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IT in Education: Sociological Perspective

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Title: IT in Education: Sociological Perspective


1
IT in Education Sociological Perspective
  • Lecture 7 12
  • The Development of IT
  • Its Impacts on Knowledge and Education
  • From Digital Epistemology to Digital Learning

Wing-kwong Tsang Sino Bldg. Room 707B Ext.
3943-6922 wktsang_at_cuhk.edu.hk
www.fed.cuhk.edu.hk/wktsang
2
From Information to Knowledge
  • Recapitulation Conceptual hierarchy of
    information and knowledge
  • Data Representations of matters and energies
    existing in external reality
  • Signals Data attended by sense organs of life
    systems
  • Information Messages codified and abstracted by
    life systems
  • Ideas and Knowledge Information systemized by
    living cognitive systems, e.g. human brain
  • Master ideas and wisdom

3
From Information to Knowledge
  • The impacts of IT on knowledge
  • The conceptualization of information space
  • IT impact on knowledge production Knowledge of
    performativity
  • IT impact on knowledge storage Knowledge network
  • IT impact on knowledge representation and
    communication Multi-medium knowledge

4
Information as Space Max Boisots Conception of
Information Space
  • Max H. Boisots conception of Information Space

5
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6
Information as Space Max Boisots Conception of
Information Space
  • Information processing and the Epistemological
    Space (E-Space)
  • Process of coding it is the perceiving process
    of reducing the number of attributes that have
    to be attended to in sense data. This is the
    function of coding it economizes on the quantity
    of data to be process. (p.57)
  • Process of abstraction it is the conceiving
    process of reducing the number of categories
    that will be used to filter sense data. This is
    the function of abstraction by the creation of
    suitable concepts it economizes on the number of
    categories through which data will have to be
    process. (p. 57)
  • E-space as property plain between these two
    dimensions

7
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8
Information as Space Max Boisots Conception of
Information Space
  • Information processing and the Epistemological
    Space (E-Space)
  • E-Space and Karl Poppers conception of three
    worlds
  • World 1 (W1) is the epistemological world of
    concrete objects, i.e. external reality
  • World 2 (W2) is the epistemological world of
    human consciousness, i.e. human effort of
    knowing, researching, and information process and
    communicating
  • World 3 (W3) is the epistemological world of
    abstract objects, i.e. scientific knowledge

9
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10
Information as Space Max Boisots Conception of
Information Space
  • Information processing and the Epistemological
    Space (E-Space)
  • Applications of E-Space
  • David Kolbs learning typology

11
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12
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13
Information as Space Max Boisots Conception of
Information Space
  • Information processing and the Epistemological
    Space (E-Space)
  • Application of E-Space
  • David Kolbs learning typology
  • Economists conception of market price and
    commodification

14
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15
Information as Space Max Boisots Conception of
Information Space
  • Information diffusion (communication), and the
    U-Space and C-Space
  • Problems of information communication
  • Level A problems How accurately can a given
    message be transmitted? (the technical problem)
  • Level B problems How precisely does the message
    convey the desired meaning? (The semantic
    problem)
  • Level C problems How effectively does the
    received meaning affect the conduct in the
    desired way? (The effectiveness problem)

16
Information as Space Max Boisots Conception of
Information Space
  • Information diffusion (communication), and the
    U-Space and C-Space
  • Utility-Space (U-Space) as property plain between
    dimensions of abstraction and diffusion of
    information
  • Cultural-Space (C-Space)as property plain between
    dimensions of codification and diffusion of
    information

17
U-Space
18
C-Space
19
Information as Space Max Boisots Conception of
Information Space
  • Information-Space It is the three-dimension
    property square among E, U, and C-Spaces

20
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21
Information as Space Max Boisots Conception of
Information Space
  • Process of Social Learning Cycle SLC
  • Phase One the creation of value
  • S-Scanning (Stock taking, status-quo analysis)
  • P-Problem solving
  • At-Abstraction
  • Phase Two the exploitation of value
  • D-Diffusion
  • Ar-Absorption
  • I-Impacting

22
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23
Information as Space Max Boisots Conception of
Information Space
  • Institutions of information transaction
  • Markets, in which transactionally relevant
    information is well codified, abstract, and
    widely diffused
  • Bureaucracy, in which transactionally relevant
    information is well codified and abstract, but
    whose diffusion is under strict central control
  • Clans, in which transactionally relevant
    information is uncodified, concrete, and only
    diffused to small group
  • Fiefs, in which transactionally relevant
    information is uncodified, concrete, and undiffued

24
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25
Information as Space Max Boisots Conception of
Information Space
  • Culture in I-space perspective
  • Definition of culture in terms of C-space
    Culture can be defined as a system of shared
    codes diffused among an aggregate of human beings
  • Culture convergence in the I-Space

26
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27
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28
IT Impacts on Knowledge Production Knowledge of
Performativity
  • The consequences of Information-Technologicalizati
    on on knowledge
  • Jean-François Lyotards thesis of linguistic and
    informational turn of knowledge generation

29
(1979)
30
IT Impacts on Knowledge Production Knowledge of
Performativity
  • The consequences of Information-Technologicalizati
    on on knowledge
  • Jean-François Lyotards thesis of linguistic and
    informational turn of knowledge generation
  • For the last forty years the leading
    sciences and technologies have had to do with
    language phonology and theories of linguistics,
    problems of communication and cybernetics, modern
    theories of algebra and informatics, computers
    and their languages, problems of translation and
    the search for areas of compatibility among
    computer languages, problems of information
    storage and data banks, telematics and the
    perfection of intelligent terminals,
    paradoxology. The facts speak for themselves (and
    this list is not exhaustive). (1979, p. 4)

31
IT Impacts on Knowledge Production Knowledge of
Performativity
  • The consequences of Information-Technologicalizati
    on on knowledge
  • Impacts of information technologies on production
    and transmission of knowledge (i.e. research and
    education)
  • Genetics provides an example that is accessible
    to the layman it owes its theoretical paradigm
    to cybernetics. (Lyotard, 1979, p.4)
  • Miniaturization and commercialization of
    intelligent machines
  • The nature of knowledge cannot survive in the
    information age until it is translatable into
    quantities of information, computer language, and
    informational commodity
  • These processes of mercantilization of
    knowledge is vital of nation-states in global
    competition in the information age.

32
IT Impacts on Knowledge Production Knowledge of
Performativity
  • The consequences of Information-Technologicalizati
    on on knowledge
  • From the world of atoms and bits The ontological
    change
  • Atoms and the world of atoms Atoms belong to
    the physical worldand to the world which can be
    captured in analogue forms. (Lankshear
    Knobel, 2003, p. 51)
  • Bits and the digital world Bits belong to the
    digital world. They are state of being like on
    or off, true or false, up or down, in or out,
    back or white which can be represented in binary
    code of 0s and 1s in a colourless, sizeless,
    weightless form that can be moved at the speed
    of light. (Lankshear Knobel, 2003, p. 51)

33
IT Impacts on Knowledge Production Knowledge of
Performativity
  • The consequences of Information-Technologicalizati
    on on knowledge
  • From the ivory tower of university to the market
    of global patent
  • In modern age, knowledge generation and creation
    are endowed dominantly to universities and their
    departments and laboratories
  • In knowledge economy, the competitiveness of
    firms and states depend on their capacities of
    applying technologies on knowledge. As a result,
    knowledge generation and transmission are on
    longer confined to the purviews of the
    higher-education institutes and have become the
    primary concerns and endeavors of firms and
    governments. (Lyotard, 1979 Guile, 2006) As a
    result, knowledge for truth has given way to
    knowledge for performativity. (Lyotard, 1979)

34
IT Impacts on Knowledge Production Knowledge of
Performativity
  • The modernist epistemology
  • Modernist conception of epistemology

35
IT Impacts on Knowledge Production Knowledge of
Performativity
Known
Knower
Self conscious use of method
Knowing
Knowledge
36
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37
IT Impacts on Knowledge Production Knowledge of
Performativity
  • The modernist epistemology
  • Modernist conception of epistemology
  • The known A proposition of the world is
    existentially real in natural or cultural sense
  • The knowner An inquiring agent is endowed with
    sensual and mental capacities to inquire truth
    embedded in the proposition of the world
  • The process of coming to know A methodical
    process of verifying or justifying the truth
    embedded in a proposition
  • The knowledge A system of justified and true
    propositions of the world

38
IT Impacts on Knowledge Production Knowledge of
Performativity
  • The modernist epistemology
  • The modernist institution of knowledge
  • Institution of knowledge production
    Universities, laboratories and research
    institutes
  • Institution of knowledge dissemination
    Institutions of authorship, publication and
    readership
  • Institution of knowledge transmission
    Institution of schooling (including curriculum,
    pedagogy and evaluation) and textbook publication

39
IT Impacts on Knowledge Production Knowledge of
Performativity
  • The digital epistemology
  • Conception of digital epistemology
  • Changes in the known
  • From physical space to cyberspace from atoms to
    bits from the world of analogues to the world of
    binary or digital states of being
  • From physical reality to virtual reality
  • Changes in the knower
  • Collaborative knowers
  • Temporally and spatially compressed or even
    evaporated footings of knowners
  • Virtual knowers Knowers with freely chosen
    avatars (frame of reference)

40
IT Impacts on Knowledge Production Knowledge of
Performativity
  • The digital epistemology
  • Conception of digital epistemology
  • Changes in the process of come to know
  • Research for truth has been replaced by research
    for fund and/or power
  • Delegitimation of modernist project of coming to
    know
  • Relegitimation of the process of coming to know
    by performativity
  • Education for humanity and emancipation has been
    replaced by education for employability and
    governability

41
IT Impacts on Knowledge Production Knowledge of
Performativity
  • The digital epistemology
  • Conception of digital epistemology
  • Changes in knowledge
  • Knowledge of performativity age
  • The translatability into computer languages
  • Accountable to the performativity of economic and
    administrative system
  • Regression of knowledge to data and/or
    information
  • Degradation of theory of signification and theory
    of knowledge with intrinsic value to theory of
    knowledge with extrinsic value of performativity

42
IT Impacts on Knowledge Production Knowledge of
Performativity
  • The digital epistemology
  • The digital institution of knowledge
  • Institution of knowledge production RD
    departments of multinational corporations, and
    government commissioned projects have become the
    major driving force of knowledge generating
    machines.
  • Institution of knowledge dissemination
    Hypertexts and hyperlinks have replaced
    institutions of authorship, publication and
    readership.
  • Institution of knowledge transmission
    Face-to-face and hierarchical schooling systems
    have been losing ground to learning network of
    hyperlinks and hypertexts in compressed space and
    time.

43
IT Impacts on Knowledge Storage Knowledge Network
  • From old library culture to hyperlinked culture
    The advent of IT has transform the old
    classification and hierarchization of information
    and knowledge into hyperlinked-network of
    knowledge ad a result, Hubert L. Dreyfus has
    characterized the transformation as a cultural
    change from old-library culture to hyperlink
    culture

44
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45
IT Impacts on Knowledge Storage Knowledge Network
  • The differences between old library culture and
    hyperlinked culture

46
IT Impacts on Knowledge Storage Knowledge Network
  • The cultural implications
  • The cultural implications of the hierarchized
    classification of information and knowledge
    Since Aristotle, we have been accustomed to
    organize information in a hierarchy of broader
    and boarder classes, each including the narrow
    ones beneath it. When information is organized
    in such a hierarchical database , the user can
    follow out the meaningful links, but the user is
    forced to commit to a certain class of
    information before he can view more specific data
    that fall under that class. (Dreyfus, 2001, P.
    10)

47
IT Impacts on Knowledge Storage Knowledge Network
  • The cultural implications
  • The cultural implications of the hierarchized
    classification of information and knowledge
  • ..Under such a knowledge system, we have to
    follow the preexisting hierarchy and system, have
    to respect the tradition, and have to comply to
    the authority in order to acquire the
    information and knowledge we need.

48
IT Impacts on Knowledge Storage Knowledge Network
  • The cultural implications
  • The cultural implications of the hyperlinked
    culture When information is organized by
    hyperlinks, however, as it is on the Web, instead
    of the relation between a class and its members,
    the organizing principle is simply the
    interconnectedness of all elements. There are no
    hierarchies everything is linked to everything
    else on a single level. .With a hyperlinked
    database, the user is encouraged to traverse a
    vast network of information, all of which is
    equally accessible and none of which is
    privileged. (Dreyfus, 2001, P.10)

49
IT Impacts on Knowledge Storage Knowledge Network
  • The cultural implications
  • This approach appeals especially to those who
    like the idea of rejecting hierarchy and
    authority. The internet is profoundly
    disrespectful of tradition, established order and
    hierarchy. (Dreyfus, 2001, P.12)

50
IT Impacts on Knowledge Storage Knowledge Network
  • Differences between document retrieval and data
    retrieval Changes in the storage of information
    and knowledge have not only transformed the
    structures of knowledge but also the way
    information and knowledge are retrieved. Dreyfus
    makes reference to David Blairs distinction
    between data retrieval and document retrieval

51
IT Impacts on Knowledge Storage Knowledge Network
  • Differences between document retrieval and data
    retrieval

52
IT Impacts on Knowledge Storage Knowledge Network
  • Epistemological implications
  • As information and knowledge or stored in
    hyperlinked network and retrieved in database
    formats, the relationship between the knowers and
    the known has undergone significant changes,
    which Hubert Dreyfus underlines as follows

53
IT Impacts on Knowledge Storage Knowledge Network
  • Epistemological implications
  • Disembodiment of knowers In traditional
    library-storage and document-retrieval knowledge,
    knowers acts of acquisition of knowledge in both
    producing and retrieving processes are taken
    place in within specific bodies and minds, which
    are in turns located in particular contexts. That
    is it is an embodied as well as embedded
    relationship. However, as knowledge is stored in
    network and retrieved via databases, embodied
    knowers are practically replaced by computers and
    more specifically search engineers.

54
IT Impacts on Knowledge Storage Knowledge Network
  • Epistemological implications
  • Reification of knowledge Knowledge acquired by
    embodied knowers in embedded context is heavily
    endowed with meanings, relevance, and
    significances. However, in hyperlinked and
    data-based knowledge network, knowledge has been
    reified into heaps of information based on
    syntactic connectivities.

55
IT Impacts on Knowledge Storage Knowledge Network
  • Epistemological implications
  • In Dreyfus own words, In cyberspace, then,
    without our embodied ability to grasp meaning,
    relevance slips through our non-existent fingers
    (i.e. browsers). .Net users who leave their
    bodies behind and become dependent on syntactic
    Web crawlers and search engines will have to be
    resigned to picking through heaps of junk in the
    hope sometimes finding then information their
    desire. (Dreyfus, 2001, P. 26)

56
IT Impacts on Representation and Communication of
Knowledge Multimedia Knowledge
  • From books to screen Gunther Kress underlines
    right at the beginning page of his book Literacy
    in the New Media Age that

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58
IT Impacts on Representation and Communication of
Knowledge Multimedia Knowledge
  • After a long period of the dominance of the book
    as the central medium of communication, the
    screen has now taken that place. This is leading
    more than a mere displacement of writing. It is
    leading to an inversion in semiotic power. The
    book and the page were the site of writing. The
    screen is the site of the image. The book and
    page were ordered by the logic of writing the
    screen is ordered by the logic of image. A new
    constellation of communicational resources is
    taking shape. The former constellation of medium
    of book and mode of writing is giving way, and in
    many domains has ready given way, to the new
    constellation of medium of screen and mode of
    image. (Kress, 2003, P. 9)

59
Platos School of Athens
60
Plato and Aristotle
61
IT Impacts on Representation and Communication of
Knowledge Multimedia Knowledge
  • From linguistic literacy to multimedia literacy
  • Concept of linguistic literacy Literacyis
    about the capacity of accessing, managing,
    integrating, evaluating and creating information
    to develop ones knowledge and potential, and to
    participate in, and contribute to, society.
    (Schleicher, 2003, p.3)

62
IT Impacts on Representation and Communication of
Knowledge Multimedia Knowledge
  • From linguistic literacy to multimedia literacy
  • Reading and writing literacy
  • At the centre of literacy is reading literacy,
    defined...as the ability to use, interpret and
    reflect on written material. (Schleicher, 2003,
    p.3)
  • Writing literacy It is an capacity of encoding
    the world into literal information, i.e. words,
    language, and discourse (speech act).
  • Reading literacy is a capacity of decoding
    literal information and retrieving it back to the
    world it intended to represent.

63
IT Impacts on Representation and Communication of
Knowledge Multimedia Knowledge
  • From linguistic literacy to multimedia literacy
  • James Paul Greens three-dimensional model of
    literacy
  • Operational literacy It refers to the mastery of
    the technical dimensions of a language. This may
    include
  • Lexicology ???
  • Phonology ???
  • Semantics ???
  • Grammar ??
  • Syntax study ??????
  • Pragmatics ??????

64
IT Impacts on Representation and Communication of
Knowledge Multimedia Knowledge
  • From linguistic literacy to multimedia literacy
  • James Paul Greens literacy
  • Cultural literacy It involves competence with
    meaning system of a social practice, knowing how
    to make and grasp meanings appropriately within
    the practice - in short, of understanding texts
    in relation to contexts. (Lankshear and Knobel,
    2003, P. 11)
  • Hirsch Jr. (1987) Cultural Literacy What Every
    American Needs to Know.

65
IT Impacts on Representation and Communication of
Knowledge Multimedia Knowledge
  • From linguistic literacy to multimedia literacy
  • James Paul Greens literacy
  • Critical literacy It involves awareness that
    all social practices, and thus all literacies,
    are socially constructed and selective. If
    individuals are socialized into a social practice
    without realizing that it is socially constructed
    and selective, and that it can be acted on and
    transformed, they cannot play an active role in
    changing it. (Lankshear and Knobel, 2003, P. 11)
  • Paulo Freire (1972) Pedagogy of the Oppressed
    From writing the word to writing the world.

66
IT Impacts on Representation and Communication of
Knowledge Multimedia Knowledge
  • Comparison between linguistic literacy and
    multimedia literacy

67
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68
IT Impacts on Representation and Communication of
Knowledge Multimedia Knowledge
  • Reconceptualization of communication
  • Typological communication The Gutenberg Galaxy
    (McLuhan, 1962)
  • Mass communication and broadcasting The advent
    of the cool media TV
  • Computer-mediated communication The Internet
    Galaxy (Castells, 2002)
  • Mobil communication and narrow-casting

69
Enter the IT The Impacts of IT on Education
  • Alfred Bok (1993) has periodized the development
    of IT in education into three stages
  • Beginning stages
  • Lets get lots of hardware
  • Lets teach computer languages
  • Lets teach computer literacy The myth of
    computer literacy
  • Lets train the teachers What and how?

70
Enter the IT The Impacts of IT on Education
  • Alfred Bok (1993) three stages
  • Next stages
  • Lets use advanced hardware
  • Let teachers develop small programs for use in
    standard courses
  • Let teachers use authoring systems
  • Lets use the packaged programs
  • Lets teach students about tools
  • Conventional and business tools
  • Curriculum context of tools e.g. wording
    processing tools in teaching writing.
  • Lets go to the Internet

71
Enter the IT The Impacts of IT on Education
  • Alfred Bok (1993) three stages
  • Prospective stage
  • Restructuring or re-engineering the future
    education system
  • Redesigning completely new curricula for
    traditional courses
  • Redesigning new courses, e.g. computer literacy,
    informatics, etc.
  • Restructuring and redesigning teacher education
    programs

72
Impacts on Curriculum Curricular Changes for the
Future
  • In his book Curriculum of the Future, Michael
    Young (1998) makes a distinction between
    curricula of divisive specialization and
    connective specialization in analyzing the
    changes in curricular structure of the
    post-compulsory and A-level education in England
    and Wales

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74
Impacts on Curriculum Curricular Changes for the
Future
  • Curriculum of divisive specialization
  • It refers to curriculum in post- compulsory
    education which corresponds with the mode of
    production of Fordism, which bears the following
    features
  • Rigid insulation between manual and non-manual
    labor
  • Rigid sectional form of divisive specialization
    among occupational and professional groups
  • Complex division of labor into mechanical,
    repetitive and observable motions
  • Separation between conception and execution of
    work
  • Strict Hierarchical structure of delegation of
    authority and line of commands

75
Impacts on Curriculum Curricular Changes for the
Future
  • Curriculum of divisive specialization
  • In connection to the mode of production of
    Fordism, the curriculum of in post-compulsory and
    A-level education is organized in the form of
    what Young called "divisive specialization"
  • Sharpe separation between academic study and
    vocational training
  • Sharpe division among curricular streams, such as
    science, humanities and social study
  • Selective and exclusive rather than participating
    and inclusive education system
  • Inflexible in movement and transferring between
    divisions and streams
  • Exaggerate differences between high low
    prestigious institutions and programs

76
Impacts on Curriculum Curricular Changes for the
Future
  • Curriculum in connective specialization
  • It refers to curriculum, which Young advocates
    would be advantageous to the labor formation of
    the economy of the 21st century, which bears the
    following structural attributes
  • Flexible specialization of production and greatly
    decrease the division between manual and
    non-manual labor both in scale and scope
  • Sectional specialization was replaced by
    corporate specialization, which encouraging
    vertical integration among different occupational
    and professional groups within corporations.

77
Impacts on Curriculum Curricular Changes for the
Future
  • Curriculum in connective specialization
  • the economy of the 21st century
  • New information-based technology replacing
    mechanical and repetitive motions of human labor
  • Human-centred organization and flatter management
    structure
  • Interactively integration between conception and
    execution of work in models such as quality
    circles, quality terms, learning community

78
Impacts on Curriculum Curricular Changes for the
Future
  • Curriculum in connective specialization
  • In relation to the mode of production of
    post-Fordism, Young suggests that school
    curriculum for the 21st century should be in the
    form of connective specialization
  • Connective specialization as a curriculum
    concept it points to the interdependence of the
    concept, processes, and organization of
    curriculum. As definition of educational purposes
    it seeks to transcend the traditional dichotomy
    of the educated person (academic and
    non-manual) and the competent employee
    (vocational and manual) which define the purposes
    of the two tracks of a divided curriculum.
    (Young, 1998, p. 78)

79
Impacts on Curriculum Curricular Changes for the
Future
  • Curriculum in connective specialization
  • the form of connective specialization
  • It therefore "provides the basis a very different
    curriculum for the future" which he terms
    "connective specialization". "Such a curriculum
    would need to build on and give specificity to
    the principles of
  • breadth and flexibility
  • connections between both core and specialist
    studies and general (academic) and applied
    (vocational) studies
  • opportunities for progression and credit transfer
  • a clear sense of the purpose of the curriculum as
    a whole." (Young, 1998, p. 79)

80
Impacts on Curriculum Curricular Changes for the
Future
  • The relative features between Traditional
    Curriculum and the Curriculum of the Future

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82
Impact on Learning From Knowledge Acquisition to
Knowledge Creation
  • Learning by Computer Assisted Instruction Hubert
    Dreyfus (2001) has classified learning through
    CMI into six stages
  • Novice and advance beginner CMI can serve as
    drillmaster in practicing motor or intellectual
    skills. For advanced beginner these practices can
    be simulated in difference situations.
  • Competence Competent performers seek rules and
    reasoning procedures to decide which plan or
    perspective to adopt. (p. 36)

83
Impact on Learning From Knowledge Acquisition to
Knowledge Creation
  • learning through CMI into six stages
  • Proficiency The proficient performer immersed
    in the world of his skillful activities, see what
    needs to be done, but has to decide how to do
    it. (p. 41)
  • Expertise The expert not only see what needs to
    be achieved, thanks to his vast repertoire of
    situational discriminations, he also sees
    immediately how to achieve his goal. (p. 41)
  • Mastery Mastery refers to performers who have
    developed their own style in performances.

84
Impact on Learning From Knowledge Acquisition to
Knowledge Creation
  • learning through CMI into six stages
  • Practical wisdom Not only do people have to
    acquire skills by imitating the style of experts
    in specific domains they have to acquire the
    style of their culture in order to gain what
    Aristotle calls practice wisdom. Like embodied
    commonsense understanding, cultural style is too
    embodied to captured in a theory, and passed on
    by body.

85
Impact on Learning From Knowledge Acquisition to
Knowledge Creation
  • Come to know the world Learning through
    embodied-presence or tele-presence
  • Sense of reality In embodied-presence, such as
    face to face instruction or participant
    observation, one can have concrete grips of sense
    of distance, understanding of the context, and
    sense of risk and uncertainty. While in
    tele-presence, such as video-tape instruction or
    videoconferencing, all these grips and senses
    would be lost.

86
Impact on Learning From Knowledge Acquisition to
Knowledge Creation
  • Come to know the world
  • Sense of interaction In embodied-presence
    participants, such as teachers and students can
    have direct contact and touch, uncertain and
    risky maneuvering and/or exchanges, and most of
    all look each other right into the eyes
  • Sense of trust In embodied-presence participant
    can build up trustful relationship with the
    environments and each other. This in turn will
    constitute sense of belonging to the space of
    place and the presence of group..

87
Impact on Learning From Knowledge Acquisition to
Knowledge Creation
  • Come to invest in the present age Commitment to
    modern pilgrimage or nihilism and anonymity in
    the information highway.
  • Anonymity in situation of tele-presence vs.
    embodied presence of recognition, name and
    identity
  • Risk-free and non-consequence-bearing situations
    in the Net vs. situations of responsibility-bearin
    g and commitment
  • Existence of nihilism vs. existence of pilgrimage

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Impact on Learning From Knowledge Acquisition to
Knowledge Creation
  • Ikujiro Nonakas Knowledge-Creation Organization
  • Two dimensions of knowledge creation
  • Epistemological
  • Ontological

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Impact on Learning From Knowledge Acquisition to
Knowledge Creation
  • Ikujiro Nonakas Knowledge-Creation Organization
  • Two dimensions of knowledge creation
  • Epistemological
  • Ontological
  • Two types of knowledge
  • Tacit knowledge
  • Explicit knowledge

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Impact on Learning From Knowledge Acquisition to
Knowledge Creation
  • Ikujiro Nonakas Knowledge-Creation Organization
  • Four models of knowledge conversion
  • Socialization Sharing and creating tacit
    knowledge through direct experience individual
    to individual
  • Externalization Articulating tacit knowledge
    through dialogue and reflection individual to
    group
  • Combination Systemizing and applying explicit
    knowledge and information group to organization
  • Internalization Learning and acquiring new tacit
    knowledge in practice organization to individual

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Impact on Learning From Knowledge Acquisition to
Knowledge Creation
  • Ikujiro Nonakas Knowledge-Creation Organization
  • Knowledge spiral
  • Field building
  • Dialogue
  • Linking explicit knowledge/networking
  • Learning by doing

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Impact on Learning From Knowledge Acquisition to
Knowledge Creation
  • Ikujiro Nonakas Knowledge-Creation Organization
  • Knowledge spiral
  • Field building
  • Dialogue
  • Linking explicit knowledge/networking
  • Learning by doing
  • Spiral of organizational knowledge creation

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Mind and Education in the Knowledge Age
  • Carl Bereiter in his book entitled Mind and
    Education in the Knowledge Age (2002) suggests
    that there are two conceptions of the mind

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Mind and Education in the Knowledge Age
  • Carl Bereiter .two conceptions of the mind
  • Mind a container The traditional conception of
    the mind is metaphorically pictured as a
    container or a file cabinet, which store all the
    information and knowledge a person received from
    her environment.
  • Mind of connectivity Bereiter asserts that it is
    evidenced in cognitive studies that human mind
    does not simply receive and store information and
    knowledge. It will make intelligent and
    understanding connection about them.

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Mind and Education in the Knowledge Age
  • Berieter asserts that the connectivist conception
    of the mind is essential to the education in the
    knowledge age. IT is because
  • In knowledge age, information and knowledge
    increase so rapidly in both quality and quantity
    that it is unrealistic to expect a human mind to
    store this ever growing volume of knowledge.

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Mind and Education in the Knowledge Age
  • Berieter asserts It is because
  • In knowledge society and attention economy, the
    most productive work has been attributed to the
    knowledge work, which in essence means exactly
    the capacity to make creative, intelligent and
    relevant connectivity about seemingly diversified
    information and knowledge.

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Mind and Education in the Knowledge Age
  • Berieter asserts It is because
  • Berieter also suggests that in cognitive studies
    of deep understanding and mastery of sophisticate
    skill, it is found that the mechanism working
    behind these high-level sense making is the
    capacity to make intelligent and relevant
    connectivity about the seemingly complicated
    situation.

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Mind and Education in the Knowledge Age
  • Conception of knowledgeability
  • Karl Poppers conception of World 3 Berieter
    makes reference with Karl Popers conception of
    three world of knowledge
  • World 1 It refers to knowledge about the
    physical world, which could be created by all
    animals whose nervous systems have some requisite
    degree of complexity.
  • World 2 It refers to knowledge about the
    subjective and mental world, which could mind
    mainly be created by human species.
  • World 3 It refers to knowledge about ideas and
    what Berieter call conceptual artefacts.

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Mind and Education in the Knowledge Age
  • Conception of knowledgeability
  • Carl Bereiter depict his conception of conceptual
    artifact as follow.
  • Such as conceptual artifact is the kitchen
    recipe. Recipes have a life outside the minds of
    people who know them and outside the embodiments
    in printed form. We speak of recipes being handed
    down from generation to generation, undergoing
    modification, splitting into various versions.
    (Berieter, 2002, P.3)

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Mind and Education in the Knowledge Age
  • Conception of knowledgeability
  • Carl Berieters concept of knowledgeablity With
    reference to Berieters conectivist concept of
    mind and conceptaul artifact (i.e. Poppers
    concept of World 3) Berieter coins the concept of
    knowledgeability. It refer to the capacity of the
    human mind in making intelligent and creative
    connections with knowledge and in making use of
    conceptual artefacts in handling ideas,
    propositions, hypotheses, and various forms of
    abstract thinking about the World 3.

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Mind and Education in the Knowledge Age
  • Conception of knowledgeability
  • Accordingly, Berieter suggests that education for
    the knowledge age is the effort to enculturation
    human mind into world 3 and the community of
    knowledge workers, who are working skillfully
    with conceptual artifacts in a respective field
    and/or discipline, and can creatively and
    intelligently make connectivity about
    informations, ideas, concepts, theories,
    perspectives, or any other kinds of conceptual
    artifacts.

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Mind and Education in the Knowledge Age
  • Conception of knowledgeability
  • Berieter summarize his approach of education in
    juxtaposition with traditional approach of
    education as follow

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Topic 2 The Development of IT and the Rise of
Network Society A Historical Account
  • The End
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