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Creationism News -- April 2012 ????? -- 2012?4?

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Creationism News -- April 2012 -- 2012 4 Dedicated to David Coppedge who sacrificed his career as the Head Systems Administrator for the Cassini ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Creationism News -- April 2012 ????? -- 2012?4?


1
Creationism News -- April 2012 ????? -- 2012?4?
  • Dedicated to David Coppedge who sacrificed his
    career as the Head Systems Administrator for the
    Cassini Spacecraft in JPL to honor the Creator
    of the Universe. He also spent literally
    thousands of hours to make his excellent
    websites.
  • The contents of this presentation were taken from
    various sources. Thank God that David Coppedge
    came back from the lawsuit after two months of
    vacation. Pray for the results of the lawsuit.
    I now resume using his website materials.
  • Pastor Chui
  • http//ChristCenterGospel.org
  • ckchui1_at_yahoo.com

10/31/2015
1
2
Adaptation Mechanisms in Biology ?????????
  • ICR Acts and Facts (April 2012) has an article on
    the mechanisms of adaptation. Most expressed
    traits and adaptations are biologically complex
    responses. A creationist model of adaptation is
    based on the organisms innate physiological
    capabilities and fault tolerance mechanisms that
    are genetically programmed by the Creator.
    Scientifically valid descriptions employ recent
    molecular discoveries in genomics, cell
    physiology, and phenotypic plasticity to explain
    an organisms behavior to their environmental
    niches.

10/31/2015
2
3
The Grand Staircase ???
  • ICR Acts and Facts (April 2012) has an article on
    the Grand Staircase, which describes the
    landforms of Utah and Arizona, starting from the
    colored Bryce Canyon, to Grey Cliffs, to White
    Cliffs, to Vermillion Cliffs, and finally to the
    Grand Canyon. These cliffs and canyons do form a
    grand staircase which spans the geologic era from
    the paleozoic, mesozoic, and the cenozoic. The
    staircase is best explained by receding flood
    waters in short duration. The Redwall limestone,
    in which billions of 2-foot long nautiloid
    fossils were discovered, prove the deposit could
    not have been due to gradual processes. The
    Coconino Sandstone is an underwater sand ripple
    deposit. The Zion Canyon has vast marine deposits
    of fossils. Bryce Canyon is a failed lake bed
    full of Flood waters. It all fits inferences from
    biblical information.

10/31/2015
3
4
Tech Innovations from the Creator ?????????
  • ICR Acts and Facts (April 2012) has an article on
    how engineers copied from nature and produced
    many designs that still fall short of the real
    thing. Examples include the intricately designed
    scales of the large Arapaima Brazilian fish gave
    inspiration for engineers to develop flexible
    ceramics. Diving watercrafts are designed after
    the sleek water dynamics of killer whales,
    dolphins, and sharks. The humpback whale flippers
    have dome-like bumps called tubercles are now
    used in wind turbine blades which increased
    yearly electrical production by 20 with reduced
    noise! Now this design can be applied to fans,
    pumps, compressors, and turbines. God had it
    first. Rough shark skin is designed to smooth the
    water flow over the shark. 80 of the medals were
    won by swimmers with these suits.

10/31/2015
4
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Tech Innovations from the Creator ?????????
  • ICR Acts and Facts (April 2012) further describes
    how scientists took the wing design of
    long-distance birds to develop an amazing
    morphing airplane wing. The wing skin were
    covered by an outer skin like fish scales. This
    leads to rapid flights with less fuel
    consumption.
  • Velcro was invented to imitate the burr structure
    of plants.
  • Blood-clotting is not copied for use in aircraft
    composite material. Composites with tiny hollow
    tubes filled with epoxy resin. When the aircraft
    is over stressed, a crack would appear and resin
    leaks out. The scar is sealed.
  • Gecko technology now includes tapes that would
    improve recovery from surgery and make more
    robust surgical materials, patches, and bandages.
    Let us give glory to God.

10/31/2015
5
6
Spider Web Design ?????
  • ICR Acts and Facts (April 2012) has an article on
    the masterful design of spider webs. Spider silk
    is stronger than steel and tougher than Levlar
    pound-for-pound. A spider silk strand resists
    stress in a stepwise fashion. After initial
    stiffening, the thread absorbed stress by
    stretching. Additional pressure caused the thread
    to sharply stiffen, thus transferring pressure to
    the rest of the web. The load capacity increased
    by 3-10 with the introduction of defects. Its
    as if the web was designed to anticipate breaks.
    Because their webs remain stable after damage,
    spiders repair them to catch multiple means with
    the same web. Now scientists use modified
    bacteria and goats to manufacture silk proteins.
    Automobile designers can incorporate crumple
    zones to absorb head-on collisions.
  • Thank God because He optimized the spider web.

10/31/2015
6
7
Dead Galaxies Live On ??????
  • Discover (April 2012) reports U of Michigan
    astronomer Joel Bregman looked into red-and-dead
    elliptical galaxies and found all of them have
    some young stars. The reddest and deadest galaxy,
    Messier 105, harbors dozens of young stars,
    although these young stars are a fraction of our
    own Milky Way. This fact will force astronomers
    to revise their models of galaxy formation. The
    fact is all galaxies have both old and young
    stars. It is a matter of interpretation. Some
    have more old stars, while others have more
    young stars. It is like some families have more
    elderly and others have more youngsters.
  • Thank God for these families of galaxies.

10/31/2015
7
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A cu. mm of Brain Tissue ? 1015 byte
?????????1015??
  • Discover (April 2012) reports MIT neuroscientist
    Sebastian Seung who models the brains
    connectomethe million billion points of contact
    between neurons in the brain. If successful,
    well glimpse the anatomy of the mind. He needs
    bigger and faster computers for modeling. He
    needs more eyeballs to analyze the results. He is
    designing a game so that the public can play. It
    may take years to know what the brain is in store
    for us all. Thank God for our brains.

10/31/2015
8
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The Clouds Are Alive ????
  • Discover (April 2012) reports that clouds are
    teeming with microorganisms so much as that it
    says the clouds are alive. The ecosystem in the
    sky may influence much of the worlds weather.
    The amount of microbial life present in the cloud
    droplets that make up a winter storm is amazing.
    The skies are full of invisible life. Bacteria,
    algae, and fungi are swept up by winds and lifted
    to the altitude of 20 miles into the stratosphere
    by electric fields during thunderstorms. Some
    researchers proposed the ice-making bug and
    others like it might be creating ice crystals in
    clouds that result in precipitation. Now cloud
    seeding has more chances. Thank God for that.

10/31/2015
9
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Surprising Scientific Fraud ?????????
  • Discover (April 2012) has the last page dedicated
    to 20 Things You Didnt Know about Science
    Fraud. In 18 surveys of researchers, 2
    confessed to falsifying or manipulating data, but
    14 said they knew a colleague who had. From
    retracted biology papers from 2000 to 2010,
    Americans were more prone to commit fraud than
    scientists of other nations. Chinese scientists
    were actually 3 times more likely to commit
    fraud. If caught stealing others ideas, they
    excused themselves that a memory as an original
    thought. Even geniuses succumb to temptation.
    Isaac Newton fudged numbers in his Principia,
    considered to be the greatest physics text ever
    written. Others who have altered data include
    Freud, Darwin, and Pasteur.
  • This says that For all have sinned, and come
    short of the glory of God.

10/31/2015
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Genome Length ?????
  • Popular Science (April 2012) has an interesting
    section on the length of genome of various life
    forms
  • Bacterium (Escherichia coli) 6.2 million DNA
    base pairs
  • Foot fungus (Trichophyton rubrum) 22 million DNA
    pairs
  • Earthworm (A. tuberculata) 655 million DNA pairs
  • Piranha (S. brandtii) 1600 million DNA pairs
  • Human (Homo sapiens) 3000 million DNA pairs
  • Daffodil (N. jonquilla) 16000 million DNA pairs
  • That is why one single leaf of daffodil can grow
    into a plant.
  • Is daffodil more complex than humans? Not
    necessarily.
  • The fact is that all cells are very complex.
    There are hundreds of types of highly complex
    cells working in harmony in us to make us breathe
    and think. Thank God!

10/31/2015
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Jesus vs. Scientists Who's Better at Miracles?
?????????????
  • Yahoo Science quotes Live Science (April 7) on
    Jesus vs. Scientist Whos Better at Miracles?
    The article compares Jesus miracles to current
    successes of science on topics of virgin birth,
    free wine, healing lameness, feeding the masses,
    making blind people see, resurrection of Lazarus,
    and found that science is still lag behind. It
    might take another 2000 years for science to
    catch up. The article says.

10/31/2015
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Oil Spill Anniversary ??????
  • Popular Mechanics (April 2012) has a short
    article on the two year anniversary of the worst
    oil spill in America. The mishap killed 11 people
    and dumped 5 million barrels of crude into the
    Gulf of Mexico. Federal officials found it is
    not a catastrophe as predicted. Favorable
    currents and topology prevented the oil from
    spreading and allowed bacteria to break it down
    quickly. A reduction of bluefin population was
    found to reduce less than 4. Thank God for the
    bacteria to avert a catastrophe.

10/31/2015
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Vikings Crystal Compass ??????
  • Archaeology (March/April 2012) reports Vikings
    were able to sail from Norway to North America
    1000 years ago without magnetic compass. The
    crystal Iceland spar could be used to ascertain
    the suns position even on a cloudy day. When
    light passes through the crystal, it is doubly
    refracted. As a person holds up the crystal to
    the sun and rotates it, the two beams line up
    when facing the sun. This is true even on a
    cloudy day. Thank God for the ingenuity of the
    Vikings to navigate without compass.

10/31/2015
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Heart Disease is Still the No. 1 Killer
??????????
  • Time (April 2, 2012) has an article describing
    why heart disease is still the number 1 killer in
    America. Each year more than half a million
    people die of heart-related causes in the US, but
    despite increasing awareness of the key
    contributors to heart disease, we havent been
    getting much better at preventing it. Of the
    seven major heart risk factors(high cholesterol,
    elevated blood pressure, high glucose levels, an
    unhealthy diet, a sedentary lifestyle, smoking
    and being overweightmost of us succeed at
    keeping only 3 or 4 under control.
  • That is why Paul said that the flesh is weak.
    The things that I want to do I did not do. We
    need the grace of God and help of the Holy Spirit
    to help us to walk in His path.

10/31/2015
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Man-made Sound Helps Hummingbirds ????????
  • Time (April 2, 2012) has an article describing
    how man-made sound from natural gas compressors
    help the hummingbirds to survive. Strange as it
    may sound. The man-made sound scare away the
    predator, the bluejay, which eats nesting babies
    of the hummingbirds.
  • Man-made engine noise is not all that bad. At
    least in the case of the hummingbirds. It helps
    the birds to survive. We praise God for that.

10/31/2015
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Cambrian Explosion Sedimentary, My Dear Flotsam
????????,??????
  • The short sentence Then something happened
    appears in a press release from the University of
    Wisconsin-Madison, entitled, Great Unconformity
    Evidence for a geologic trigger of the Cambrian
    explosion (see it also on PhysOrg). The
    references to geology, fossils and evidence sure
    sounds like this is coming from the science lab.
    Heres the context
  • The oceans teemed with life 600 million years
    ago, but the simple, soft-bodied creatures would
    have been hardly recognizable as the ancestors of
    nearly all animals on Earth today.

10/31/2015
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Cambrian Explosion Sedimentary, My Dear Flotsam
????????,??????
  • Then something happened. Over several tens of
    millions of years a relative blink of an eye in
    geologic terms a burst of evolution led to a
    flurry of diversification and increasing
    complexity, including the expansion of
    multicellular organisms and the appearance of the
    first shells and skeletons.
  • The results of this Cambrian explosion are well
    documented in the fossil record, but its cause
    why and when it happened, and perhaps why nothing
    similar has happened since has been a mystery.

10/31/2015
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Cambrian Explosion Sedimentary, My Dear Flotsam
????????,??????
  • Although Darwin and other palaeontologists sic
    Darwins only degree was in theology have
    regarded the resultant widespread hiatus in the
    rock record as a failure of preservation, the
    formation of this prominent gap may have actually
    been an environmental trigger for
    biomineralization, thereby promoting the Cambrian
    explosion of marine animals. Determining the
    geodynamic causes of extensive Neoproterozoic
    continental denudation followed by Phanerozoic
    sedimentation, and linking those dynamics to the
    timing and spatial distribution of marine
    transgression and biogeochemical change, is now a
    challenge for geoscience.

10/31/2015
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20
Cambrian Explosion Sedimentary, My Dear Flotsam
????????,??????
  • Then something happened. Over several tens of
    millions of years a relative blink of an eye in
    geologic terms a burst of evolution led to a
    flurry of diversification and increasing
    complexity, including the expansion of
    multicellular organisms and the appearance of the
    first shells and skeletons.
  • The results of this Cambrian explosion are well
    documented in the fossil record, but its cause
    why and when it happened, and perhaps why nothing
    similar has happened since has been a mystery.

10/31/2015
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Cambrian Explosion Sedimentary, My Dear Flotsam
????????,??????
  • This is all part of the gap. They filled the gap
    with their own imaginations. Theres no evidence
    that shallow seas repeatedly advanced and
    retreated, wearing down imaginary sediments to
    basement rock all over the world. Theres only
    the gap igneous basement rock, with flat
    sediments stacked on top of them a billion Darwin
    Years later. This is clearly visible in the Grand
    Canyon, but it represents a global phenomenon.
    Thats why its called the Great Unconformity.
    Furthermore, theres only one Great Unconformity,
    so they have not found a Law of Nature that
    creates global unconformities from time to time.
    Peters himself said in the press release,
    theres nothing else like it in the entire rock
    record.

10/31/2015
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Cambrian Explosion Sedimentary, My Dear Flotsam
????????,??????
  • During an imaginary billion-year gap that left no
    sign of gully erosion on a global flat surface
    while imaginary seas advanced and retreated.
    Then something happened. New minerals changed
    the chemistry of seawater. This triggered a
    geologically-sudden explosion of complex body
    plans with eyes, articulated limbs, digestive
    systems, muscles and nerves. In science, its now
    permissible to use gaps to fill gaps. You can use
    silence to fill silence. You can use imagination
    in lieu of scientific data. Stuff happens in
    modern Darwinian thinking, thats all you need to
    know. Imagining what may happen in the gaps gives
    you Understanding Enlightenment Nirvana.

10/31/2015
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Wernher von Braun Remembered?????????
  • Wernher von Braun (19121977) would have turned
    100 on March 23. His name is almost synonymous
    with rocket scientist to many. Father of the
    American space program, including the first
    American satellite, the Mercury, Gemini and
    Apollo programs, the moon landings and Skylab,
    von Braun left an indelible mark on America and
    the world.

10/31/2015
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Wernher von Braun Remembered?????????
  • David Christensen, who worked with von Braun,
    spoke from his experience with the giant of
    rocketry
  • He was very unique. I dont know of another
    individual, frankly, thats had those
    capabilities, either then or now, that could do
    the things he did.
  • He was a very warm personality.
  • He was very down to Earth and friendly, never
    talked down to anyone. But talking to him,
    working on a project, you learned very quickly he
    was a genius.
  • He was a very broad-based individual, very
    culturally capable he played several musical
    instruments, wrote music, he was an astronomer
    and he was certainly a top notch engineer.

10/31/2015
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Wernher von Braun Remembered?????????
  • Late in the Apollo program, Wernher von Braun
    became a Christian and supporter of creation and
    academic freedom the freedom of students to
    question Darwinian materialism. He wrote popular
    articles on the relationship of science and
    faith. The better we understand the intricacies
    of the universe and all it harbors, the more
    reason we have found to marvel at the inherent
    design upon which it is based, he said in 1972.

10/31/2015
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Wernher von Braun Remembered?????????
  • In a statement remarkably prescient of arguments
    used by the subsequent intelligent design
    movement, he added, While the admission of a
    design for the universe ultimately raises the
    question of a Designer (a subject outside of
    science), the scientific method does not allow us
    to exclude data which lead to the conclusion that
    the universe, life and man are based on design.
    To be forced to believe only one conclusionthat
    everything in the universe happened by
    chancewould violate the very objectivity of
    science itself.

10/31/2015
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Wernher von Braun Remembered?????????
  • The positive coverage of von Brauns 100th
    birthday is a hopeful sign that the misinformed
    guilt-by-association slurs of this great man are
    finally dying down, and that history will treat
    him favorably, as it should. Consider that he
    made great effort at considerable risk to escape
    to the Americans as soon as it was possible. Look
    at his record from the moment he arrived on
    American shores. Is it believable his character
    suddenly switched from one pole to another
    overnight?

10/31/2015
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Wernher von Braun Remembered?????????
  • The weight of evidence is that his expertise,
    borne of childhood love of space and rocketry,
    had been temporarily co-opted during the German
    war effort by forces beyond his control, and put
    to uses that repulsed him. As soon as it was
    possible for him to escape the clutches of his
    desperate situation, he sought out the Americans
    and surrendered his whole team to them. As an
    American, he explained his German situation when
    asked, without dwelling on it, but a few
    continued to tar him with guilt by association.
    No other alleged Nazi war criminal led such a
    stellar, exemplary life afterward.

10/31/2015
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Wernher von Braun Remembered?????????
  • He quickly became an American citizen and
    dedicated himself to the peaceful exploration of
    space. Von Braun was never charged with or
    convicted of any war crimes on the contrary, he
    was showered with honors. Even the British
    Interplanetary Society, in the London that felt
    the horror of the V2 rockets, honored him. His
    achievements cannot and should not be smeared
    with baseless suppositions. The mans life speaks
    for itself. Happy Birthday, Dr. von Braun one of
    the worlds greatest creation scientists.

10/31/2015
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From Wonders of Nature to Wonders of Technology
?????????????
  • 1. Butterfly black magic. Science Daily reported,
    Butterfly Wings Art of Blackness Could Boost
    Production of Green Fuels. Notice they said art
    of blackness, not black art. Its purely
    physical the arrangement of cells on some
    butterfly wings are designed to absorb light to
    look as black as black can be. This observation
    portends fuel efficiency, the article says
  • Butterfly wings may rank among the most delicate
    structures in nature, but they have given
    researchers powerful inspiration for new
    technology that doubles production of hydrogen
    gas a green fuel of the future from water and
    sunlight.

10/31/2015
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From Wonders of Nature to Wonders of Technology
?????????????
  • At a meeting of the American Chemical Society,
    Tongxiang Fang told the audience that the problem
    in fuel cells is light-gathering efficiency.
  • We realized that the solution to this problem
    may have been in existence for millions of years,
    fluttering right in front of our eyes, Fan said.
    And that was correct. Black butterfly wings
    turned out to be a natural solar collector worth
    studying and mimicking, Fan said.

10/31/2015
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From Wonders of Nature to Wonders of Technology
?????????????
  • 2. Does this float your boat? Imagine a one-pound
    boat that could carry 1,000 pounds. Wonders like
    this are coming into the realm of possibility by
    studying how water striders do it. Water striders
    literally walk on water, their specialized
    footpads creating mere dimples in the skin-like
    surface of water. By combining the bugs
    technique with one of the worlds lightest solid
    substances, aerogel, researchers at the
    University of Helsinki are looking to produce
    products useful for cleaning up oil spills to
    helping create such products as sensors for
    detecting environmental pollution, miniaturized
    military robots, and even childrens toys and
    super-buoyant beach floats.

10/31/2015
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From Wonders of Nature to Wonders of Technology
?????????????
  • Their findings were also presented at the
    American Chemical Society meeting. Biomimetics
    was the hot topic there The symposium focused
    on an emerging field called biomimetics, in which
    scientists literally take inspiration from Mother
    Nature, probing and adapting biological systems
    in plants and animals for use in medicine,
    industry and other fields. The ACS is the
    worlds largest scientific society. Even the
    aerogel itself derives from cellulose in plants.
    If you wear cotton or use paper, youre familiar
    with cellulose, but nano-cellulose is opening up
    a whole new age, according to one of the
    symposium organizers that invited a dozen
    presentations on it

10/31/2015
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From Wonders of Nature to Wonders of Technology
?????????????
  • We are in the middle of a Golden Age, in which a
    clearer understanding of the forms and functions
    of cellulose architectures in biological systems
    is promoting the evolution of advanced
    materials, said Harry Brumer, Ph.D., of Michael
    Smith Laboratories, University of British
    Columbia, Vancouver.
  • Ikkala pointed out that cellulose is the most
    abundant polymer on Earth, a renewable and
    sustainable raw material that could be used in
    many new ways. In addition, nanocellulose
    promises advanced structural materials similar to
    metals, such as high-tech spun fibers and films.

10/31/2015
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From Wonders of Nature to Wonders of Technology
?????????????
  • 3. Biological batteries If your surgeon left an
    Energizer battery inside you after sewing you
    back up, you would NOT last long like a toy
    bunny you would be at a serious health risk.
    Some day, though, surgeons may intentionally sew
    batteries inside your body batteries made with
    biological enzymes found in bacteria. Natures
    billion-year-old battery key to storing energy
    reads a headline on PhysOrg, referring to the
    time in Darwin years that evolutionists believe
    this enzyme, involved in photosynthesis, has
    existed. Light induces a charge separation in
    the enzyme, causing one end to become negatively
    charged and the other positively charged, much
    like in a battery.

10/31/2015
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From Wonders of Nature to Wonders of Technology
?????????????
  • If a team from Concordia University succeeds in
    controlling this enzyme, inventors may be able to
    create biological batteries that could internally
    monitor your vital signs with no ill effects from
    toxic chemicals, because the ingredients would be
    all natural. One of the driving forces for the
    research is that such materials are carbon
    neutral and use resources that are in abundance
    sun, carbon dioxide and water, the article
    explained. Researchers are using natures
    battery to inspire more sustainable, man-made
    energy converting systems.

10/31/2015
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From Wonders of Nature to Wonders of Technology
?????????????
  • While on the subject of physics, lets notice a
    tribute to James Clerk Maxwell, one of the
    worlds greatest creation scientists. His famous
    Maxwells Equations have yielded a new solution
    to the question of whether self-bending light is
    possible and it is. Does this mean we will some
    day be able to see around corners? Read PhysOrg
    for the scoop on what this profound discovery
    might have in store for everything that acts with
    wave-like behavior.

10/31/2015
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From Wonders of Nature to Wonders of Technology
?????????????
  • Did you notice the claim that the American
    Chemical Society is the worlds largest
    scientific society? and that they are jazzed
    about biomimeticsan intelligent-design based
    mode of scientific inquiry? What does that tell
    you about the future of Darwinism, that useless
    Victorian myth that produced things no more
    valuable to society than forced sterilization,
    genocide and totalitarian regimes? Yes, a Golden
    Age is coming, if we can extricate ourselves from
    the clutches of the Victorian myth, and return
    science to what it used to be thinking Gods
    thoughts after him. The words of physicist James
    Joule are jewels in that regard, worth reading in
    this new age of biomimetics.

10/31/2015
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Saturn Moons Continue to Shine????????
  • Saturn just passed opposition on April 15, making
    it a good viewing object from Earth this season.
    Amateur observers with telescopes may be able to
    make out the moons Titan, Rhea, Dione, Iapetus,
    Tethys, and Enceladus. They may look like
    beautiful little gems from Earth, but from the
    Cassini spacecraft in orbit at Saturn, they are
    no less than astonishing. Recent observations of
    these moons add to the astonishment.

10/31/2015
39
40
Saturn Moons Continue to Shine????????
  • Titan, the largest of Saturns family of natural
    satellites (larger even than the planet Mercury),
    yielded more secrets of its southern great
    lake, named Ontario Lacus (Lake Ontario, due to
    its resemblance and size to Earths counterpart).
    It turns out the lake is more like a mud flat,
    shallow and wide. Namibia has similar salt pans
    that occasionally fill in with liquid from the
    water table. Cassini scientists now think that
    liquid methane and ethane seep into the mud flat
    from below, instead of during downpours. This not
    only makes the giant lake a poor splashdown
    site for future spaceships, but adds to the
    mystery of the missing ethane, once thought to
    have covered Titan with a global ocean several
    kilometers deep.

10/31/2015
40
41
Saturn Moons Continue to Shine????????
  • Rhea is Saturns second largest moon, but smaller
    than Titan by a long shot (Rhea would cover
    Texas, but Titan would cover the entire United
    States). Cassini made another flyby of Rhea from
    26,000 miles on March 10. The main thing of note
    in Space.coms coverage was an impact basin 300
    miles across, nearly a third of the moons
    diameter. Rhea also retains a tenuous atmosphere
    of oxygen and carbon dioxide, apparently
    replenished by charged particles. Researchers
    think the oxygen comes from Rheas surface ice,
    liberated from water molecules that get blasted
    apart by charged particles streaming from
    Saturns magnetosphere. The source of the carbon
    dioxide, however, is more mysterious.

10/31/2015
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Saturn Moons Continue to Shine????????
  • Dione may be active like Enceladus, according to
    an article on the BBC News by Paul Rincon.
    NASAs Cassini spacecraft has spied possible
    signs of geological activity on Saturns icy moon
    Dione, he reported. These tentative findings are
    based on fissures resembling the tiger stripes
    on Enceladus, a possible ice volcano, and areas
    that appear to have been resurfaced. So far, the
    suggestion has not been corroborated by
    observations of jets or heat signatures, although
    rampart craters hint that there may be internal
    heat in Dione remaining. Perhaps, though, the
    fissures are fossil tiger stripes, indicating
    past geological activity that ceased. Its
    remarkable that little Enceladus, less than half
    the diameter of Dione, should be the most active
    moon of Saturn.

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Saturn Moons Continue to Shine????????
  • Iapetus hasnt had any flybys as good as the best
    one in 2007, which led scientists to propose
    ice-hopping or runaway migration to explain the
    dichotomy between dark and light sides.
    Observations continue to be made and analyzed,
    though. Space.com reported how Paul Ries is using
    Earth radar to infer temperature changes across
    the dark and light parts of the moon.
    Unexpectedly, the measurements did not follow a
    Planck blackbody curve as Ries predicted, but
    rather showed a fairly flat spectrum across
    wavelengths, suggesting steep absorption. At this
    point Ries doesnt have an explanation. Hes
    comparing radar on Earth ice to see what the
    signals can tell about grain size and other
    factors. Iapetus certainly has some strange
    stuff that needs to be explained, so this is
    potentially very interesting for the future, he
    said.

10/31/2015
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Saturn Moons Continue to Shine????????
  • Enceladus remains the prima donna of Saturn,
    bursting out her fountains at the south pole like
    a show that never ends. On March 27, Cassini shot
    the plumes again from 46 miles, hoping to taste
    them and send home pretty pictures, too dazzling
    geyser shots were posted. Space.com reported that
    continued study of the tiger stripe cracks show
    them to be deformed by Saturns powerful gravity.
    On April 14, Cassini made a second pass from 46
    miles. Even though the tiger stripes are in the
    dark now, the infrared spectrometer and cosmic
    dust analyzer were poised for front-seat
    observations. A JPL press release showed latest
    unprocessed images from the encounter and a
    follow-up flyby of Tethys that provided the
    highest-resolution images of a side of Tethys not
    seen by the ultra-close 2005 encounter. A new
    close-up of Connecticut-sized Janus filled in a
    productive month by Cassini scientists.

10/31/2015
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Saturn Moons Continue to Shine????????
  • Ringside. All that glitters at Saturn is not
    moons. Saturns sparkling F-ring was the subject
    of a report on New Scientist about puzzling
    observations of possible bursting moonlets that
    have on rare occasions brightened the F-ring
    significantly. Voyagers 1 and 2 saw sparkles in
    the 1980s, and Hubble saw one in 1995, but the
    ring has brightened overall since (implying more
    dust than before), except for an 84 brightening
    in December 2006 that took two years to fade. The
    F-ring is known to be perturbed by the little
    potato-shaped moon Prometheus, but if the
    sparkles are due to disruption of moonlets, there
    arent that many more moonlets around, unless
    Prometheus has ways of continually making and
    destroying giant snowballs made of ring dust.
    Reporter Lisa Grossman left it up as an oddity
    that may send scientists back to the drawing
    board.

10/31/2015
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Saturn Moons Continue to Shine????????
  • The dynamism found at Saturns rings and moons
    raises questions about how long these energetic,
    entropy-rich processes on small moons and in thin
    rings can be sustained. Cassini already
    spectacularly falsified the global ocean on
    Titan hypothesis when its Huygens probe landed
    on a soggy mud flat in 2005. Are we to believe
    the geysers on Enceladus have been going on for
    4.5 billion years but stopped earlier on larger
    Dione? Are we incredibly lucky to be seeing the
    flimsy F-ring running out of moonlets right when
    Cassini is there to observe it?

10/31/2015
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Saturn Moons Continue to Shine????????
  • We must keep in mind that, in science, there is a
    vast difference between scientific observation
    and scientific explanation. Unquestionably, our
    maps of the surfaces of Enceladus, Iapetus and
    Titan are vastly superior today than they were
    after Voyagers 1 and 2. Thats significant
    progress. The images of the F-ring are also
    orders of magnitude better than they were in the
    1980s. Nevertheless, the explanations for
    activity on Enceladus and Titan seem strained.
    Are these anomalies that could lead to a
    scientific revolution?

10/31/2015
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Saturn Moons Continue to Shine????????
  • Its notable that this is the 50th anniversary of
    philosopher of science Thomas Kuhns influential
    book, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.
    David Kaiser in Nature took note of that, as did
    Evolution News Views in several posts. The book
    that brought paradigm shift into the vernacular
    started a wave of thought that toppled logical
    positivism and helped many people realize that
    science is not necessarily the objective,
    neutral, truth-seeking, progressive enterprise
    students are led to believe, but in fact is
    governed by sociological and cultural factors
    that often stifle creative thinking by focusing
    attention on what questions are worth answering,
    what puzzles are worth solving, and what research
    is worth funding.

10/31/2015
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Saturn Moons Continue to Shine????????
  • The planetary science community tends to be a
    close-knit thought collective with a web of
    belief that is tolerant of maverick views only to
    a point. If enough anomalies continue to pile up
    at Saturn, though, it will be interesting to
    watch if several long-held assumptions may have
    to be jettisoned to account for them. This may be
    a good time for new minds, uncluttered by
    tradition and consensus, to look at Cassinis
    observations afresh.

10/31/2015
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Paradigm Shift Impact Didnt Kill Dinosaurs
???? ????????
  • A new study casts doubt on whether asteroid
    impacts led to extinctions. Its based on
    re-interpreting geological evidence used to
    identify impacts. This finding, if sustained,
    would undermine the theory that an impact killed
    off the dinosaurs and a later impact led to the
    extinction of many large mammals. Even more
    significant, an overturn of the impact hypothesis
    would illustrate that scientists are capable of
    going off on wrong tangents for decades.

10/31/2015
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Paradigm Shift Impact Didnt Kill Dinosaurs
???? ????????
  • The study by the U.S. Geological Survey, reported
    by PhysOrg, found that impact markers, such as
    elevated levels of iridium, magnetic spherules,
    and titanomagnetite grains, can form in wetlands
    and marshes called black mats. The impact markers
    had been used to support the Cretaceous-Tertiary
    (K-T) extinction and a more hotly contested
    Younger Dryas Impact theory that led to
    extinction of the Clovis culture allegedly 12,900
    years ago. The new study published by Pigati et
    al in PNAS1 casts doubt on the uses of these
    markers to infer asteroid impacts.

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???? ????????
  • The abstract states,
  • In this study, we investigated black mats ranging
    in age from approximately 6 to more than 40 ka in
    the southwestern United States and the Atacama
    Desert of northern Chile. At 10 of 13 sites, we
    found elevated concentrations of iridium in bulk
    and magnetic sediments, magnetic spherules,
    and/or titanomagnetite grains within or at the
    base of black mats, regardless of their age or
    location, suggesting that elevated concentrations
    of these markers arise from processes common to
    wetland systems, and not a catastrophic
    extraterrestrial impact event.

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Paradigm Shift Impact Didnt Kill Dinosaurs
???? ????????
  • The impact of this re-interpretation goes
    beyond extinction theories
  • Luis and Walter Alvarezs proposal that an
    extraterrestrial impact was responsible for
    extinctions at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary
    eventually moved from unlikely hypothesis to
    accepted theory, and with its acceptance came the
    temptation to apply this explanation to any rapid
    change in Earths conditions, said USGS Director
    Marcia McNutt. The results of this study
    demonstrate the importance of maintaining a
    healthy skepticism and multiple working
    hypotheses.

10/31/2015
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Paradigm Shift Impact Didnt Kill Dinosaurs
???? ????????
  • The impact theory may not be dead yet
    undoubtedly critics will have a rebuttal to the
    USGS study. Even so, the healthy skepticism and
    multiple working hypotheses advice has been
    sadly lacking in the news media and on science TV
    as many jumped on the impact-theory bandwagon
    without considering the impact on sciences
    credibility should the popular hypothesis be
    overturned. What do the popular-media producers
    care? They made their money and some retired. The
    losers are students who grow up believing
    whatever scientists tell them and what animators
    show them, but dont get to hear the rest of
    the story till too late if at all.

10/31/2015
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King David Ruled Cities, Not Shepherds
????????,???????
  • Ongoing archaeological finds from Khirbet Qeiyafa
    in ancient Judah now show conclusively that the
    site had fortified walls with gates,
    administrative buildings, bronze and iron
    objects, and artifacts suggesting extensive trade
    with foreign powers. These discoveries cast doubt
    on the minimalist chronology of some liberal
    scholars who claim that King David, even if he
    existed, was a tribal chief over pastoralists.

10/31/2015
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King David Ruled Cities, Not Shepherds
????????,???????
  • Todd Bolen at Bible Places Blog has summarized
    the major finds. The full report on the Israeli
    Antiquities Authority website by Yossi Garfinkel
    et al. tells how the goal of the 4th and 5th
    excavation seasons last year was to identify Iron
    Age IIA features of the fortress city south of
    Jerusalem that has been radiometrically dated to
    the late 11th and early 10th centuries BC the
    time of David and Solomon.

10/31/2015
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King David Ruled Cities, Not Shepherds
????????,???????
  • Khirbet Qeiyafa received international press in
    2008 with the discovery of a pottery inscription
    from that period. The findings suggest a complex
    civilization during the time of David this
    settlement, uncovered to date, included two
    gates, two gate plazas, twenty-eight casemates
    (twenty complete), ten residential buildings and
    remains of administrative buildings at the top of
    the site. Large quantities of artifacts were
    discovered on the floors of the houses in each
    area, including hundreds of pottery vessels that
    can be restored, hundreds of stone objects,
    dozens of metallic objects and small finds. Much
    evidence was found of ritual activity, including
    mazzevot, a cultic chamber, models of temples
    (two of ceramic and one of stone) and a figurine.

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King David Ruled Cities, Not Shepherds
????????,???????
  • 1. A town plan characteristic of the Kingdom of
    Judah that is also known from other sites, e.g.,
    Bet Shemesh, Tell en-Nasbeh, Tell Beit Mirsim and
    Beer Sheva. A casemate wall was built at all of
    these sites and the citys houses next to it
    incorporated the casemates as one of the
    dwellings rooms. This model is not known from
    any Canaanite, Philistine or Kingdom of Israel
    site.2. Massive fortification of the site,
    including the use of stones that weigh up to
    eight tons apiece.3. Two gates. To date, no Iron
    Age cities with two gates were found in either
    Israel or Judah.4. An open space for a gate
    plaza was left near each gate.

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????????,???????
  • 5. The citys houses were contiguous and built
    very close together.6. Some 500 jar handles
    bearing at least one finger print were found.
    Marking jar handles is characteristic of the
    Kingdom of Judah and it seems this practice has
    already begun in the early Iron Age.7. A
    profusion of bronze and iron objects were found.
    The iron objects included three swords, about
    twenty daggers, arrowheads and two spearheads.
    The bronze items included an axe, arrowheads,
    rings and a small bowl.8. Trade and imported
    objects. Ashdod ware, which was imported from the
    coastal plain, was found at the site. Basalt
    vessels were brought from a distance of more than
    100 km and clay juglets from Cyprus and two
    alabaster vessels from Egypt were discovered.

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????????,???????
  • It should be noted that Khirbet Qeiyafa was a
    relatively small outlying fortress in Judah. The
    conclusions of the excavators is that the
    minimalist chronology has been falsified in light
    of this evidence The excavations at Khirbat
    Qeiyafa clearly reveal an urban society that
    existed in Judah already in the late eleventh
    century BCE. It can no longer be argued that the
    Kingdom of Judah developed only in the late
    eighth century BCE or at some other later date.
  • Incidentally, the fortress is within eyesight of
    the Elah valley, the location of the battle of
    David and Goliath.

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????????,???????
  • Dont forget that archaeology is an intelligent
    design science. A great deal can be inferred
    about the intelligence and purpose of the
    creators of these artifacts, even though we have
    never met the designers, dont know their names,
    and cannot describe everything that brought their
    work into existence. This goes to show that
    intelligent design is a working scientific
    principle and method in the sciences. If the same
    methods are used to infer intelligent causes in
    other phenomena, such as genetic software and
    fine-tuning of the laws of physics, then so be it.

10/31/2015
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Planet Theories vs. the Evidence ????????
  • Planet theorists are putting up a valiant fight
    against new findings, but in some cases, the
    evidence seems to be winning.
  • Moon. New research provokes more questions about
    the origin of the moon, blazes a headline on
    PhysOrg from last month. For some time now, the
    favored scenario for our moons origin has been
    that a Mars-size body impacted the earth, and the
    moon formed from the debris. Scientists even gave
    a mythical name to the impactor Theia. Trouble
    is, Theia might really be just a myth

10/31/2015
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Planet Theories vs. the Evidence ????????
  • Now, new research from geophysical scientist
    Junjun Zhang and colleagues, suggests that such
    thinking might be wrong. In their paper published
    in Nature Geoscience, they find that in comparing
    titanium isotopes from both the moon and the
    Earth, that the match is too close to support the
    theory that the moon could have been made partly
    of material from another planet.

10/31/2015
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Planet Theories vs. the Evidence ????????
  • The match of isotopes between Earth and moon is
    too close to believe that a distant impactor
    brought material from elsewhere. But it is even
    more implausible to imagine Earth spinning so
    fast to throw off some of its material to form
    the moon. This leaves mythmakers in an amusing
    paradox Hopefully new research will one day
    provide us with a definitive answer. Until that
    day though, it seems we will all have to just
    keep on musing.

10/31/2015
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Planet Theories vs. the Evidence ????????
  • Mars The dry-Marsers scored more points over the
    wet-Marsers this month. In Nature News (April
    11), Eric Hand wrote an article entitled, Dreams
    of water on Mars evaporate Climate models reveal
    the red planet was mostly cold and dry. The
    pendulum has swung back to the dry-Marsers

10/31/2015
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Planet Theories vs. the Evidence ????????
  • Last month, Jim Head, a planetary scientist at
    Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island,
    threw a wet blanket on the idea that Mars was
    ever very wet at all, in a keynote talk at the
    Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in The
    Woodlands, Texas. Head and others are assembling
    a picture of a Mars that was cold and dry from
    the beginning, punctuated at most by short bursts
    of wetness. The notion of a palm-tree-covered
    Mars has waned, says Stephen Clifford, a
    planetary scientist at the Lunar and Planetary
    Institute in Houston, Texas, who is organizing a
    conference in May on the early climate of Mars.

10/31/2015
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Planet Theories vs. the Evidence ????????
  • Heads revisionism is driving Mars lifers into
    hiding Jeff Andrews-Hanna Colorado School of
    Mines says the shift in thinking doesnt rule
    out life on ancient Mars, but instead drives it
    deeper underground.

10/31/2015
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Planet Theories vs. the Evidence ????????
  • A paper in Science today (27 April 2012 Vol. 336
    no. 6080 pp. 449452, DOI 10.1126/science.1219437
    ) doesnt need Martian water, either.
    Strange-looking polygons and coils in Athabasca
    Valles were explained by Phil Christensen and
    Andrew Ryan as artifacts of lava flows. The
    spiral coils found by Ryan on HiRise photos from
    the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (see photo on
    National Geographic News) are like fossil eddies
    created by shear stress in the flowing pahoehoe
    lava (see Science Daily). They dont require
    water or ice for their formation. Moreover, they
    formed quickly

10/31/2015
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Planet Theories vs. the Evidence ????????
  • Ice-related processes fail to account for our
    observations. There are no known mechanisms to
    naturally produce spiral patterns in ice-rich
    environments on the scale and frequency observed
    in our study area. If the primary plates were ice
    rafts, then the water extruded during rafting
    would not have the correct viscosity to form and
    preserve the coils. We have also shown that the
    polygons formed after the fracture and drift of
    the secondary plates on which they are present.
    This precludes the notion that the polygons
    formed over decades or even centuries in an
    ice-rich regolith, because it seems unlikely that
    frozen soil could somehow fracture and drift.

10/31/2015
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Planet Theories vs. the Evidence ????????
  • Late Heavy Bombardment. The notion of a Late
    Heavy Bombardment (LHB) of the inner solar
    system long after the birth of Earth is taking
    some bombardment of its own. The spotty impact
    record on the moon is making it difficult to
    maintain that a stream of high-velocity impactors
    came in a barrage about 4 million years ago
    crater data seem to indicate a mix of
    high-velocity and low-velocity impactors. Richard
    A. Kerr in Science reported on the controversy at
    the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference where,
    at a pre-conference workshop, William Bottke
    tried to be diplomatic. To keep peace between the
    catastrophists (who believe in the LHB) and the
    pacifists (who assert that most cratering tapered
    off after the birth of the inner planets), Bottke
    suggested both groups might be partly right.

10/31/2015
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Planet Theories vs. the Evidence ????????
  • At the conference, Bottke presented a blend of
    the competing bombardment histories that takes
    account of the spotty impact record produced by a
    mix of fast and slow impactors. Bottke thinks
    the resulting late bombardment was longer and
    less intense than many catastrophists have
    proposed.
  • Kerr did not indicate if everybody is happy with
    the compromise.

10/31/2015
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Planet Theories vs. the Evidence ????????
  • Nebular hypothesis More new troubles are brewing
    for old ideas that debris disks around stars are
    nurseries for planets. The old picture was that
    dust is hot near the star, but frozen at the
    outer edge of the disk. A frost line in the
    middle segregates rocky from volatile material
    that presumably remains frozen in its primordial
    state. Alas, more evidence has come in that
    complicates the picture. A study reported by the
    Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics,
    echoed on PhysOrg, indicates that some of the
    outermost material of dust disks must have
    melted. Infrared measurements can differentiate
    between amorphous and crystalline dust.

10/31/2015
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Planet Theories vs. the Evidence ????????
  • Primordial dust is assumed to have been
    amorphous. To have become crystalline, as the
    data from the Spitzer Space Telescope indicated,
    the outermost dust must have heated up to the
    melting point and re-frozen. This echoes
    observations from comets, once thought to be
    primordial snowballs from the edges of our solar
    system, but have been observed to contain
    high-melting-point ingredients (4/18/2011).

10/31/2015
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Planet Theories vs. the Evidence ????????
  • Theorists are stuck with two possibilities the
    dust migrated from the inner regions outward by
    some unknown mechanism, or another unknown
    mechanism (perhaps a shock wave) heated the
    material in the outer regions. The press release
    put the best possible spin on this new puzzle
    The new paper answers some questions while
    refining others, and is a good example of the
    important progress being made today in
    understanding how planets and planetary systems
    form. Being interpreted, this means, We havent
    a clue, but science marches on.

10/31/2015
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Planet Theories vs. the Evidence ????????
  • Cosmic rays Another theory on a cosmic scale
    took a big hit this month with no replacement
    paradigm in sight. Astronomers had hoped to
    explain high-energy cosmic rays as coming from
    some of the most energetic events known to occur
    in the universe gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). New
    measurements from a large neutrino detector
    embedded in Antarctic ice (appropriately named
    IceCube) failed to correlate detector flashes
    with the short-lived bursts. The report in Nature
    (484, 19 April 2012, pp. 351354,
    doi10.1038/nature11068) left explanations
    hanging

10/31/2015
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Planet Theories vs. the Evidence ????????
  • This implies either that GRBs are not the only
    sources of cosmic rays with energies exceeding
    1018?electronvolts or that the efficiency of
    neutrino production is much lower than has been
    predicted.
  • Observations were 3.6 times lower than predicted
    by theory. Space.com titled its report, Cosmic
    Ray Mystery Leaves Scientists in the Dark.
    PhysOrg headlined, Neutrinos put cosmic ray
    theory on ice.

10/31/2015
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Planet Theories vs. the Evidence ????????
  • These reports might support scientific progress
    by falsification i.e., that science progresses
    by ruling out theories. Its helpful to know that
    some popular theories are no longer supportable
    by new evidence, but scientific understanding
    cannot grow by subtraction alone. When what we
    think we know turns out to be false, can
    scientists really claim to understand the world?
    An article on Evolution News Views questions
    whether known knowns are progressing against
    known unknowns, unknown unknowns and
    unknowable unknowns and whether positivists
    like Michael Shermer have a clue where the
    boundary lies between knowledge and ignorance.

10/31/2015
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Planet Theories vs. the Evidence ????????
  • We certainly applaud the teams that build,
    operate and collect data from intelligently-design
    ed instruments like Spitzer, IceCube and Mars
    Reconnaissance Orbiter. Data from these amazing
    instruments are a gift bequeathed to us in the
    information age. We only point out that good data
    are a necessary, but not sufficient, condition
    for scientific understanding. Time after time, we
    provide examples in these pages of predictions,
    expectations and favored theories that are
    suffering a late heavy bombardment of high-speed
    data impactors. Maybe it will dawn on some
    readers that the consensus worldview, the
    bottom-up, naturalistic evolutionary assumption,
    is a detriment to scientific understanding.

10/31/2015
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Questioning the Dino-Bird Hypothesis ??-??????
  • The scientific consensus has pretty much declared
    it a fact of natural history that birds evolved
    from dinosaurs. One evolutionary professor
    remains a gadfly, though. He contests the
    evidence on which the hypothesis is based, and
    also believes his maverick position is growing.

10/31/2015
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Questioning the Dino-Bird Hypothesis ??-??????
  • Alan Feduccia, a distinguished professor emeritus
    at the University of North Carolina in Chapel
    Hill, wrote an essay for New Scientist. His
    position does not deny an evolutionary origin of
    birds, but places the feathered dinosaurs so
    often portrayed as ancestors of modern birds on a
    dead-end branch. He claims his position is more
    in line with 19th century paleontologist Richard
    Owen and 20th century evolutionist Gavin de Beer.
    These men viewed flightless birds as degenerate
    products of variation, not stages toward flight
    for instance, de Beer in 1956 showed
    conclusively that flightless birds descended from
    flying ancestors and have never re-evolved
    flight.

10/31/2015
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Questioning the Dino-Bird Hypothesis ??-??????
  • Similarly, Feduccia holds that the feathered
    dinosaurs attracting so much attention in the
    media were either pure scaly dinosaurs with whose
    decayed collagen has been misinterpreted as
    proto-feathers, or were degenerate flightless
    birds. His own view is that the birds evolved
    from archosaurs, the predecessors in evolutionary
    history of the true dinosaurs. He thinks some of
    the archosaurs lived in trees and developed
    flight as they jumped (the arboreal hypothesis).

10/31/2015
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Questioning the Dino-Bird Hypothesis ??-??????
  • Critics of Darwinism will, therefore, find
    Feduccias own evolutionary view to be just as
    implausible as the consensus view. What he says
    in his essay, however, is illuminating about the
    habits of a scientific consensus. Here are some
    salient points

10/31/2015
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Questioning the Dino-Bird Hypothesis ??-??????
  • Sinosauropteryx, a fossil with alleged
    proto-feathers, caused a sensation when it was
    announced in Nature in 1998. But no evidence
    then or now has emerged showing that these
    structures are anything other than collagen
    fibres supporting a typical reptilian frill,
    Feduccia said. The fact that the filaments are
    located within a clearly demarcated body outline
    indicating the fibres were not external, as
    they would be if they were feather-like
    structures was completely ignored.

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Questioning the Dino-Bird Hypothesis ??-??????
  • Feduccia continued, aware of the latest claims.
    Other fibres have been described in herbivorous
    ornithischians and pterosaurs, which have no
    connection with birds, but there is still little
    evidence to connect any of these structures with
    feathers. The tyrannosaurids fibers, whatever
    they were, cannot possibly have been used for
    flight see Science Daily The large size of
    Yutyrannus and the downy structure of its
    feathers would have made flight an
    impossibility, the article stated April 5.
  • Feduccia described some of the other alleged
    feathered dinosaurs, like Caudipteryx and
    Protarchaeopteryx, but considered them
    secondarily flightless birds.

10/31/2015
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Questioning the Dino-Bird Hypothesis ??-??????
  • He sees the consensus view as a dangerous return
    to dogma over scientific caution
  • Birds as living dinosaurs is now a cornerstone
    of modern paleontological thought. But a
    consensus is always in danger of turning into
    dogma. Indeed, given the cult-like belief in the
    fields orthodoxy, it seems that every fossil
    pulled from the Chinese deposits is accompanied
    by hyperbolic pronouncements of it having filled
    a major evolutionary gap. Yet many of these
    discoveries lack normal scientific stringency,
    and we see a transition from normal scientific
    falsification to simply confirming what is
    already thought to be known.

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Questioning the Dino-Bird Hypothesis ??-??????
  • Feduccia described his opinion as a minority
    one, but growing in popularity. He rejects the
    fantastical proposals about dinosaurs with
    protofeathers, dinosaurs with bird wings and
    modern feathers, four-winged gliding dinosaurs,
    and tiny supposed theropods from the Jurassic
    period with avian wings.
  • The birds-from-dinosaurs controversy has a long
    history, Feduccia explained. Richard Owen in 1875
    set the record straight when Thomas Huxley
    first advanced the view that birds evolved from
    dinosaurs. Owen predicted that science will
    accept the view of the Dodo as a degenerate Dove
    rather than as an advanced Dino, thus stating
    the crux of the current controversy.

10/31/2015
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