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LIGO-India Detecting Einstein

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Title: LIGO-India Detecting Einstein


1
LIGO-IndiaDetecting Einsteins Elusive
WavesOpening a New Window to the Universe
  • An Indo-US joint mega-project concept proposal

IndIGO Consortium (Indian
Initiative in Gravitational-wave Observations)
Version 1R Jun 17, 2011 TS
www.gw-indigo.org
2
Space Time as a fabric
Special Relativity (SR) replaced Absolute
space and Absolute Time by flat 4-dimensional
space-time (the normal three dimensions of
space, plus a fourth dimension of time). In
1916, Albert Einstein published his famous Theory
of General Relativity, his theory of gravitation
consistent with SR, where gravity manifests as
a curved 4-diml space-time Theory
describes how space-time is affected by mass and
also how energy, momentum and stresses affects
space-time. Matter tells space-time how to
curve, and Space-time tells matter how to move.
3
Space Time as a fabric
Earth follows a straight path in the curved
space-time caused by suns mass !!!
4
Beauty Precision
Einsteins General theory of relativity is the
most beautiful, as well as, successful theory
of modern physics. It has matched all
experimental tests of Gravitation remarkably
well. Era of precision tests GP-B,.
5
What happens when matter is in motion?
6
  • Einsteins Gravity predicts
  • Matter in motion ?Space-time ripples
    fluctuations in space-time curvature that
    propagate as waves
  • Gravitational waves (GW)
  • In GR, as in EM, GW travel at the speed of
    light (i.e., mass-less) , are transverse and have
    two states of polarization.
  • The major qualitatively unique prediction
    beyond Newtons gravity
  • Begs direct verification !!!


7
A Century of Waiting
  • Almost 100 years since Einstein predicted GW but
    no direct experimental confirmation a la Hertz
  • Two Fundamental Difference between GR and EM
  • - Weakness of Gravitation relative to EM (10-39)
  • -Spin two nature of Gravitation vs Spin one of EM
    that forbids dipole radiation in GR
  • Low efficiency for conversion of mechanical
    energy to GW. Feeble effects of GW on a Detector
  • GW Hertz experiment ruled out. Only
    astrophysical systems involving huge masses and
    accelerating very strongly are potential
    sources of GW signals.

8
GW ?? Astronomy link
  • Astrophysical systems are sources of copious GW
    emission
  • Typically, GW emission (0.1) gtgt EM radiation
    via Nuclear process (0.025)
  • Energy emitted in GW from binary gtgt EM radiation
    in the lifetime
  • Universe is buzzing with GW signals from cores
    of astrophysical events
  • Bursts (SN, GRB), mergers, accretion, stellar
    cannibalism ,
  • Extremely Weak interaction, hence, has been
    difficult to detect directly
  • But also implies GW carry unscreened
    uncontaminated signals

9
GW from Binary Neutron stars
Pulsar
companion
10
Indirect evidence for Gravity waves
Nobel prize in 1993 !!!
Binary pulsar systems emit gravitational waves
  • leads to loss of orbital energy
  • period speeds up 14 sec from 1975-94
  • measured to 50 msec accuracy
  • deviation grows quadratically with time

Hulse and Taylor Results for PSR191316
11
Principle behind Detection of GW
12
Effect of GW on a ring of test masses
Interferometer mirrors as test masses
13
Detecting GW with Laser Interferometer
B
A
Difference in distance of Path A B ?
Interference of laser light at the detector
(Photodiode)
14
Interferometry Path difference of light ?
phase difference
Equal arms Dark fringe
The effects of gravitational waves appear as a
fluctuation in the phase differences between two
orthogonal light paths of an interferometer.
Unequal arm Signal in PD
15
Challenge of Direct Detection
Gravitational wave is measured in terms of
strain, h (change in length/original length)
Gravitational waves are very weak!
Expected amplitude of GW signals
Measure changes of one part in
thousand-billion-billion!
16
LIGO Optical Configuration
Michelson Interferometer
input test mass
Laser
17
Initial LIGO Sensitivity Goal
  • Strain sensitivity lt3x10-23 1/Hz1/2at 200 Hz
  • Sensor Noise
  • Photon Shot Noise
  • Residual Gas
  • Displacement Noise
  • Seismic motion
  • Thermal Noise
  • Radiation Pressure

18
LIGO and Virgo TODAY
Milestone Decades-old plans to build and
operate large interferometric GW detectors now
realized at several locations worldwide Experiment
al prowess LIGO, VIRGO operating at
predicted sensitivity!!!!
  • Pre-dawn GW astronomy Unprecedented sensitivity
    already allows
  • Upper Limits on GW from a variety of
    Astrophysical sources. Refining theretical
    modelling
  • Improve on Spin down of Crab, Vela pulsars,
  • Exptally surpass Big Bang nucleosynthesis bound
    on Stochastic GW..

19
Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave
Observatory (LIGO)
20
Astrophysical Sources for Terrestrial GW Detectors
  • Compact binary inspiral chirps
  • NS-NS, NS-BH, BH-BH
  • Supernovas or GRBs bursts
  • GW signals observed in coincidence with EM or
    neutrino detectors
  • Pulsars in our galaxy periodic waves
  • Rapidly rotating neutron stars
  • Modes of NS vibration
  • Cosmological stochastic background ?
  • Probe back to the Planck time (10-43 s)
  • Probe phase transitions window to force
    unification
  • Cosmological distribution of Primordial black
    holes

21
Using GWs to Learn about the Source an Example
Over two decades, RRI involved in computation of
inspiral waveforms for compact binaries their
implications and IUCAA in its Data Analysis
Aspects.
Can determine
  • Distance from the earth r
  • Masses of the two bodies
  • Orbital eccentricity e and orbital inclination i

22
Advanced LIGO
  • Take advantage of new technologies and on-going
    RD
  • gtgt Active anti-seismic system operating to lower
    frequencies
  • (Hannover, GEO)
  • gtgt Lower thermal noise suspensions and optics
  • (GEO )
  • gtgt Higher laser power 10 W ? 180 W
  • (Hannover group, Germany)
  • gtgt More sensitive and more flexible optical
    configuration
  • Signal recycling (GEO)
  • Design 1999 2010 10 years of high end R
    D internationally.
  • Construction Start 2008 Installation 2011
    Completion 2015

23
  • Quantum measurements
  • to improve further via squeezed light
  • New ground for optical technologists in India
  • High Potential to draw the best Indian UG
    students typically interested in theoretical
    physics into experimental science !!!

24
Tailoring the frequency response
  • Signal Recycling New idea in interferometry
  • Additional cavity formed with mirror at
    output
  • Can be made resonant, or anti-resonant, for
    gravitational wave frequencies
  • Allows redesigning the noise curve
  • to create optimal band sensitive to
    specific astrophysical signatures

25
Schematic Optical Design of Advanced LIGO
detectors
Reflects International cooperation Basic nature
of GW Astronomy
LASER AEI, Hannover Germany
Seismic isolation Suspension GEO, UK
26
Advanced LIGO Laser
  • Designed and contributed by Albert Einstein
    Institutelt Germany
  • Higher power
  • 10W -gt 180W
  • Better stability
  • 10x improvement in intensity and frequency
    stability

27
Advanced LIGO Mirrors
  • Larger size
  • 11 kg -gt 40 kg
  • Smaller figure error
  • 0.7 nm -gt 0.35 nm
  • Lower absorption
  • 2 ppm -gt 0.5 ppm
  • Lower coating thermal noise
  • All substrates delivered
  • Polishing underway
  • Reflective Coating process starting up

28
Advanced LIGO Seismic Isolation
  • Two-stage six-degree-of-freedom active isolation
  • Low noise sensors, Low noise actuators
  • Digital control system to blend outputs of
    multiple sensors, tailor loop for maximum
    performance
  • Low frequency cut-off 40 Hz -gt 10 Hz

29
Advanced LIGO Suspensions
  • UK designed and contributed test mass suspensions
  • Silicate bonds create quasi-monolithic pendulums
    using ultra-low loss fused silica fibres to
    suspend interferometer optics
  • Pendulum
  • Q 105 -gt 108
  • Suppression at 10 Hz ?
  • at 1 Hz ?

29
30
Era of Advanced LIGO detectors 2015
  • 10x sensitivity
  • 10x reach
  • 1000 volume
  • gtgt 1000 event rate
  • (reach beyond
  • nearest super-clusters)
  • A Day of Advanced LIGO Observation gtgt
  • A year of Initial LIGO

31
Expected Annual Coalescence Event Rates
Detector Generation NS-NS NS-BH BH-BH
Initial LIGO (2002 -2006) 0.02 0.0006 0.0009
Enhanced LIGO (2X Sensitivity) (2009-2010) 0.1 0.04 0.07
Advanced LIGO (10X sensitivity) (2014 - ) 40 10. 20.0
In a 95 confidence interval, rates uncertain by
3 orders of magnitude NS-NS (0.4 - 400) NS-BH
(0.2 - 300) BH-BH (2 - 4000) yr-1 Based on
Extrapolations from observed Binary Pulsars,
Stellar birth rate estimates, Population
Synthesis models. Rates quoted below are mean of
the distribution.
32
Scientific Payoffs
  • Advanced GW network sensitivity needed to
    observe
  • GW signals at monthly or even weekly rates.
  • Direct detection of GW probes strong field
    regime of gravitation
  • ? Information about systems in which strong-field
    and time dependent gravitation dominates, an
    untested regime including non-linear
    self-interactions
  • GW detectors will uncover NEW aspects of the
    physics
  • ? Sources at extreme physical conditions (eg.,
    super nuclear density physics), relativistic
    motions, extreme high density, temperature and
    magnetic fields.
  • GW signals propagate un-attenuated
  • weak but clean signal from cores of astrophysical
    event where EM signal is screened by ionized
    matter.
  • Wide range of frequencies ? Sensitivity over a
    range of astrophysical scales
  • To capitalize one needs a global array of GW
    antennas separated by continental distances to
    pinpoint sources in the sky and extract all the
    source information encoded in the GW signals

33
GW Astronomy with Intl. Network of GW
Observatories
1. Detection confidence 2. Duty cycle 3.
Source direction 4. Polarization info.
LIGO-India ?
34
From the GWIC Strategic Roadmap for GW Science
with thirty year horizon (2007)
  • the first priority for ground-based
    gravitational wave detector development is to
    expand the network, adding further detectors with
    appropriately chosen intercontinental baselines
    and orientations to maximize the ability to
    extract source information. .Possibilities for a
    detector in India (IndIGO) are being studied..

35
(No Transcript)
36
vit
Gravitational wave Astronomy
  • Synergy with other major Astronomy projects
  • SKA -Radio Pulsars timing,
  • X-ray satellite (AstroSat) High energy
    physics
  • Gamma ray observatory
  • Thirty Meter Telescope Resolving multiple
    AGNs, gamma ray follow-up after GW trigger,
  • LSST Astro-transients with GW triggers.
  • INO neutrino signals

GWIC Roadmap Document
37
The Gravitational wave legacy
  • Two decades of Indian contribution to the
    international effort for detecting GW on two
    significant fronts
  • Seminal contributions to source modeling at RRI
    Bala Iyer and to GW data analysis at IUCAA
    Sanjeev Dhurandhar which has been
    internationally recognized
  • RRI Indo-French collaboration for two decades
    to compute high accuracy waveforms for
    in-spiraling compact binaries from which the GW
    templates used in LIGO and Virgo are constructed.
  • IUCAA Designing efficient data analysis
    algorithms involving advanced mathematical
    concepts.
  • Notable contributions include the search for
    binary in-spirals, hierarchical methods, coherent
    search with a network of detectors and the
    radiometric search for stochastic gravitational
    waves.
  • IUCAA has collaborated with most international
    GW detector groups and has been a member of the
    LIGO Scientific Collaboration.
  • At IUCAA, Tarun Souradeep with expertise in CMB
    data and Planck has worked to create a bridge
    between CMB and GW data analysis challenges.

38
Indian Gravitational wave strengths
  • Very good students and post-docs produced from
    these activities.
  • Leaders in GW research abroad
    Sathyaprakash, Bose, Mohanty (3) Recently
    returned to faculty positions at premier Indian
    institutions (6) Gopakumar, Archana Pai,
    Rajesh Nayak, Anand Sengupta, K.G. Arun, Sanjit
    Mitra, P. Ajith?
  • Gopakumar (?) and Arun (?) PN modeling,
    dynamics of CB, Ap and cosmological implications
    of parameter estimation
  • Rajesh Nayak (UTB ? IISER K) , Archana Pai (AEI ?
    IISER T), Anand Sengupta (LIGO, Caltech? Delhi),
    Sanjit Mitra (JPL ? IUCAA ) Extensive experience
    on single and multi-detector detection,
    hierarchical techniques, noise characterisation
    schemes, veto techniques for GW transients,
    bursts, continuous and stochastic sources,
    radiometric methods,
  • P. Ajith (Caltech, TAPIR ? ? )
  • Sukanta Bose (Faculty UW, USA ? ?)
  • Strong Indian presences in GW Astronomy with
    Global detector network ? broad international
    collaboration is the norm ? relatively easy to
    get people back.
  • Close interactions with Rana Adhikari (Caltech),
    B.S. Sathyaprakash (Cardiff), Sukanta Bose ( WU,
    Pullman), Soumya Mohanty (UTB), Badri Krishnan (
    AEI)
  • Very supportive Intl community reflected in
    Intl Advisory somm of IndIGO

39
High precision and Large experiment in India
  • C.S. Unnikrishnan (TIFR) involved in high
    precision experiments and tests
  • Test gravitation using most sensitive torsional
    balances and optical sensors.
  • Techniques related to precision laser
    spectroscopy, electronic locking, stabilization.
  • Ex students from this activity G.Rajalakshmi
    (TIFR, 3m prototype) Suresh Doravari (Caltech
    40m)
  • Groups at BARC and RRCAT involved in LHC
  • providing a variety of components and subsystems
    like precision magnet positioning stand jacks,
    superconducting correcting magnets, quench heater
    protection supplies and skilled manpower support
    for magnetic tests and measurement and help in
    commissioning LHC subsystems.
  • S.K. Shukla at RRCAT on INDUS UHV experience.
  • S.B. Bhatt and Ajai Kumar at IPR on Aditya
    UHV experience.
  • A.S. Raja Rao (ex RRCAT) consultant on UHV
  • Sendhil Raja (RRCAT)
  • Optical system design
  • laser based instrumentation, optical metrology
  • Large aperture optics, diffractive optics,
    micro-optic system design.
  • Anil Prabhakar IITM and Pradeep Kumar IITK (EE
    dept s)
  • Photonics, Fiber optics and communications
  • Characterization and testing of optical
    components and instruments for use in India..
  • Rijuparna Chakraborty (Observatoire de la Cote
    d'Azur)..Adaptive Optics..
  • Under consideration for postdoc in LIGO or Virgo.

40
  • CMI, Chennai
  • Delhi University
  • IISER Kolkata
  • IISER Trivandrum
  • IIT Madras (EE)
  • IIT Kanpur (EE)
  • IUCAA
  • RRCAT
  • TIFR
  • RRI
  • IPR, Bhatt
  • Jamia Milia Islamia
  • Tezpur Univ

41
The IndIGO Consortium
  • IndIGO Council
  • Bala Iyer ( Chair) RRI,
    Bangalore
  • Sanjeev Dhurandhar (Science) IUCAA, Pune
  • C. S. Unnikrishnan (Experiment) TIFR, Mumbai
  • Tarun Souradeep (Spokesperson) IUCAA, Pune
  • Data Analysis Theory
  • Sanjeev Dhurandhar IUCAA
  • Bala Iyer RRI
  • Tarun Souradeep IUCAA
  • Anand Sengupta Delhi University
  • Archana Pai IISER,
    Thiruvananthapuram
  • Sanjit Mitra JPL , IUCAA
  • K G Arun Chennai Math. Inst., Chennai
  • Rajesh Nayak IISER, Kolkata
  • A. Gopakumar TIFR, Mumbai
  • T R Seshadri Delhi University
  • Patrick Dasgupta Delhi University
  • Sanjay Jhingan Jamila Milia Islamia, Delhi
  • L. Sriramkumar, Phys., IIT M
  • Bhim P. Sarma Tezpur Univ .
  • P Ajith Caltech , USA
  • Sukanta Bose, Wash. U., USA
  • B. S. Sathyaprakash Cardiff University, UK
  • Instrumentation Experiment
  • C. S. Unnikrishnan TIFR, Mumbai
  • G Rajalakshmi TIFR, Mumbai
  • P.K. Gupta RRCAT, Indore
  • Sendhil Raja RRCAT, Indore
  • S.K. Shukla RRCAT, Indore
  • Raja Rao ex RRCAT, Consultant
  • Anil Prabhakar, EE, IIT M
  • Pradeep Kumar, EE, IIT K
  • Ajai Kumar IPR, Bhatt
  • S.K. Bhatt IPR, Bhatt
  • Ranjan Gupta IUCAA, Pune
  • Rijuparna Chakraborty, Cote dAzur, Grasse
  • Rana Adhikari Caltech, USA
  • Suresh Doravari Caltech, USA
  • Biplab Bhawal (ex LIGO)

42


23 July 2011 Dear Bala

I am writing to invite you to attend
the next meeting of the Gravitational Wave
International Committee (GWIC) to present the
GWIC membership application for IndIGO. This
in-person meeting will give you the opportunity
to interact with the members of GWIC and to
answer their questions about the status and plans
for IndIGO. Jim Hough (the GWIC Chair) and I have
reviewed your application and believe that you
have made a strong case for membership
43
IndIGO Advisory Structure
Committees
National Steering Committee Kailash Rustagi
(IIT, Mumbai) ChairBala Iyer (RRI)
CoordinatorSanjeev Dhurandhar (IUCAA)
Co-CoordinatorD.D. Bhawalkar (Quantalase,
Indore)Advisor P.K. Kaw (IPR) Ajit Kembhavi
(IUCAA) P.D. Gupta (RRCAT)J.V. Narlikar
(IUCAA)G. Srinivasan
International Advisory Committee Abhay Ashtekar
(Penn SU) Chair Rana Adhikari (LIGO, Caltech,
USA) David Blair (AIGO, UWA, Australia)Adalberto
Giazotto (Virgo, Italy)P.D. Gupta (Director,
RRCAT, India)James Hough (GEO Glasgow,
UK)GWIC ChairKazuaki Kuroda (LCGT,
Japan)Harald Lueck (GEO, Germany)Nary Man
(Virgo, France)Jay Marx (LIGO, Director,
USA)David McClelland (AIGO, ANU,
Australia)Jesper Munch (Chair, ACIGA,
Australia)B.S. Sathyaprakash (GEO, Cardiff Univ,
UK)Bernard F. Schutz (GEO, Director AEI,
Germany)Jean-Yves Vinet (Virgo, France)Stan
Whitcomb (LIGO, Caltech, USA)
Program Management Committee C S Unnikrishnan
(TIFR, Mumbai), Chair Bala R Iyer (RRI,
Bangalore), Coordinator Sanjeev Dhurandhar
(IUCAA, Pune) Co-cordinator Tarun Souradeep
(IUCAA, Pune) Bhal Chandra Joshi (NCRA, Pune) P
Sreekumar (ISAC, Bangalore) P K Gupta (RRCAT,
Indore) S K Shukla (RRCAT, Indore) Sendhil Raja
(RRCAT, Indore)
44
IndIGO the goals
  • Provide a common umbrella to initiate and expand
    GW related experimental activity and training new
    manpower
  • 3m prototype detector in TIFR (funded) -
    Unnikrishnan
  • Laser expt. RRCAT, IIT M, IIT K - Sendhil
    Raja, Anil Prabhakar, Pradeep Kumar
  • Ultra High Vacuum controls at RRCAT, IPR,
    BARC, ISRO, . Shukla, Raja Rao, Bhatt,
  • UG summer internship at National International
    GW labs observatories.
  • Postgraduate IndIGO schools, specialized
    courses,
  • Consolidated IndIGO membership of LIGO
    Scientific Collaboration in Advanced LIGO
  • Proposal to create a Tier-2 data
    centre for LIGO Scientific Collaboration in IUCAA
  • IUSSTF Indo-US joint Centre at IUCAA
    with Caltech (funded)
  • Major experimental science initiative in GW
    astronomy
  • Earlier Plan Partner in LIGO-Australia (a
    diminishing possibility)
  • Advanced LIGO hardware for 1 detector to be
    shipped to Australia at the Gingin site, near
    Perth. NSF approval
  • Australia and International partners find funds
    (equiv to half the detector cost 140M and 10
    year running cost 60M)
  • within a year.
  • Indian partnership at 15 of Australian cost
    with full data rights.
  • Today LIGO-India (Letter from LIGO Labs)
  • Advanced LIGO hardware for 1 detector to be
    shipped to India.

45
IndIGO 3m Prototype Detector
Funded by TIFR Mumbai on compus (2010) PI C.
S. Unnikrishnan (Cost INR 2.5 crore)
46
IndIGO Data Centre_at_IUCAA
  • Primary Science Online Coherent search for GW
    signal from binary mergers using data from global
    detector network
  • Role of IndIGO data centre
  • Large Tier-2 data/compute centre for archival of
    g-wave data and analysis
  • Bring together data-analysts within the Indian
    gravity wave community.
  • Puts IndIGO on the global map for international
    collaboration with LIGO Science Collab. wide
    facility. Part of LSC participation from IndIGO
  • Large University sector participation via IUCAA
  • 200 Tflops peak capability
  • Storage 4x100TB per year per interferometer.
  • Network gigabit backbone, National Knowledge
    Network
  • Gigabit dedicatedlink to LIGO lab Caltech

Courtesy Anand Sengupta, IndIGO
47
Indo-US centre for Gravitational Physics and
Astronomy
APPROVED for funding (Dec 2010)
  • Centre of Indo-US Science and Technology
    Forum (IUSSTF)
  • Exchange program to fund mutual visits and
  • facilitate interaction.
  • Nodal centres IUCAA , India Caltech, US.
  • Institutions
  • Indian IUCAA, TIFR, IISER, DU, CMI - PI
    Tarun Souradeep
  • US Caltech, WSU
    - PI Rana Adhikari

48
Dear Prof. Kasturirangan,

1 June 2011 In its road-map
with a thirty year horizon, the Gravitational
Wave International Committee (a working unit of
the International Union of Pure and Applied
Physics, IUPAP) has identified the expansion of
the global network of gravitational wave
interferometer observatories as a high priority
for maximizing the scientific potential of
gravitational wave observations. We are writing
to you to put forward a concept proposal on
behalf of LIGO Laboratory (USA) and the IndIGO
Consortium, for a Joint Partnership venture to
set up an Advanced gravitational wave detector at
a suitable Indian site. In what follows this
project is referred to as LIGO-India. The key
idea is to utilize the high technology instrument
components already fabricated for one of the
three Advanced LIGO interferometers in an
infrastructure provided by India that matches
that of the US Advanced LIGO observatories.
LIGO-India from LIGO
LIGO-India could be operational early in the
lifetime of the advanced versions of
gravitational wave observatories now being
installed the US (LIGO) and in Europe (Virgo and
GEO) and would be of great value not only to the
gravitational wave community, but to broader
physics and astronomy research by launching an
era of gravitational wave astronomy, including,
the fundamental first direct detection of
gravitational waves. As the southernmost member
observatory of the global array of gravitational
wave detectors, India would be unique among
nations leading the scientific exploration of
this new window on the universe. The present
proposal promises to achieve this at a fraction
of the total cost of independently establishing a
fully-equipped and advanced observatory. It also
offers technology that was developed over two
decades of highly challenging global RD effort
that preceded the success of Initial LIGO
gravitational wave detectors and the design of
their advanced version.
49
LIGO-India Why is it a good idea?for India
  • Has a 20 year legacy and wide recognition in the
    Intl. GW community with seminal contributions to
    Source modeling (RRI) Data Analysis (IUCAA).
    High precision measurements (TIFR), Participation
    in LHC (RRCAT)
  • (Would not make it to the GWIC report,
    otherwise!)
  • AIGO/LIGO/EGO strong interest in fostering
    Indian community
  • GWIC invitation to IndIGO join as member (July
    2011)
  • Provides an exciting challenge at an
    International forefront of experimental science.
    Can tap and siphon back the extremely good UG
    students trained in India. (Sole cause of brain
    drain).
  • 1st yr summer intern 2010 ? MIT for PhD
  • Indian experimental scientist ? Postdoc at LIGO
    training for Adv. LIGO subsystem
  • Indian experimental expertise related to GW
    observatories will thrive and attain high levels
    due to LIGO-India.
  • Sendhil Raja, RRCAT, Anil Prabhakar, EE, IIT
    Madras, Pradeep Kumar, EE, IITK Photonics
  • Vacuum expertise with RRCAT (S.K. Shukla, A.S.
    Raja Rao) , IPR (S.K. Bhatt, Ajai Kumar)
  • Jump start direct participation in GW
    observations/astronomy
  • going beyond analysis methodology
    theoretical prediction --- to full fledged
    participation in experiment, data acquisition,
    analysis and astronomy results.
  • For once, may be perfect time to a launch into a
    promising field (GW astronomy) with high end
    technological spinoffs well before it has
    obviously blossomed. Once in a generation
    opportunity to host an Unique International
    Experiment here.

50
LIGO-India Why is it a good idea? for the World
  • Strategic geographical relocation for GW
    astronomy
  • Improved duty cycle
  • Detection confidence
  • Improved Sky Coverage
  • Improved Location of Sources required for
    multi-messenger astronomy
  • Determine the two polarizations of GW
  • Potentially large science community in future
  • Indian demographics youth dominated need
    challenges
  • excellent UG education system already produces
    large number of trained in India find frontline
    research opportunity at home.
  • Large data analysis trained manpower and
    facilities exist (and being created.

51
LIGO-India Salient points of this megaproject
  • On Indian Soil will draw and retain science
    tech. manpower
  • International Cooperation, not competition
    LIGO-India success critical to the success of
    the global GW science effort. Complete Intl
    support
  • Shared science risk with International community
    ? Shared historical, major science discovery
    credit !!!
  • AdvLIGO setup initial challenge/risks primarily
    rests with USA.
  • AdvLIGO-USA precedes LIGO-India by gt 2 years.
  • India sign up for technically demonstrated/establ
    ished part (gt10 yr of operation in initial LIGO )
    ? 2/3 vacuum enclosure 1/3 detector assembly
    split (US costing manpower and h/ware costs)
  • However, allows Indian scientist to collaborate
    on highly interesting science technical
    challenges of Advanced LIGO-USA ( opportunity
    without primary responsibility)
  • Expenditure almost completely in Indian labs
    Industry huge potential for landmark technical
    upgrade in all related Indian Industry
  • Well defined training plan core Indian technical
    team thru Indian postdoc in related exptal areas
    participation in advLIGO-USA installation and
    commissioning phase, cascade to training at
    Indian expt. centers
  • Major data analysis centre for the entire LIGO
    network with huge potential for widespread
    University sector engagement.
  • US hardware contribution funded ready advLIGO
    largest NSF project, LIGO-India needs NSF
    approval but not additional funds

52
LIGO-India the opportunity
Strategic Geographical relocation science gain
Source localization error
Original plan 2 1 LIGO USA Virgo
LIGO-India plan 11 LIGO USA Virgo LIGO India
LIGO-Aus plan 11 LIGO USA Virgo LIGO Aus
53
LIGO-India the opportunity
Strategic Geographical relocation science gain
Polarization info
Homogeneity of Sky coverage
Courtesy B. Schutz
54
LIGO-India the opportunity
Strategic Geographical relocation science gain
Sky coverage Synthesized Network
beam (antenna power)
Courtesy B. Schutz
55
LIGO-India the opportunity
Strategic Geographical relocation science gain
Sky coverage reach /sensitivity in different
directions
Courtesy B. Schutz
56
Strategic Geographical relocation science gain
Network HHLV HILV AHLV
Mean horizon distance 1.74 1.57 1.69
Detection Volume 8.98 8.77 8.93
Volume Filling factor 41.00 54.00 44.00
Triple Detection Rate(80) 4.86 5.95 6.06
Triple Detection Rate(95) 7.81 8.13 8.28
Sky Coverage 81 47.30 79.00 53.50
Directional Precision 0.66 2.02 3.01
57
LIGO-India unique once-in-a-generation
opportunity
LIGO labs ?LIGO-India
  • 180 W pre-stabilized NdYAG laser
  • 10 interferometer core optics (test masses,
    folding mirrors, beam splitter, recycling
    mirrors)
  • Input condition optics, including electro-optic
    modulators, Faraday isolators, a suspended
    mode-cleaner (12-m long mode-defining cavity),
    and suspended mode-matching telescope optics.
  • 5 "BSC chamber" seismic isolation systems (two
    stage, six degree of freedom, active isolation
    stages capable of 200 kg payloads)
  • 6 "HAM Chamber" seismic isolation systems (one
    stage, six degree of freedom, active isolation
    stages capable of 200 kg payloads)
  • 11 Hydraulic External Pre-Isolation systems
  • Five quadruple stage large optics suspensions
    systems
  • Triple stage suspensions for remaining suspended
    optics
  • Baffles and beam dumps for controlling
    scattering and stray radiation
  • Optical distortion monitors and thermal
    control/compensation system for large optics
  • Photo-detectors, conditioning electronics,
    actuation electronics and conditioning
  • Data conditioning and acquisition system,
    software for data acquisition
  • Supervisory control and monitoring system,
    software for all control systems
  • Installation tooling and fixturing

58
LIGO-India vs. Indian-IGO ?
  • Primary advantage LIGO-India Provides cutting
    edge instrumentation technology to jump start
    GW detection and astronomy.
  • Would require at least a decade of focused
    sustained technology developments in Indian
    laboratories and industry
  • 180 W Nd-Yag 5 years Rs. 10-12 crores.
  • Operation and maintenance should benefit further
    development in narrow line width lasers.
  • Applications in high resolution spectroscopy,
  • precision interferometry and metrology.
  • Input condition optics..Expensive..No Indian
    manufacturer with such specs
  • BSC, HAM.. Minimum 2 of years of experimentation
    and RD.
  • Experience in setting up and maintaining these
    systems ? know how forisolation in critical
    experiments such as in optical metrology,AFM/Micr
    oscopy, gravity experiments etc.
  • 10 interferometer core optics.. manufacturing
    optics of this quality and develop required
    metrology facility At least 5 to 7 years
    ofdedicated RD work in optical polishing,
    figuring and metrology.
  • Five quadruple stage large optics suspensions
    systems.. 3-4 years of development.. Not trivial
    to implement.
  • Benefit other physics experiments working at the
    quantum limit of noise.

59
  • LIGO-India Expected Indian Contribution
  • Indian contribution in infrastructure
  • Site (L-configuration Each 50-100 m x 4.2 km)
  • Vacuum system
  • Related Controls
  • Data centre
  • Indian contribution in human resources
  • Trained manpower for installation and
    commissioning
  • Trained manpower for LIGO-India operations for
    10 years
  • Simulation and Data Analysis teams

60
The Science Payoffs
  • New Astronomy, New Astrophysics, New Cosmology,
    New Physics
  • A New Window ushers a New Era of Exploration in
    Physics Astronomy
  • Testing Einsteins GR in strong and time-varying
    fields
  • Testing Black Hole phenomena
  • Understanding nuclear matter by Neutron star EOS
  • Neutron star coalescence events
  • Understanding most energetic cosmic events
    ..Supernovae, Gamma-ray bursts, LMXBs, Magnetars
  • New cosmology..SMBHBs as standard sirens..EOS of
    Dark Energy
  • Phase transition related to fundamental
    unification of forces
  • Multi-messenger astronomy
  • The Unexpected !!!!!

61
The Technology Payoffs
  • Lasers and optics..Purest laser light..Low phase
    noise, excellent beam quality, high single
    frequency power
  • Applications in precision metrology, medicine,
    micro-machining
  • Coherent laser radar and strain sensors for
    earthquake prediction and other precision
    metrology
  • Surface accuracy of mirrors 100 times better than
    telescope mirrors..Ultra-high reflective
    coatings New technology for other fields
  • Vibration Isolation and suspension..Applications
    for mineral prospecting
  • Squeezing and challenging quantum limits in
    measurements.
  • Ultra-high vacuum system 10-9 tor (1picomHg).
    Beyond best in the region
  • Computation Challenges Cloud computing, Grid
    computing, new hardware and software tools for
    computational innovation.

62
The rewards and spinoffs
  • Detection of GW is the epitome of breakthrough
    science!!!
  • LIGO-India ? India could become a partner in
    international science of Nobel Prize significance
  • GW detection is an instrument technology
    intensive field pushing frontiers simultaneously
    in a number of fields like lasers and photonics.
    Impact allied areas and smart industries.
  • The imperative need to work closely with industry
    and other end users will lead to spinoffs as GW
    scientists further develop optical sensor
    technology.
  • Presence of LIGO-India will lead to pushing
    technologies and greater innovation in the
    future.
  • The largest UHV system will provide industry a
    challenge and experience.

63
rewards and spinoffs
  • LIGO-India will raise public/citizen profile of
    science since it will be making ongoing
    discoveries fascinating the young.
  • GR, BH, EU and Einstein have a special attraction
    and a pioneering facility in India participating
    in important discoveries will provide science
    technology role models with high visibility and
    media interest.
  • LIGO has a strong outreach tradition and
    LIGO-India will provide a platform to increase it
    and synergetically benefit.
  • Increase number of research groups performing at
    world class levels and produce skilled
    researchers.
  • Increase number of businesses investing in RD.
    Provide opportunities to increase proportion of
    industries engaging in innovation.
  • Increase international collaborations in Indian
    research establishing Science Leadership in the
    Asia-Pacific region.

64
  • LIGO-India the challenges
  • Organizational
  • National level DST-DAE Consortium Flagship
    Mega-project
  • Identify a lead institution and agency
  • Project leader
  • Construction Substantial Engg project building
    Indian capability in large vacuum system engg,
    welding techniques and technology
  • Complex Project must be well-coordinated and
    effectively carried out
  • in time and meeting the almost
    zero-tolerance specs
  • Train manpower for installation commissioning
  • Generate sustain manpower running for 10
    years.
  • Site
  • short lead time
  • International competition (LIGO-Argentina ??)
  • Technical
  • vacuum system
  • Related Controls
  • Data centre

65
LIGO-India the challenges
Trained Manpower for installation commissioning
LIGO-India Director Project manager Project
engineering staff Civil engineer(s) Vacuum
engineer(s) Systems engineer(s), Mechanical
engineers Electronics engineers Software
engineers Detector leader Project system
engineer Detector subsystem leaders 10
talented scientists or research engineers with
interest and knowledge collectively
spanning Lasers and optical devices, Optical
metrology, handling and cleaning, Precision
mechanical structures, Low noise electronics,
Digital control systems and electro-mechanical
servo design, Vacuum cleaning and handling)

66
Logistics and Preliminary Plan
  • Assumption Project taken up by DAE as a
    National Mega Flagship Project.
  • All the persons mentioned who are currently
    working in their centers would be mainly in a
    supervisory role of working on the project during
    the installation phase and training manpower
    recruited under the project who would then
    transition into the operating staff.
  • Instrument Engineering No manpower required for
    design and development activity. For installation
    and commissioning phase and subsequent operation
  • Laser ITF Unnikrishnan, Sendhil Raja, Anil
    Prabhaker.
  • TIFR, RRCAT, IITM. 10 Post-doc/Ph.D students.
    Over 2-3 years.
  • Spend a year at Advanced LIGO. 6 full time
    engineers and scientists. If project sanctioned,
    manpower sanctioned, LIGO-India project hiring at
    RRCAT, TIFR, other insitututions/Labs.
  •  

67
Large scale ultra-high Vacuum enclosure S.K.
Shukla (RRCAT),A.S. Raja Rao (ex RRCAT), S.
Bhatt (IPR), Ajai Kumar (IPR)
  • To be fabricated by IndIGO with designs from
    LIGO. A pumped volume of 10000m3 (10Mega-litres),
    evacuated to an ultra high vacuum of 10-9 torr.
  • Spiral welded beam tubes 1.2m in diameter and
  • 20m length.
  • Butt welding of 20m tubes together to 200m
    length.
  • Butt welding of expansion bellows between 200m
    tubes.
  • Gate valves of 1m aperture at the 4km tube ends
    and the middle.
  • Optics tanks, to house the end mirrors and beam
    splitter/power and signal recycling optics
    vacuum pumps.
  • Gate valves and peripheral vacuum components.
  • Baking and leak checking

68
Large scale ultra-high Vacuum enclosure
  • 5 Engineers and 5 technicians to oversee the
    procurement
  • fabrication of the vacuum system components and
    its installation. If the project is taken up by
    DAE then participation of RRCAT IPR will be
    taken up. All vacuum components such as flanges,
    gate-valves, pumps, residual gas analyzers and
    leak detectors will be bought. Companies LT,
    Fillunger, HindHiVac, Godrej with support from
    RRCAT, IPR and LIGO Lab.
  • Preliminary detailed discussions in Feb 2011
    with companies like HHV, Fullinger in
    consultation with Stan Whitcomb (LIGO), D. Blair
    (ACIGA) since this was a major IndIGO
    deliverable to LIGO-Australia
  • Preliminary Costing for LIGO-India (vacuum 400
    cr)

69
Logistics and Preliminary Plans
  • 42 persons (10 PhD/postdocs, 22
    scientists/engineers and 10 technicians)
  • Clean rooms
  • Movable tent type clean rooms during welding of
    the beam tubes and assembly of the system. Final
    building a clean room with AC and pressurization
    modules. SAC, ISRO. 1 engineer and 2 technicians
    to draw specs for the clean room equipments and
    installation.
  • Vibration isolation system 2 engineers
    (precision mechanical)
  • install and maintain the system. Sourced from
    BARC. RED (Reactor Engineering Division of BARC)
    has a group that works on vibration measurement,
    analysis and control in reactors and turbo
    machinery.
  • Electronic Control System 4 Engineers
  • install and maintain the electronics control and
    data acquisition system. Electronics
    Instrumentation Group at BARC (G. P.
    Shrivastavas group) and RRCAT.
  • Preliminary trainingsix months at LIGO. Primary
    responsibility (installing and running the
    electronics control and data acquisition system)
    RRCAT BARC. Additional activity for LIGO-India
    can be factored in XII plan if the approvals
    come in early.

70
Logistics and Work Plan
  • Teams at Electronics Instrumentation Groups at
    BARC may be interested in large instrumentation
    projects in XII plan.
  • Control software Interface 2 Engineers
  • install and maintain the computer software
    interface, distributed networking and control
    system). RRCAT and BARC. Computer software
    interface (part of the data acquisition system)
    and is the Human-machine-interface for the
    interferometer. For seamless implementation man
    power to be sourced from teams implementing
    Electronic Control System.
  • Site Selection Civil Construction
  • BARC Seismology Division Data reg. seismic noise
    at various DAE sites to do initial selection of
    sites and shortlist based on other considerations
    such as accessibility and remoteness from road
    traffic etc. DAE Directorate of Construction,
    services and Estate Management (DCSEM)
    Co-ordinate design and construction of the
    required civil structures required for the ITF.
    2 engineers 3 technicians (design supervision
    of constructions at site). Construction
    contracted to private construction firm under
    supervision of DCSEM.

71
LIGO-India the challenges
Manpower generation for sustenance of the
LIGO-India observatory Preliminary Plans
exploration
  • Since Advanced LIGO will have a lead time,
    participants will be identified who will be
    deputed to take part in the commissioning of
    Advanced LIGO and later bring in the experience
    to LIGO-India
  • Successful IndIGO Summer internships in
    International labs underway
  • High UG applications 30/40 each year from IIT,
    IISER, NISERS,..
  • 2 summers, 10 students, 1 starting PhD at
    LIGO-MIT
  • Plan to extend to participating National labs to
    generate more experimenters
  • IndIGO schools are planned annually to expose
    students to emerging opportunity in GW science
  • 1st IndIGO school in Dec 2010 in Delhi Univ.
    (thru IUCAA)
  • Post graduate school specialization courses , or
    more
  • Jayant Narlikar Since sophisticated technology
    is involved IndIGO should like ISRO or BARC
    training school set up a program where after
    successful completion of the training, jobs are
    assured.

72
LIGO-India the challenges
Indian Site
Requirements Low seismicity Low human generated
noise Air connectivity, Proximity to Academic
institution, labs, industry
  • Preliminary exploration
  • IISc new campus adjoining campuses near Chitra
    Durga
  • 1hr from Intl airport
  • low seismicity
  • National science facilities complex plans

73
Concluding remarks
  • A century after Einsteins prediction, we are on
    the threshold of a new era of GW astronomy
    following GW detection. Involved four decades
    of very innovative and Herculean struggle at the
    edge of science technology
  • First generation detectors like Initial LIGO and
    Virgo have achieved design sensitivity ?
    Experimental field is mature
  • Broken new ground in optical sensitivity, pushed
    technology and proved technique.
  • Second generation detectors are starting
    installation and expected to expand the
    Science reach by factor of 1000
  • Cooperative science model A worldwide network is
    starting to come on line and the ground work has
    been laid for operation as a integrated system.
  • Low project risk A compelling Science case with
    shared science risk, a proven design for Indias
    share of task (other part opportunity w/o
    responsibility)
  • National mega-science initiative Need strong
    multi-institutional support to bring together
    capable scientists technologist in India
  • An unique once-in-a-generation opportunity for
    India. India could play a key role in Intl.
    Science by hosting LIGO-India.

74
Concluding remarks
  • A GREAT opportunity but a very sharp deadline of
    31 Mar 2012. If we cannot act quickly the
    possibility will close. Conditions laid out in
    the Request Doc of LIGO-Lab will need to be ready
    for LIGO-Lab examination latest by Dec 2011 so
    that in turn LIGO-Lab can make a case with NSF by
    Jan 2012.
  • Of all the large scientific projects out there,
    this one is pushing the greatest number of
    technologies the hardest.
  • Every single technology theyre touching theyre
    pushing, and theres a lot of different
    technologies theyre touching.
  • (Beverly Berger, National Science
    Foundation Program director for gravitational
    physics. )
  • One is left speculating if by the centenary of
    General Relativity in 2015, the first discovery
    of Gravitational waves would be from a Binary
    Black Hole system, and Chandrasekhar would be
    doubly right about
  • Astronomy being the natural home of general
    relativity.

75
LIGO-India Action points
  • If accepted as a National Flagship Mega Project
    under the 12th plan then
  • Seed Money
  • Identification of 3-6 project leaders
  • Detailed Project Proposal
  • Site identification
  • 1st Staffing Requirement meeting Aug 1-15
  • 2nd Joint Staffing Meeting with LIGO-Lab
  • Vacuum Task related team and plans

Thank you !!!
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