Eisenhower Era and Continuation of the Cold War - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Eisenhower Era and Continuation of the Cold War


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Title: Eisenhower Era and Continuation of the Cold War

Eisenhower Era and Continuation of the Cold War
  • Economic boom during the 1950s
  • 1.Construction boom more homeowners
  • Science and Tech boom
  • 1. 1948 Transistor allows electronic revolution
  • 2. Aerospace industry takes off Boeing Company
    first large passenger jet in 1957

  • Changes in work field
  • More white collar than blue collar workers
  • Shows passage from industrial society to service
    based economy
  • Union membership down, why?

Women and the 1950s
  • Post WWII women return to traditional roles
  • Modern media portrays cult of domesticy (Leave
    it to Beaver)

Women and the 1950s
  • Womens Revolution beginning to grow
  • 40 million jobs created in 3 decades after 1950,
    30 million are clerical and service work
  • Women take majority of the jobs Pink collar
  • Some worry- women as workers and homemakers, what
    will happen to family life and traditional gender

Women and the 1950s
  • Betty Friedan- The Feminine Mystique 1963
  • Feminist protest literature, starts modern
    womens rights movement

Consumer Culture 1950s
  • Middle class and Consumer culture grow
  • Macdonalds 1948
  • Credit Card 1949
  • Consumer culture starts in US then goes global

Consumer Culture 1950s
  • TV encourages consumerism and leisure
  • 1940s- TV are for the rich, only 6 stations
  • 1960- Almost every home in America has a TV
  • Movie industry starts to decline, advertising
    agencies now focused on TV

Consumer Culture 1950s
  • Religion and TV
  • Televangelists- Billy Graham
  • TV aids growth of sports
  • Shifting of sports teams demonstrates popularity
    shift- NY Giants go to San Fran

Consumer Culture 1950s
  • Rock and Roll evolves
  • Crossover style- elements of black and white
    music (Blues and Country)
  • Elvis gets the credit, Little Richard really
    started it

Consumer Culture 1950s
  • Traditionalists hate Elvis, but hate Marilyn
    Monroe even more.
  • MM new standards of sexuality
  • Playboy 1953

Election of 1952
  • Democrats- Idealistic Adlai Stevenson
  • Reps- War hero Dwight D Ike Eisenhower, VP
    famous red hunter Richard M Nixon
  • Nixon does the campaigning- Adlai the appeaser

Election of 1952
  • Nixon accused of taking illegal funds
  • Checkers speech- goes on TV, only gift he go was
    family dog Checkers
  • Importance- shows that TV is now an important
    tool for politicians
  • Ike even begins some TV spots
  • Right b4 election, Ike promises to go to Korea to
    end the war

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Ending the Korean Conflict
  • Ike goes to Korea before the inauguration to
    jump-start the peace talks to no effect.
  • He gets things going when he threatens to use
    nuclear weapons.
  • Armistice (not a peace treaty) end fighting and
    returns the border to the 38th parallel.
  • The border continues to be very tense and the two
    Koreas technically remain at war.
  • US leaves troops permanently stationed on the
    border as a trip wire.
  • 54,000 American dead in the war. 1 Mill. dead
    Chinese and Koreans from both sides.

The Rise of Joseph McCarthy
  • Wis. Rep. Senator Joseph McCarthy
  • 1950-JM says Sec. of State Dean Acheson hired 205
  • JM could only name 57, didnt get any out
  • McCarthyism grows with Ike win, Reps taking

The Rise of Joseph McCarthy
  • Democrats are usually the accused
  • Biggest red hunter
  • low blow Joe
  • Opinion poll- majority of Americans support
    crusade against Reds
  • Ike privately hates him, publicly allows to
    control personal policy

The Fall of Joseph McCarthy
  • Negative Impact of McCarthyism on foreign policy
  • 1.Purged government of Asian specialists- Vietnam
  • 2.American Reputation is hurt world wide- free
  • Final Straw Army-McCarthy Hearings- done on TV,
    makes McCarthy look mean and irresponsible
  • Senate condemns him
  • 3 years later dead- alcoholism

Desegregation of America
  • 1950- 15 million blacks, 2/3 in the south
  • Jim Crow Laws- establish separate but equal
  • 20 registered to vote
  • 5 in deep south
  • TV even had to blot out black speakers at
    national conventions, thought it may offense
    southern stations

Desegregation of America
  • Ex of racial violence
  • Six war vets murdered in 1946
  • 1955 Emmett Till lynched for leering at a white

Desegregation of America
  • Jim Crow hurts US foreign reputation
  • African American entertainers travel through
    Europe and South American and speak the horrors
    of Jim Crow (Paul Robeson Josephine Baker)
  • Gunnar Mydral- An American Dilemma- points out
    hypocritical nature of US

Desegregation of America
  • Jackie Robinson- breaks color barrier in
    baseball 1947
  • NAACP taking it to the courts
  • Sweatt v. Painter- separate professional schools
    for blacks werent equal

Desegregation of America
  • Dec 1955- Rosa Parks in Montgomery Alabama- sat
    in white section and refused to move
  • Her arrest sparks Montgomery Bus Boycott (1 year)
  • Successful- why?
  • MLK JR gets a name for himself
  • MLK JR adopts nonviolent ideas of Gandhi

Seeds of the CRM
  • HT responded to black vets murder with commission
    To Secure These Rights
  • Desegs in federal civil service and armed forces
  • Congress resistsIke doesnt care about civil
  • Supreme Court assumes political leadership in
    civil rights

Seeds of the CRM
  • Supreme Court chief Justice Earl Warren
  • Warren forces court to take up issues that
    President and congress wont
  • Brown v. Board of Education Topeka Kansas
    separation in public schools is inherently
    unequal and unconstitutional (Unanimous)
  • Reversed Plessy vs. Ferguson

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Seeds of the CRM
  • Border States comply
  • Deep south- massive resistance
  • Declaration of Constitutional Principles-
    south will resist desegregation
  • Ten years after ruling, only 2 of deep black
    southerners in schools with whites

Little Rock Nine
  • Ike doesnt force Civil Rights
  • Could hurt popularity
  • Would not endorse Brown vs. Board of Ed.
  • 1957- Gov. or Arkansas Orval Faubus, mobilized
    states national guard to prevent nine black
    students from entering Little Rock Central High
  • Ike has to send in troops to escort students to

  • 1957- 1st Civil Rights act since Recon
  • Ike to southern senator- the mildest civil
    rights bill possible
  • Set up Civil Rights Commission to investigate
    violations of civil rights

Civil Rights Groups
  • Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
    1957- MLK JR
  • Mobilize power of black churches for black
  • Weak because black churches flourished in
    segregated society

Civil Rights Groups
  • 1960- Sit in movement starts in Greensboro NC
  • Sit in movement spreads through the south
  • Students form Student Non Violent Coordinating
    Committee (SNCC)
  • Often at odds with SCLC and NAACP

Ike and Republicanism at Home
  • Dynamic Conservatism- liberal with the people,
    but conservative with money
  • Goals restore federal budget, avoid creeping
  • 1.Slows down military build up
  • 2.Offshore oil fields transferred from Fed
    government to states
  • 3. Tried to build power plant to compete with TVA
  • 4.Condemn anti-polio vaccine as socialized

Ike and Minorities
  • Mex. Govt. worried illegal migration would
    undercut Bracero program
  • Operation Wetback (1954)- round up illegal
    Mexican immigrants
  • Ike tries to eliminate policies of Indian New
    Deal and revert back to Dawes Act- program
    terminated in 1961

Ike and Home-front
  • Cant undo New Deal programs- why
  • Ike dwarfs some aspects of new deal
  • Federal Highway Act of 1956- 27 billion to build
    42,000 miles of highway
  • Why- national defense, can mobilize troops
    anywhere in case of soviet invasion
  • Impact
  • 1.Huge increase in construction jobs
  • 2.Sped up suburbanizing US
  • 3.Encourages growth of trucking (Sorry RR)
  • 4. ? air pollution increases and NRG consumption
  • 5. ? Vibrant downtowns lost growth to suburbs

Ike and Foreign Policy
  • New Look
  • Sec of state John Dulles
  • Not only contain communism, but roll back its
  • While cutting military spending
  • How is this possible?
  • Policy of boldness- Strategic Air Command (SAC)-
    build up air force, while putting Army and Navy
    on back burner
  • New plans would use Massive Retaliation

Ike and Foreign Policy
  • SAC is more bang for the buck
  • 1953 Stalin is dead
  • New Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev wont
    allow open skies
  • 1956-Hungarians revolt against Soviets, US turns
    blind eye
  • Hungarian Revolts impact
  • 1.Policy of Boldness is a failure, can use major
    weapon in minor problems
  • 2.Massive Retaliation is too expensive

  • Marshall Plans helps western Euro, but what about
    SE Asia
  • French controlled Vietnam faces communist
    uprising from Ho Chi Minh
  • US was financing about 80 of the French costs.
  • March 1954 French garrison at Dienbienphu
  • Geneva Conference 1954- Vietnam is split at 17th
    parallel, election in two years
  • Commie North- Ho Chi Minh
  • Pro Western South- Ngo Dinh Diem
  • US provides aid to Ngo, in hopes of social
    reform, doesnt really happen
  • US backed a losing horse, but couldnt take the
    bet off the table

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Cold War in Europe
  • 1955 Germany joins NATO
  • Soviets form Warsaw Pact to counter Nato
  • 1955- Soviets end occupation of Austria
  • 1955- Khrushchev denounced Stalin
  • 1956- Hungarian Revolt- violently shut down by

Cold War in the Middle East
  • Middle East rich with oil
  • Iranian Govt (friends with Soviets) begin
    resisting Western companies that control Iran Oil
  • 1953- CIA coup puts Mohammed Reza Pahlevi
  • Good short term, we have oil
  • Bad long term- Iran still hates US today

Cold War in the Middle East
  • Suez Canal Crisis
  • President Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt wants money
    to build Canal- taking offers from Brit and US,
    then Soviets.
  • US hears about soviets, withdraws offer, Nasser
    nationalizes canal
  • Brit, FRN, Israel attack Egypt- thinks the US
    will provide them oil like in world wars
  • 1940 US produced 2/3s of world oil
  • 1948- US is huge oil importer
  • Suez Crisis marks last time US can use its oil

Eisenhower Doctrine
  • Eisenhower Doctrine in 1957.
  • Middle East remains a key American strategic area
    for the rest of the century.
  • Goals
  • Keep Soviets out so that they cannot control the
  • Protect Israel.
  • Keep the Arab nations friendly to US so that
    continue to supply oil.
  • Give them lots of economic and military.

Cold War in the Middle East
  • Nassers defiance spawns huge Arab nationalism
  • In 1960, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iraq, Iran, and
    Venezuela joined to form the cartel Organization
    of Petroleum Exporting Countries, or OPEC.

Election of 1956
  • Hungary and the Suez made voters concerned about
    foreign affairs
  • Gave Ike a huge advantage in 1956 election.
  • Democrats re-nominate Stevenson.
  • Ike trounces Stevenson even worse than the last
    time, 457-73.
  • Congress remains in the hands of the Democrats.

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Ike and Labor
  • Ike health is poor
  • Wants to address labor legislation
  • Unions loaded with mobsters
  • Teamsters really corrupt- leader Jimmy Hoffa
  • The 1959 Landrum-Griffin Act was designed to
    bring labor leaders to book for financial
    shenanigans and prevent bullying tactics, but
    also expands upon the Taft Hartley Act

The Space Race
  • 1957- Soviets launch Sputnik
  • Americans are terrified, if Soviets can send
    things that far into space, they can send
    missiles to US
  • Rocket Fever- National Aeronautics and Space
    Administration is formed
  • 1958 US put satellite into orbit
  • More emphasis on science and math
  • National Defense and Education Act- 887 million
    in student loans and grants for improvement of
    teaching sciences and languages

The Cold War Moves on
  • 1958- US and Soviets agree to stop dirty tests
    of nuclear weapons
  • Test stopped, but no nuclear inspections
  • Summit Conference at Camp David- US and Soviets
    talk about Berlin evacuations
  • Spirits are high, world maybe closer to peace
  • U2-Incident- US spy plane shot down in Russia, at
    first US denies it, but finally Ike accepts
  • Paris Summit Conference of 1960- world spirits
    are back to tense and anger

Castro, Cuba, Commies
  • Latin America sees the US give billions to
    Europe, only millions to the south
  • US supports dictators who fight against communism
  • US supports Batista
  • Castro takes out Batista
  • Castro starts taking US properties and
    distributing them to Cuba
  • US stops importing Cuban sugar
  • Castro takes even more properties
  • Anti Castro refugees flee to US
  • 1961 US embargoes Cuba
  • US threatens to use Monroe Doctrine
  • Soviets say doctrine is dead, and will shower the
    US with missiles if it attacked Castro

Election of 1960
  • Republicans- Richard Nixon- mature seasoned
  • Earned popularity in Kitchen Debate- Head to head
    with Khrushchev over the benefits of consumerism
    over planned economies
  • Demos- John F Kennedy
  • VP- Lyndon B Johnson, picked to appease southern
  • Anti-Catholicism
  • JFK- the US is falling behind the Soviets
  • Nixon- US is top dog
  • TV huge impact- four debates televised
  • Americans prefer young attractive JFK to older
  • JFK 1st Roman Catholic, youngest president
  • Industrial Centers and African Americans help him
  • Demos still control HOR and Senate

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Post WW II Literature
  • New mobility and affluence of American Life
  • John Updike-Rabbit Run
  • Playwrights
  • Tennessee Williams- Cat on a Hot Tin Roof
  • Ralph Waldo Emerson-The Invisible Man
  • Beginnings of Counter Culture
  • J.D. Salinger- The Catcher in the Rye
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