Multi-Dimensional Concept of Power Implications for Training and Performance - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Multi-Dimensional Concept of Power Implications for Training and Performance

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Title: Measurement and Evaluation in Human Performance Author: Department of Human Performance Last modified by: Craig Cisar Created Date: 9/6/2003 2:32:47 PM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Multi-Dimensional Concept of Power Implications for Training and Performance


1
Multi-Dimensional Concept of PowerImplications
for Training and Performance
  • CRAIG J. CISAR, Ph.D.
  • CSCS, D, NSCA-CPT, D
  • DEPARTMENT OF KINESIOLOGY
  • SAN JOSE STATE UNIVERSITY

2
DEFINITION OF POWER
  • WORK/TIME
  • WORK FORCE X DISTANCE
  • (FORCE X DISTANCE)/TIME
  • VELOCITY DISTANCE/TIME
  • FORCE X VELOCITY

3
FACTORS LIMITING POWER
  • FORCE
  • CONTRACTILE PROTEIN IN SARCOMERE
  • ACTIN
  • MYOSIN
  • NOTE TOTAL FORCE ACTIN MYOSIN BINDING PLUS
    ELASTIC STORED ENERGY

4
FACTORS LIMITING POWER
  • ELASTIC STORED ENERGY LOCATED IN
  • MUSCLES
  • TENDONS
  • NOTE ELASTIC ENERGY IN TENDONS HAS GREATER
    FORCE POTENTIAL THAN ELASTIC ENERGY IN MUSCLES,
    BUT IS LIMITED IN USE DUE TO THE NECESSITY TO
    OPTIMIZE COORINATED MOVEMENT FORM

5
FACTORS LIMITING POWER
  • STRETCH REFLEX MECHANISM
  • PRESTRETCH OF MUSCLE TO 120 OF NORMAL
    RESTING MUSCLE LENGTH
  • MORE OPTIMAL BINDING OF ACTIN AND MYOSIN
  • MUSCLE SPINDLES DETECT STRETCH EVOKING
    REFLEX CONTRACTION BY THE STRETCHED MUSCLE
  • EXAMPLES (1) CONTRACTING AGONIST STRETCHES
    ANTAGONIST AND (2) DURING THE ECCENTRIC PHASE OF
    PLYOMETRICS

6
FACTORS LIMITING POWER
  • MOVEMENT SPEED AND REACTION TIME
  • CENTRAL AND PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS
  • NEUROTRANSMITTER CONCENTRATIONS
  • MYELINATION OF AXONS
  • INTRAMUSCULAR ENZYME CONCENTRATIONS OF
    PHOSPHAEN (ATP-PC) METABOLISM
  • MYOSIN ATPASE
  • CREATINE PHOSPHOKINASE
  • ADENYLATE KINASE

7
WAYS TO IMPROVE POWER
8
INCREASED FORCE (I.E., STRENGTH) PRODUCTION
CAPABILITES
  • NEURAL ADAPTATIONS
  • CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
  • ENHANCED ACTIVATION OF MOTOR TRACTS FROM
    THE PRIMARY AND PREMOTOR CORTEXES
  • PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM INCREASED
    RECRUITMENT OF MOTOR UNITS

9
INCREASED FORCE (I.E., STRENGTH) PRODUCTION
CAPABILITES
  • INCREASED CONTRACTILE PROTEIN VIA MUSCLE
    HYPERTROPY (I.E., MUSCLE FIBER SIZE)
  • HIGH VOLUME STRENGTH TRAINING PROGRAM
  • INCREASED HYPERPLASIA (I.E., MUSCLE FIBER
    NUMBER)
  • HIGH INTENSITY STRENGTH TRAINING PROGRAM
  • gtNEURAL ADAPTATIONSgtHYPERTROPHYgtHYPERPLASIA

10
INCREASED FORCE (I.E., STRENGTH) PRODUCTION
CAPABILITES
  • MUSCLE FIBER TYPE AND SPEED OF MOVEMENT
  • FAST-TWITCH MUSCLE FIBERS GREATER FORCE
    PRODUCTION
  • FAST-TWITCH MUSCLE FIBERS
  • FASTER SPEED OF CONTRACTION
  • FAST-TWITCH MUSCLE FIBERS GREATER FORCE
    PRODUCTION AT FASTER SPEEDS OF MOVEMENT

11
MUSCLE FIBER TYPE AND SPEED OF MOVEMENT
12
INCREASE MOVEMENT SPEED (I.E., VELOCITY) AND
ACCELERATION
  • MUSCLE FIBER TYPE
  • FAST-TWITCH MUSCLE FIBERS
  • FASTER SPEED OF CONTRACTION

13
MUSCLE FIBER TYPE
14
INCREASE MOVEMENT SPEED (I.E., VELOCITY) AND
ACCELERATION
  • FORCE VERSUS RESISTANCE
  • INCREASED FORCE AND/OR DECREASED
    RESISTANCE INCREASED MOVEMENT SPEED
  • ACCLERATION FORCE/MASS
  • INCREASED FORCE AND/OR DECREASED MASS
    (E.G., FAT MASS) INCREASED ACCELERATION

15
INCREASE MOVEMENT SPEED (I.E., VELOCITY) AND
ACCELERATION
  • COORDINATION
  • SYNCHRONUS RECRUITMENT OF MOTOR UNITS
  • AGONIST MUSCLE VERSUS ANTAGONIST
  • BALANCED INTERACTION BETWEEN
  • AGONISTIC MUSCLE AND ANTAGONIST MUSCLE

16
INCREASE MOVEMENT SPEED (I.E., VELOCITY) AND
ACCELERATION
  • DECREASE REACTION TIME AND HENCE
  • MOVEMENT TIME
  • CENTRAL AND PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS
    ADAPTATIONS
  • INCREASE DISTANCE OF FORCE APPLICATION
  • TRAINING
  • DEVELOPMENT MOVEMENT SKILLS AND
  • TECHNIQUE

17
POWER NEEDS ANALYSIS
18
FORCE VERSUS VELOCITY
19
PERCENT OF MAXIMAL POWER VERSUS VELOCITY
20
TRAINING AND PERFORMANCE IMPLICATIONS
21
SPECIFICIY OF TRAINING
  • FORCE VERSUS VELOCITY
  • NEEDS ANALYSIS
  • HIGHER FORCE CAPABILITIES AT SLOWER
    VELOCITY OR LOWER FORCE CAPABILITIES AT
    FASTER VELOCITY OR BOTH?
  • CAN EITHER END OF THE FORCE VELOCITY
    CONTINUUM BE IGNORED?

22
SPECIFICIY OF TRAINING
  • NEEDS ANALYSIS
  • WHICH MUSCLE GROUPS NEED TO BE POWER TRAINED?
  • DOES THE POWER TRAINING NEED TO BE SIMILAR
    FOR ALL MUSCLE GROUPS?
  • CAN ANY MUSCLE GROUPS BE IGNORED IN TERMS
    OF POWER TRAINING?

23
SPECIFICIY OF TRAINING
  • NEEDS ANALYSIS
  • RANGE OF MOTION
  • THROUGH WHAT RANGE OF MOTION DOES POWER
    NEED TO BE DEVELOPED?
  • BE CREATIVE IN SELECTING AND DEVLOPING
    EXERCISE TRAINING TECHNIQUES THAT MIMIC THE
    REQUIRED RANGE OF MOTION

24
SPECIFICIY OF TRAINING CLOSED-CHAIN VERSUS
OPEN-CHAIN KINETIC EXERCISES
25
SPECIFICIY OF TRAINING
  • CLOSED-CHAIN KINETIC EXERCISES
  • IN CLOSED-CHAIN EXERCISES THE DISTAL SEGMENT
    (E.G., HAND OR FOOT) IS FIXED WHILE THE
    PROXIMAL SEGMENT MOVES
  • EXAMPLE IN WEIGHT BEARING EXERCISES THE
    BODY MOVES OVER THE HAND OR FOOT
  • NO LINK WITHIN THE CHAIN CAN MOVE
    INDEPENDENTLY OF THE OTHERS ALL ARE AFFECTED
    BY MOVEMENT OF ONE SEGMENT

26
SPECIFICIY OF TRAINING
  • OPEN-CHAIN KINETIC EXERCISES
  • IN OPEN-CHAIN EXERCISES THE DISTAL SEGMENT
    MOVES FREELY IN SPACE
  • IN OPEN-CHAIN EXERCISES THE MOTION OF
    ADJACENT JOINTS IS NOT PREDICTABLE AS THEY MAY
    MOVE INDEPENDENTLY OR TOGETHER

27
SPECIFICIY OF TRAINING
  • CLOSED-CHAIN KINETIC EXERCISES
  • LOWER-EXTREMITY MOVEMENTS IN SPORTS ARE
    PRIMARILY CLOSED-CHAIN
  • CLOSED-CHAIN EXERCISES CAN BE USED TO
    IMPROVE STRENGTH, POWER, STABILITY, BALANCE,
    CORDINATION, AND AGILITY
  • CAPABLE OF GENERATING LARGE FORCES BUT AT
    SLOWER VELOCITIES
  • MORE BALANCED MUSCLE ACTIVATION AND FORCE
    PRODUCTION
  • CONSIDERED TO BE MORE FUNCTIONAL

28
SPECIFICIY OF TRAINING
  • OPEN-CHAIN KINETIC EXERCISES
  • PRODUCE HIGH VELOCITY MOVEMENTS
  • SUCH AS THROWING OR KICKING A BALL, SWINGING
    A GOLF CLUB OR BAT, OR SWINGING THE LEG DURING
    RUNNING OR ARM DURING SWIMMING
  • HENCE, IMPORTANT DURING MANY SPORTS AS WELL
    AS DAILY ACTIVITIES
  • BETTER AT ISOLATING MUSCLES THAT ARE WEAK

29
SPECIFICIY OF TRAINING CLOSED-CHAIN VERSUS
OPEN-CHAIN KINETIC EXERCISES
  • NEEDS ANALYSIS
  • WHICH TYPE OF CHAIN KINETICS NEEDS TO BE
    DEVELOPED?
  • OPEN CHAIN OR CLOSED CHAIN OR BOTH?
  • BE CREATIVE IN SELECTING AND DEVELOPING
    EXERCISE TRAINING TECHNIQUES THAT MIMIC THE
    REQUIRED CHAIN KINETICS

30
SPECIFICIY OF TRAINING
  • FAST-TWITCH MUSCLE FIBER TYPE
  • GREATER FORCE
  • GREATER SPEED (I.E., VELOCITY)
  • GREATER POWER
  • CAN TRAINING INCREASE THE SIZE (HYPERTROPHY)
    AND/OR NUMBER (HYPERPLASIA) OF FAST-TWITCH
    MOTOR UNITS?
  • HYPERTROPHY HAS LONG BEEN ACCEPTED
  • HYPERPLASIA DOCUMENTED IN CROSS- SECTIONAL
    AND LONGITUDINAL STUDIES
  • CAN TRAINING CHANGE MUSCLE FIBER TYPE?
  • MUSCLE FIBER TYPE CONVERSION HAS BEEN
    QUESTIONED

31
MUSCLE FIBER TYPE CONVERSION
32
SPECIFICIY OF TRAINING
  • PHOSPHAGEN (ATP-PC) ENERGY SYSTEM
  • HIGHEST POWER (KCAL/SEC)
  • LOWEST CAPACITY (TOTAL KCAL)
  • PRIMARY ENERGY SYSTEM USED IN POWER ACTIVITIES
  • DEVELOPMENT OF ATP-PC ENERGY SYSTEM
  • HIGH INTENSITY, SHORT DURATION ACTIVITY
  • LONGER REST PERIODS TO REPLENISH ATP-PC
  • 25-30 SECONDS TO REPLENISH 50
  • 2-3 MINUTES TO REPLENISH 100

33
GENERAL TRAINING GUIDELINES
  • HIGH FORCE DEVELOPMENT CONCENTRIC STRENGTH
    TRAINING
  • 2-4 SETS USING A 2-4 RM (90-95 OF
  • 1-RM) WORKLOAD PERFORMED 3-5 DAYS PER WEEK
    WITH A 2-5 MINUTE
  • REST PERIOD
  • MOST FREQUENTLY USED WITH MULTI- JOINT, CORE
    EXERCISES (I.E., MULTI- JOINT EXERCISES
    INVOLVING ONE OR MORE LARGE MUSCLE GROUPS) FOR
    SINGLE-EFFORT EVENTS

34
GENERAL TRAINING GUIDELINES
  • HIGH SPEED DEVELOPMENT CONCENTRIC STRENGH
    TRAINING
  • 2-4 REPETITIONS PER SET, 3-4 SETS PER
    EXERCISE USING A 30-60 1-RM WORKLOAD WITH
    A 2-5 MINUTE REST PERIOD
  • USED WITH MULTI-JOINT POWER EXERCISES (E.G.,
    POWER SNATCH, POWER CLEAN, HANG CLEAN, PUSH
    JERK, AND PUSH PRESS) FOR MULTIPLE-EFFORT
    EVENTS AGAINST A MODERATE (60 1-RM
    WORKLOAD) TO LIGHT (30 1-RM WORKLOAD)
    RESISTANCE

35
GENERAL TRAINING GUIDELINES
  • PLYOMETRIC TRAINING
  • IN-PLACE, SHORT RESPONSE, AND LONG RESPONSE
    EXERCISES
  • LOWER BODY EXERCISES INVOLVING
  • QUICK FEET MOVEMENTS, SKIPS, HOPS, JUMPS, AND
    BOUNDS WITH OR WITHOUT CONES, HURDLES, BOXES,
    ETC.
  • UPPER BODY EXERCISES INVOLVING MEDICINE
    BALLS AND BODY WEIGHT WITH OR WITHOUT BOXES

36
GENERAL TRAINING GUIDELINES
  • SPEED TRAINING
  • SHORT INTERVAL, REPETITION TRAINING USING
    WORK BOUTS OF 2-3 SEC UP TO 30 SEC WITH A
    WORKREST RATIO OF 13 OR 15 AND A PASSIVE
    RECOVERY
  • ACCELERATION SPRINTS - GRADUAL INCREASES IN
    SPEED FROM JOGGING TO STRIDING TO SPRINTING IN
    50-100 METER SEGMENTS

37
GENERAL TRAINING GUIDELINES
  • SPEED TRAINING
  • HOLLOW SPRINTS - TWO SPRINTS WITH A PERIOD OF
    WALKING OR JOGGING IN BETWEEN BETWEEN EACH
    SPRINT
  • SPEED TRAINING - REPEATED SHORT, MAXIMAL
    SPRINTS WITH COMPLETE RECOVERY BETWEEN EACH
    SPRINT
  • OTHER SPEED DRILLS

38
GENERAL TRAINING GUIDELINES
  • AGILITY TRAINING
  • IMPROVE REACTION TIME
  • IMPROVE EXPLOSIVE CHANGE OF DIRECTION
    CAPABILITIES
  • FLEXIBILITY TRAINING
  • IMPROVE DISTANCE THROUGH WHICH FORCE CAN BE
    EXPLOSIVELY APPLIED
  • BALANCE TRAINING
  • PROVIDE A STATIC AND DYNAMIC FOUNDATIONAL
    PLATFORM FOR EXPLOSIVE MOVEMENT

39
EXAMPLES OF TRAINING MODALITIES
  • BODY WEIGHT
  • WEIGHTED CHEST VESTS
  • ANKLE AND WRIST WEIGHTS
  • BARBELLS AND DUMBBELLS
  • MEDICINE AND KETTLE BALLS

40
EXAMPLES OF TRAINING MODALITIES
  • OTHER EQUIPMENT TO IMPROVE STRENGTH, SPEED,
    AGILITY, AND/OR BALANCE
  • RUBBER BANDS AND TUBING
  • BOXES, STEPS, HURDLES, AND CONES
  • SLIDE BOARDS
  • LADDERS
  • RINGS AND DOTS
  • TUBING/CORDS, HARNESSES, AND BELTS
  • PARACHUTES (E.G., POWER CHUTES)
  • MATS AND STABILITY BALLS
  • BALANCE ROLLERS, DISCS, BEAMS, AND BOARDS
  • OTHER - BE CREATIVE AND HAVE FUN!

41
THANK YOU VERY MUCH!
  • QUESTIONS??
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