Public Opinion, Political Participation, - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Public Opinion, Political Participation, PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 67d347-MTc3Y



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Public Opinion, Political Participation,

Description:

Public Opinion, Political Participation, & Voting CH. 8 Voting on basis of issues Important but not as central as partisanship and candidate appeal Why? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:44
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 43
Provided by: RonaldT152
Learn more at: http://www.strongnet.org
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Public Opinion, Political Participation,


1
Public Opinion, Political Participation,
Voting CH. 8
2
Public Opinion
  • Describes what the population thinks about
    politics and government

3
Why is it important
  • 1. Citizen action-opinion drives voting,
    contributing to campaigns, writing letters to
    senators and other activism
  • 2. Determines campaign strategies, how members
    of Congress vote, influences Supreme
    Court(delayed effect)
  • 3. Sheds light on why policy shifts over the
    course of time

4
  • The Population The relevant group of people for
    the question
  • Consensus occurs when a substantial percentage
    of a sample agree on an issue
  • Polarization occurs when a large portion of
    opposing sides feels intensely about an issue

5
Public Opinion
  • Taking the pulse of the people
  • Intensity
  • Latency
  • Salience

6
Public Opinion
  • Definition distribution of individual
    preferences or evaluations of a given issue,
    candidate or institution.
  • Distribution-the proportion of the population
    that holds one opinion or viewpoint as compared
    to those with opposing opinions or those with no
    opinion at all

7
Taking the Pulse of the People
  • Keys
  • 1. proper sampling-a random choice of an
    appropriate set of people
  • 2. art of asking questions-wording of question,
    questions are pretested, questioner trainedno
    voice intonations
  • 3. Thorough analysis and reporting of results,
    accuracy, validated sample size, margin of error

8
  • Intensity-how strongly people feel about a
    candidate, issue or policy
  • Latency-political opinions that exist merely as
    potential(havent crystallized)more concerned
    with personal issues than national issues
  • Salience-extent to which people feel issues are
    relevant to them

9
Agents of Political Socialization
  • Family
  • Schools
  • Mass Media
  • Religion
  • Ethnic and racial attitudes

10
How we acquire political opinions
  • Political Socialization-process by which we
    develop our political attitudes, values and
    beliefs
  • Nationalisma consciousness of the nation-state
    and of belonging to that entity is a common
    element of political socialization
  • Importance of group affiliation vs. individual

11
Sources of Political Socialization
  • Family (parent-child similarity) disagreements
    between youths parents and friends
  • Schools higher education and political
    correctness

12
Sources continued
  • Mass Media
  • wide exposure to newspapers, Internet, movies,
    TV
  • Why is media influential?
  • media provides link between individuals and
    values/behavior of others

13
Public Opinion and Public Policy
  • Public opinion change can lead to policy
    change(Vietnam, Gulf War)
  • Elected officials seek to follow public policy
    opinion
  • Candidates use polls to determine where and how
    to campaign
  • Political polls are no substitute for elections

14
Awareness and Interest
  • Varying levels of interest in politics
  • Attentive public-25 of American publictend to
    be better educated.
  • Nonvoters-35 political do-nothings
  • Part-time citizens
  • Only 60 of Americans can name one U.S. Senator

15
Participation from opinion to action
  • Influence government in what ways?
  • 1 way--Voting, joining interest groups, writing
    letters, calls, etc.
  • Totalitarian society-participation is very
    limited
  • Even in a democracy, people may fight rather than
    accept election(U.S. Civil War)
  • Routine participation-National Anthem, Pledge of
    Allegiance, jury duty

16
Politics is a private matter in America
  • Less than one person in four attempts to
    influence another persons vote
  • Only one in 20 make a contribution to a
    candidate only one in six designates taxes to
    presidential fund

17
Registration
  • Voter registration discourages voting
  • Australian ballot secret response to multiple
    voting
  • Registration laws vary by state
  • Only North Dakota does not require registration
  • Most important provision of voter registration is
    the closing date-No state can stop registration
    more than 30 days before an election

18
Motor Voter
  • 1. Allows people to register when applying for a
    renewal of drivers license
  • 2. States can also use schools/libraries/city/coun
    ty offices as registration sites
  • 3. states can permit mail registration
  • 4. Most registered claim to be independent which
    benefits neither party
  • 5. Does not appear to have increased turnout

19
Turnout
  • Turnout is highest in presidential election
  • Turnout is higher in general elections than in
    primary elections and higher in primary elections
    than in special elections

20
Turnout continued
  • Turnout is higher in presidential general
    elections than in midterm general elections and
    higher presidential primary elections than in
    midterm primary elections
  • Turnout is higher in elections in which
    candidates for federal office are on the ballot
    than in state elections in years when there are
    no federal contests

21
Turnout continued
  • Local or municipal elections have lower turnout
    than state elections and municipal primaries have
    even lower rates of participation
  • In 1960, turnout peaked at almost 65 percent of
    persons over 21 years of age, has since declined
    to 36 in 1998 and 51 in 2000

22
Why is turnout so low?
  • 1. Voter registration appears to be the major
    block to voting
  • 2. Too young election did not seem important
    disinterested in candidates inconvenient
  • 3. American parties are too weak-nonvoter had no
    contact with party

23
Who Votes?
  • 1. Education level-as education level increases,
    so does voting
  • 2. Race and ethnic background-blacks vote at
    lower rates than whites, women voters exceed that
    of men
  • 3. Income and age-those with higher family
    income, higher-status careers, oldermore likely
    to vote
  • 18-24 year olds least likely to vote/also over 70

24
How serious is nonvoting?
  • If people are too lazy to vote, maybe they
    shouldnt
  • Some say a serious issue-class bias
  • The poor are not represented
  • But nonvoters are not more egalitarian or in
    favor of government ownership
  • Lower voter turnout could be seen as approval

25
Nonvoting continued
  • If large nonvoting population were to turnout to
    vote it could shift balance of power
  • Need for electoral reform after 2000 election,
    ensure fair voting(machines) accuracy, concerns
    about the media projecting winners before the
    polls close.

26
Nonvoters
  • Millions of Americans do not vote when elections
    are held.
  • Only 50.1 percent of eligible voters cast ballots
    in the 2000 presidential election, and only 46.3
    percent of the electorate voted for the members
    of the House of Representatives.
  • Voter turnout significantly decreases in off-year
    elections, congressional elections held in years
    when there is no presidential election.

27
Why People Do Not Vote
  • Some people cannot vote for various reasons, such
    as physical or mental illness, unexpected travel,
    and resident alien citizenship status.
  • However, most nonvoters do not vote because
  • voting is in some way inconvenient,
  • they do not believe that their vote will make a
    difference, or
  • they distrust politics and political candidates.

28
Voters and Voting Behavior
  • Voting is studied more than any other form of
    political participation in the United States. We
    learn about voting behavior from
  • The results of electionsinformation can be
    gleaned by studying the results of confidential
    voting compared to the population make-up of a
    particular sector
  • The field of survey researchdata can be gathered
    by conducting polls across specific cross
    sections of the population, as the Gallup
    Organization does
  • Studies of political socializationstudying
    political socialization, the process by which
    people gain their political attitudes and
    opinions, can also be useful in predicting voting
    behavior

29
Sociological Factors
Voter preferences cant be predicted by just one
sociological factor. Voter opinion is a
combination of all of these factors and more.
30
Psychological Factors
Voters perceptions of their party, the
candidates, and the issues significantly affects
their voting.
  • Candidates and Issues
  • Candidates and issues are two short-term factors
    that can influence even the most loyal Democrat
    or Republican.
  • People may vote out of their chosen party if
    they dislike a candidate or the partys stand on
    a particular issue.
  • Party Identification
  • The loyalty of people to a particular political
    party is a lasting predictor of how a person will
    vote.

31
Voting Choices
  • Voting on the Basis of Party
  • Voting on the Basis of Candidates
  • Voting on the Basis of Issues

32
Voting Based on Party
  • Party Identification-affiliation with a party,
    longstanding loyalty
  • Even increase in independents, 2/3 of indep. Are
    in fact partisan in their behavior, reinforcing
    the importance of partisanship
  • Party identification more stable than attitudes
    about issues or candidates

33
Voting on the basis of candidates
  • American electoral politics is in a
    candidate-centered era. Likeable, who looks
    good, who is more personable
  • Candidate appeal often on character (Reagan,
    Eisenhower)
  • Increasingly, campaigns focus on negative
    elements, attacks on stands on abortion,
    fundraising
  • Attacked for dishonesty, trustworthiness

34
Voting on basis of issues
  • Important but not as central as partisanship and
    candidate appeal
  • Why?
  • Candidates often conceal real position on issues
  • Voting on issues basis presumes a level of
    interest in issues that only a few voters have

35
  • Retrospective voting more likely than prospective
    voting
  • Prospective voting-voting based on what a
    candidate promises if elected
  • Retrospective voting- voting based on what a
    candidates past performance or candidates
    partys record of performance

36
Voting on Issues continued...
  • State of economy often crucial to candidates
    election
  • Usually, voters vote against party in power if
    personal finances have worsened
  • Democrats focused on issues in 1998 and picked up
    5 seats in House GOP use of impeachment issue
    did not resonate with voters

37
The Voting Rights Act of 1965
38
African Americans at the Polls
39
Nonvoters
  • Millions of Americans do not vote when elections
    are held.
  • Only 50.1 percent of eligible voters cast ballots
    in the 2000 presidential election, and only 46.3
    percent of the electorate voted for the members
    of the House of Representatives.
  • Voter turnout significantly decreases in off-year
    elections, congressional elections held in years
    when there is no presidential election.

40
Why People Do Not Vote
  • Some people cannot vote for various reasons, such
    as physical or mental illness, unexpected travel,
    and resident alien citizenship status.
  • However, most nonvoters do not vote because
  • voting is in some way inconvenient,
  • they do not believe that their vote will make a
    difference, or
  • they distrust politics and political candidates.

Chapter 6, Section 4
41
Voters and Voting Behavior
  • Voting is studied more than any other form of
    political participation in the United States. We
    learn about voting behavior from
  • The results of electionsinformation can be
    gleaned by studying the results of confidential
    voting compared to the population make-up of a
    particular sector
  • The field of survey researchdata can be gathered
    by conducting polls across specific cross
    sections of the population, as the Gallup
    Organization does
  • Studies of political socializationstudying
    political socialization, the process by which
    people gain their political attitudes and
    opinions, can also be useful in predicting voting
    behavior

42
The History of Voting Rights
  • The Framers of the Constitution purposely left
    the power to set suffrage qualifications to each
    State.
  • Suffrage means the right to vote. Franchise is
    another term with the same meaning.
  • The electorate is all of the people entitled to
    vote in a given election.
  • Initially, the right to vote in America was
    limited to white male property owners.
  • Today, the size of the American electorate is
    greater than 200 million people. Nearly all
    citizens at least 18 years of age can qualify to
    vote.

2
3
4
Chapter 6, Section 1
About PowerShow.com