrial development and intensive
agriculture that provides the goods for our
increasingly consumer oriented society uses up
large amounts of natural resources such as water,
minerals, petroleum products, wood, etc.
Nonrenewable resources, such as minerals and oil
are those which will be exhausted in the future
if we continue to extract these without a thought
for subsequent generations. Renewable
resources, such as timber and water, are those
which can be used but can be regenerated by
natural processes such as re-growth or rainfall.
But these too will be depleted if we continue to
use them faster than nature can re-place them.
For example, if the removal of timber and
firewood from a forest is faster than the re
growth and regeneration of trees, it can-not
replenish the supply. And loss of forest cover
not only depletes the forest of its resources,
such as timber and other non-wood products, but
affect our water resources because an intact
natural forest acts like a sponge which holds
water and releases it slowly.
Deforestation leads to floods in the monsoon and
dry rivers once the rains are over. Understanding
and making ourselves more aware of our
environmental assets and problems is not enough.
We, each one of us, must become increasingly
concerned about our envi- ronment and change the
way in which we use every resource.
Unsustainable utilization can result from
overuse of resources, because of population
increase, and because many of us are using more
resources than we really need. Most of us
indulge in wasteful behavior patterns without
ever thinking about their environmental impacts.
  • Thus, for all our actions to be environmentally
    positive we need to look from
  • a new perspective at how we use resources.
  • Importance of Environment
  • Environment is not a single subject.
  • It is an integration of several subjects that
    include both Science and Social Studies.
  • To understand all the different aspects of our
    environment we need to understand
  • - biology, chemistry
  • physics, geography,
  • resource management, economics
  • and population issues.
  • Thus the scope of envi-ronmental studies is
    extremely wide and covers some aspects of nearly
    every major discipline.

We live in a world in which natural resources are
limited. Water, air, soil, minerals, oil, the
products we get from forests, grasslands, oceans
and from agriculture and livestock, are all a
part of our life support systems. Without them,
life itself would be impossible. As we keep
increasing in numbers and the quantity of
resources each of us uses also increases, the
earths re- source base must inevitably shrink.
The earth cannot be expected to sustain this
expanding level of utilization of resources. We
waste or pollute large amounts of natures clean
water we create more and more material like
plastic that we dis-card after a single use.
Increasing amounts of waste cannot be managed
by natural processes. These accumulate in our
environment, leading to a variety of diseases and
other adverse environmental impacts now seriously
affecting all our lives.
Air pollution leads to respiratory diseases,
water pollution to gastro-intestinal diseases,
and many pollutants are known to cause cancer.
Improving this situation will only happen if
each of us begins to take actions in our daily
lives that will help preserve our environmental
resources. We cannot expect Governments alone
to manage the safeguarding of the environment,
nor can we expect other people to prevent
environmental damage. We need to do it
ourselves. It is a responsibility that each of
us must take on as
Aesthetic/Recreational value of nature The
aesthetic and recreational values that nature
possesses enlivens our existence on earth. This
is created by developing National Parks and
Wildlife Sanctuaries in relatively undisturbed
areas. The beauty of nature encompasses every
aspect of the living and non-living part of our
earth. One can appreciate the magnificence of a
mountain, the power of the sea, the beauty of a
forest, and the vast expanse of the desert.
NEED FOR PUBLIC AWARENESS As the earths natural
resources are dwindling and our environment is
being increasingly degraded by human activities,
it is evident that something needs to be
done. Responsibility of Government We often
feel that managing all this is something that the
government should do. But if we go on
endangering our environment, there is no way in
which the Government can perform all these
clean-up functions.
  • It is the prevention of environment degradation
    in which we must all take part that must become a
    part of all our lives.
  • Just as for any disease, prevention is better
    than cure.
  • To prevent ill-effects on our environment by our
    actions, is economically more viable than
    cleaning up the environment once it is damaged.
  • Individually we can play a major role in
    environment management.
  • This can only be made possible through mass
    public awareness.
  • Mass media such as newspa- pers, radio,
    television, strongly influence public opinion.
  • However, someone has to bring this about. If each
    of us feels strongly about the environment, the

  • Practice and promote issues such as
  • -saving paper, saving water
  • reducing use of plastics
  • practicing the 3Rs principle of reduce, reuse,
  • and proper waste disposal.
  • Join local movements that support activities
    such as
  • saving trees in your area
  • go on nature treks,
  • recycle waste
  • buy environmentally friendly products.
  • Practice and promote good civic sense
  • such as no spitting or tobacco chewing
  • no throwing garbage on the road
  • no smoking in public places
  • No defecating in public places.

Institutions in Environment There have been
several Government and Non- government
organizations that have led to environmental
protection in our country. They have led to a
growing interest in environmental protection and
conservation of nature and natural resources.
The traditional conservation practices that
were part of ancient Indias culture have however
gradually disappeared Among the large number of
institutions that deal with environmental
protection and conservation, a few well-known
organizations include government organisations
such as the BSI and ZSI, and NGOs such as BNHS,
WWF-I, etc.
Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS) Mumbai
the BNHS began as a small society of six members
in 1883. The influence on wildlife policy
building, research, popular publications and
peoples action have been unique features of the
multifaceted society. Undoubtedly its major
contribution has been in the field of wildlife
research. It is Indias oldest conservation
research based organization.
World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF-I), New Delhi
The WWF-I was initiated in 1969 in Mumbai
after which the headquarters were shifted to
Delhi with several branch offices all over India.
The early years focused attention on wildlife
education and awareness. It runs several
programs including the Nature Clubs of India
program for school children and works as a think
tank and lobby force for environment and
development issues.
Center for Science and Environment (CSE),New
Delhi Activities of this Center include
organizing campaigns, holding workshops and
conferences, and producing environment related
publications. It published a major document on
the State of Indias Environment, the first of
its kind to be produced as a Citizens Report on
the Environment. The CSE also publishes a
popular magazine, Down to Earth, which is a
Science and Environment fortnightly. It is
involved in the publication of material in the
form of books, posters, video films and also
conducts workshops and seminars on biodiversity
related issues.
CPR Environmental Education Centre, Madras The
CPR EEC was set up in 1988. It con-ducts a
variety of programs to spread environmental
awareness and creates an interest in conservation
among the general public. It focussed attention
on NGOs, teachers, women, youth and children to
generally promote conservation of nature and
natural resources. Centre for Environment
Education (CEE), Ahmedabad The Centre for
Environment Education, Ahmedabad was initiated in
1989. It has a wide range of programs on the
environment and produces a variety of educational
material. CEEs Training in Environment
Education TEEprogram has trained many
environment educators.
Uttarkhand Seva Nidhi (UKSN), Almora The
Organization is a Nodal Agency which supports
NGOs in need of funds for their environment
related activities. Its major program is
organizing and training school teachers to use
its locale specific Environment Education
Workbook Pro -gram. The main targets are linked
with sustain- able resource use at the village
level through training school children. Its
environment education program covers about 500
schools. Kalpavriksh, Pune This NGO,
initially Delhi based, is now working from Pune
and is active in several other parts of India.
Kalpavriksh works on a variety of fronts
education and awareness investigation and
research direct action and lobbying and
litigation with regard to environment and
development issues. I
Wildlife Institute of India (WII),
Dehradun This Institution was established in
1982, as a major training establishment for
Forest Officials and Research in Wildlife
Management. Its most significant publication has
been Planning A Wildlife Protected Area Network
for India (Rodgers and Panwar, 1988). The
organization has over the years added an enormous
amount of information on Indias biological
wealth Botanical Survey of India (BSI) The
Botanical Survey of India (BSI) was established
in 1890 at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Calcutta.
However it closed down for several years after
1939 and was reopened in 1954. Zoological
Survey of India (ZSI) The ZSI was established
in1916. Its mandate was to do a systematic survey
of fauna in India. It has over the years
collected type specimens on the bases of which
our animal life has been studied over the years.
Its origins were collections based at the
Indian Museum at Calcutta, which was established
in 1875.
People in Environment There are several
internationally known environmental thinkers.
Among those who have made landmarks, the names
that are usually mentioned are Charles Darwin,
Ralph Emerson, Henry Thoreau, John Muir, Aldo
Leopald, Rachel Carson and EO Wilson. Each of
these thinkers looked at the environment from a
completely different perspective. Charles
Darwin wrote the Origin of Species, which
brought to light the close relationship between
habitats and species. It brought about a new
thinking of mans relationship with other species
that was based on evolution. Alfred Wallace
came to the same conclusions during his work.
Ralph Emerson spoke of the dangers of commerce to
our environment way back in the 1840s. Henry
Thoreau in the 1860s wrote that the wilder ness
should be preserved after he lived in the wild
for a year. He felt that most people did not
care for nature and would sell it off for a small
sum of money. John Muir is remembered as having
saved the great ancient sequoia trees in
Californiaa forests. In the 1890s he formed
the Sierra club, which is a major conservation
NGO in the USA. Aldo Leopald was a forest
official in the US in the 1920s. He designed the
early policies on wilderness conservation and
wildlife management.
In the 1960s Rachel Carson published several
articles that caused immediate worldwide concern
on the effects of pesticides on nature and
mankind. She wrote a well known book called
Silent Spring which even led to a change in
Government policy and public awareness. EO
Wilson is an entomologist who envisioned that
biological diversity was a key to human survival
on earth. He wrote Di-versity of Life in
1993, which was awarded a prize for the best book
published on environmental issues. His writings
brought home to the world the risks to mankind
due to man made disturbances in natural
ecosystems that are leading to the rapid
extinction of species at the global level.
There have been a number of individuals who have
been instrumental in shaping the environmental
history in our country. Some of the wellknown
names in the last century include
environmentalists, scientists, administrators,
legal experts, educationists and journalists.
Salim Alis name is synonymous with ornithology
in India and with the Bombay Natural History
Society (BNHS). He also wrote several great
books including the famous Book of Indian
Birds. His autobiography, Fall of a Sparrow
should be read by every nature enthusiast. He
was our countrys leading conservation scientist
and influenced environmental policies in our
country for over 50 years.
Indira Gandhi as PM has played a highly
significant role in the preservation of Indias
wildlife. It was during her period as PM, that
the network of PAs grew from 65 to 298! The
Wildlife Protection Act was formulated during the
period when she was PM and the Indian Board for
Wildlife was extremely active as she personally
chaired all its meetings. S P Godrej was one of
Indias greatest support-ers of wildlife
conservation and nature awareness programs. M S
Swaminathan is one of Indias foremost
agricultural scientists and has also been
concerned with various aspects of biodiversity
conservation both of cultivars and wild
biodiversity. Madhav Gadgil is a well known
ecologist in India..
M C Mehta is undoubtedly Indias most famous
environmental lawyer. His most famous and long
drawn battles supported by the Supreme Court
include protecting the Taj Mahal, cleaning up
the Ganges River banning intensive shrimp
farming on the coast, initiating Government to
implement environmental education in schools and
colleges, and a variety of other conservation
issues. Anil Agarwal was a journalist who wrote
the first report on the State of Indias
Environment in 1982. He founded the Center for
Science and Environment which is an active NGO
that supports various environ-mental issues.
Medha Patkar is known as one of Indias
champions who has supported the cause of
downtrodden tribal people whose environment is
being affected by the dams on the Narmada river.
Sunderlal Bahugnas Chipko Movement has become
an internationally well-known example of a highly
successful conservation action program through
the efforts of local people for guarding their
forest resources. His fight to prevent the
construction of the Tehri Dam in a fragile
earthquake prone setting is a battle that he
continues to wage.
Environmental studies is the systematic study of
human interaction with their environment. It is
a broad field of study that includes the natural
environment, built environments, social
environments, organizational environments, and
the sets of relationships between
them. Environmental studies is distinct from
ecology and environmental science. Current
environmental problems have evolved into a
complex set of interdisciplinary issues involving
ecological, political, economic, social, as well
as physical and biological considerations.
Modern environmental studies must include the
study of the urban environment as well as the
natural environment.
EE Objectives Participation - to provide
individuals, groups and societies with
opportunities to be actively involved in
exercising their skills of environmental
citizenship and be actively involved at all
levels in working towards sustainable
development. Knowledge - to help individuals,
groups and societies gain a variety of
experiences in, and a basic understanding of, the
knowledge and action competencies required for
sustainable development Values - to help
individuals, groups and societies acquire
feelings of concern for issues of sustainability
as well as a set of values upon which they can
make judgments about appropriate ways of acting
individually and with others to promote
sustainable development
Skills - to help individuals, groups and
societies acquire the action competence or skills
of environmental citizenship - in order to be
able to identify and anticipate environmental
problems and work with others to resolve,
minimize and prevent them Awareness - to create
an overall understanding of the impacts and
effects of behaviors and lifestyles - on both the
local and global environments, and on the
short-term and long-term.
natural resources in the country are in grave
danger of irreparable damage. A society cannot
survive if its natural resources are rendered
unfit for use by its people. The only hope of
salvaging this grave situation is by making the
young aware that they need to proactively begin
to protect the environment they will
inherit. Science and Technology can help in a
limited way but cannot deliver it. The moral
and ethical education for changing peoples
attitude To protect children living in
polluted regions, environmental education
represents a relevant means of prevention
It is need for the hour to propose the
environmental education with the essential
elements of moral philosophy. For conceptual
change Essential components Of The
environmental education Alerting the public to
the need to achieve global sustainable
development and the likely consequences of
failing to do so. Focusing the educational
curricula for global sustainable development by
incorporating the know how and skills and also
the moral imperatives.
  • Curriculum development
  • Reasons for including moral education in
    engineering Curricula
  • As future planners
  • designers,
  • builders and decision makers
  • students shoulder special responsibility in
    protecting the integrity of nature and the
    natural environment.

Albert Einsteins statement Science without
philosophy is just mechanics.
Environmental Law Supreme Court of India The
Supreme Court of India has become one of the most
progressive courts in the world when it comes to
environmental protection. Closing down
companies that continue to pollute the
environment as well as making it mandatory for TV
and radio stations to run environmental
programme. MC Metta is at the forefront of the
development of public interest environmental law
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  • M C Mehta is undoubtedly Indias most famous
    environmental lawyer.
  • His most famous and long drawn battles supported
    by the Supreme Court include protecting the Taj
  • cleaning up the Ganges River
  • banning intensive shrimp farming on the coast,
  • initiating Government to implement environmental
    education in schools and colleges, and a variety
    of other conservation issues.

Mahesh Chandra Mehta
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  • Medha Patkar is known as one of Indias champions
    who has supported the
  • cause of downtrodden tribal people whose
    environment is being affected by the dams on the
    Narmada river.

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  • Sunderlal Bahuguna (born 9 January 1927) is a
    noted environmentalist,
  • Chipko movement leader and a follower of Mahatma
  • philosophy of Non-violence and Satyagraha.
  • For years he has been fighting for the
    preservation of forests in the
  • Himalayas, first as a member of the Chipko
    movement in 1970s, and
  • later spearheaded the Anti-Tehri Dam movement
    starting 1980s, to
  • early 20043. He was one of the early
    environmentalists of India and
  • later he and people associated with the Chipko
    movement later started
  • taking up environmental issues, like against
    large dams, mining and
  • deforestation, across the country.
  • He was awarded the Padma Vibhushan, India's
    second highest civilian
  • honour, on January 26, 20092 and padma award on
    April 14, 2009.

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  • Sunita Narain is an Indian environmentalist and
    political activist as well as a major proponent
    of the Green concept of sustainable development.
    Narain has been with the India-based Centre for
    Science and Environment since 1982. She is
    currently the director of the Centre and the
    director of the Society for Environmental
    Communications and publisher of the fortnightly
    magazine, Down To Earth.

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  • Rajendra Kumar Pachauri (born August 20, 1940)
    has served as the chair of the Intergovernmental
    Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) since 2002. He is
    also been director general of TERI, a research
    and policy organization in India, and chancellor
    of TERI University. He has also been the chairman
    of the governing council of the National Agro
    Foundation (NAF), as well as the chairman of the
    board of Columbia University's International
    Research Institute for Climate and Society.
    Pachauri has been outspoken about climate change.
    He is now serving as the head of Yale's Climate
    and Energy Institute (YCEI).
  • At the Nobel Peace Prize ceremony when the award
    was shared between Al Gore and the IPCC on
    December 10, 2007, Pachauri represented the

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