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Political Participation

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Title: Political Participation


1
Chapter 8
Political Participation and Voting
2
Forms of Political Participation
3
Forms of Political Participation
4
Forms of Political Participation
  • Traditional political participation various
    activities designed to influence government.
  • Voting, protest, campaign contributions, contact
    elected officials (many more)
  • Online participation interactive political
    engagement facilitated by vast opportunities to
    connect to causes, people, events, and
    information online.

5
Traditional Political Participation
6
Forms of Political Participation
  • Online participation linkage to offline activity
  • Information
  • Accidental mobilization
  • Format advantages
  • Images, interaction, and unlimited space
  • Diversity of sources and voices
  • Lowers entry barriers
  • Citizen journalism blogs, video, social media

7
Online Political Participation
8
Political Participation
9
Forms of Political Participation
  • Examples scale, potential online participation
  • Obama 2008 online campaign model
  • 3 million small contributions online
    (unprecedented)
  • 1st ever on FB, Twitter, Contribute Now button
  • Events and activities organized online
  • SOPA and PIPA protests
  • Largest websites (Wiki, FB, Google, et al) oppose
  • Website blackouts or limited services mobilized
    millions to call Congress in opposition it
    worked.
  • Digital divide (online inequalities) remain,
    though

10
Voting
11
Voting
  • Suffrage extended to different groups at
    different points in American history. Initially
    only wealthy, white, male, gt21 years old
  • Wealth limitation eliminated early 1800s
  • 15th Amendment enfranchises black men (1870)
  • 19th Amendment enfranchises women (1920)
  • 24th Amendment ends poll taxes (1964)
  • 26th Amendment lowers age to 18 (1971)

12
Voting
  • Right to vote all American citizens gt18 yrs.
    old
  • 10 states (as of 2012) lifetime ban convicted
    felons
  • Turnout relatively low today
  • Other democracies and points in American history
  • 60 percent national average presidential
    elections
  • 33 percent national average off-year national
    races
  • Significant state and regional differences

13
Voter Registration Rates by Social Group, 2008
14
Voting
15
Voting
  • Voter turnout in democratic nations 19452008

16
Voting
  • Voter turnout by race and ethnicity 19762008

17
Voting
  • Voter turnout by educational attainment 19762008

18
Voting
  • Voter turnout by age cohort 19762008

19
Voting
  • Voter turnout by employment status 19762008

20
Who Made Up the Electorate in 2012?
CHAPTER 8
21
Who Made Up the Electorate in 2012?
SOURCE Data are based on exit polls available
at http//www.elections.nytimes.com/2012/results/p
resident/exit-polls (accessed 11/12/12).
22
Who Made Up the Electorate in 2012?
ANNUAL INCOME
PARTY
EDUCATION
SOURCE Data are based on exit polls available
at http//www.elections.nytimes.com/2012/results/p
resident/exit-polls (accessed 11/12/12).
23
Voting
  • Why do people vote?
  • Individual preferences and traits
  • Partisanship, ideology, religion, sex, income,
    etc.
  • Political environment
  • Campaigns, issues, mobilization, party
    competition
  • State policies
  • Registration deadlines and methods,
    identification, ballot types (paper, mail only,
    etc.)

24
Voting
  • Political mobilization
  • Process by which large numbers of people are
    organized for a political activity
  • Online and/or in-person mobilization activities
    include ads, calls, e-mails, campaign events,
    fundraising, and others.
  • Not all people are mobilized equally.
  • Turnout disparities reflect mobilization
    differences.
  • Other factors, but mobilization an important one

25
Online Political Participation
26
Voting
  • Individual traits and preferences
  • Demographic indicators
  • Education, income, sex, race/ethnicity, age
  • Education highest impact because influences so
    many other factors correlated with voter turnout
    information, efficacy, and, of course, income
  • Preferences and attitudes
  • Party attachment, ideology, issue positions
  • Makes sense people with well-formed opinions
    vote

27
Voting
  • Political environment
  • Context can attract voters to the polls
  • Candidates, pressing issues
  • Mobilization strategies and investment
  • Party competition (or lack thereof)
  • Consistently competitive or noncompetitive
  • Voters, candidates, parties and contributors ALL
    take party competition into account.

28
Voting
  • State policies
  • All states implement voting and election laws
    differently. Some make it easier than others.
  • Registration deadlines prior to election day
  • Length of residency at current address
  • Identification requirements
  • Early and absentee voting rules
  • Variable vote locations
  • Ballot method mail only, paper ballot, kiosk,
    etc.

29
American Voters
  • Why is turnout different across groups?
  • Turnout
  • state rules political context individual
    traits
  • Variation in all three variables explains voter
    turnout trends.

30
American Voters
  • Latinos largest minority in United States (16
    percent as of 2010)
  • Established political ties with both parties
  • Cuban Americans with GOP Puerto Rican and
    Mexican American with Democrats
  • Population geographic concentrations
  • Parties competitive FL, NV, NM, CO
  • Parties noncompetitive states TX, CA, NY, CT
  • Low turnout factors income, education, state
    laws, party competition, low mobilization

31
American Voters
  • African Americans (13 percent of U.S. as of
    2010)
  • Strong ties to Democratic Party since 1960s
  • Voting rights, desegregation, civil rights agenda
  • Turnout in context
  • Laws kept black turnout low for over a century.
  • Voting Rights Act (1965), turnout rates soar.
  • Today, turnout more than Latinos, less than
    whites
  • Low turnout factors income, education, state
    laws, low mobilization by both parties

32
American Voters
  • Asian Americans (5 percent of U.S. as of 2010)
  • Party ties not strong, lean Democrat
  • Geographic concentration
  • Hawaii, California, Texas, New York, New Jersey
  • Turnout in context
  • Lowest turnout rate of groups we can estimate
  • Factors in-group diversity and geographic
    diffusion make group cohesiveness difficult, low
    mobilization, noncompetitive states

33
Asian Americans
34
Gender and Participation
35
Gender and Participation
  • Percent Women in Elected Office

36
American Voters
  • Gender and turnout differences
  • Since 1984, womens turnout higher than men
  • Men vote GOP at a higher rate.
  • Women vote Democrat at a higher rate.
  • Policy priorities and issue positions often
    differ.
  • Parties make direct mobilization appeals to women
    voters indirect to men.
  • Ads, messaging, agenda issues

37
Age and Participation
38
American Voters
  • Age and turnout differences
  • Long-standing trend older voters highest turnout
    rate youngest voters, lowest
  • People become voters over their lifetime.
  • Nonvoters at 20, probably voting by 65
  • Partisanship and issue positions stronger with
    age
  • Familiarity with registration process differs
  • Low turnout factors information, experience,
    residential mobility, efficacy, income

39
American Voters
  • Religiosity and Turnout Differences
  • People who attend religious services turn out at
    higher rates than those who do not.
  • Makes sense people participating in one
    community activity, likely take part in another.
  • Religious institutions mobilization around
    issues and ideology not only to benefit of GOP.
  • Many candidates make direct overtures to voters
    targeting their religious identity.

40
Public Opinion Poll
  • Several countries (that are democracies) have
    compulsory voting policies that require all
    citizens to vote, and fine those who do not.
    Should the United States adopt such a policy to
    increase voter participation in American
    elections?
  • Yes
  • No

41
Public Opinion Poll
  • Which form of (individual) political
    participation do you think has the most influence
    on elected officials and candidates?
  • Voting
  • Campaign contributions
  • Contacting them to express concerns (e-mail,
    calls, visits to their offices, etc.)
  • Some other activity

42
Public Opinion Poll
  • Do you think laws, policies, and the way
    government operates in general would be different
    if everyone eligible to vote actually did?
  • Yes
  • No

43
Public Opinion Poll
  • State rules governing the voting process
    deadlines, early/absentee options, ballot method
    vary widely. Should all states have the same
    rules on these aspects to voting and elections?
  • Yes
  • No

44
Public Opinion Poll
  • Do you think more people would vote if there
    were more convenient options, like weekend or
    online (secured website) voting?
  • Yes
  • No

45
Chapter 8 Political Participation and Voting
  • Quizzes
  • Flashcards
  • Outlines
  • Exercises
  • wwnorton.com/we-the-people

46
  • Following this slide, you will find additional
    images, figures, and tables from the textbook.

47
Digital Media and the New Political Engagement
48
Voting Rights
49
Political Environment
50
Political Environment
51
Age and Participation
52
Age and Participation
53
Age and Participation
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