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Title: IndIGO Indian Initiative in Gravitational-wave Observations Detecting Einstein


1
IndIGO Indian Initiative in Gravitational-wave
Observations Detecting Einsteins Elusive
Waves Opening a New Window to the Universe
Inaugurating Gravitational wave Astronomy
  • LIGO-India An Indo-US joint mega-project concept
    proposal
  • Bala Iyer, RRI, Bangalore
  • Chair, IndIGO Consortium Council
  • On behalf of the IndIGO Consortium

www.gw-indigo.org
Version pI_v3 Jun 22, 2011 BI
2
What are Gravitational waves and how best to
detect them??
3
Beauty Precision
Einsteins General theory of relativity is
considered the most beautiful, as well as,
successful theory of modern physics. It has
matched all weak field experimental tests of
Gravitation in the solar system remarkably well
4
  • Einsteins Gravity predicts
  • Matter in motion ?Space-time ripples
    fluctuations in space-time curvature that
    propagate as waves
  • Gravitational waves (GW)
  • In GR, as in EM, GW travel at the speed of light
    , are transverse and have two states of
    polarization.
  • GW are a major qualitatively unique
    prediction beyond Newtons gravitation
  • Any theory of Gravitation consistent with SR
    will lead to GWHowever, the properties of GW
    in different theories of gravity could be
    different


5
1975 - Hulse and Taylor Binary Pulsar 191316

Companion NS
PPulsar
Nobel prize in 1993 !!!
  • Exquisite Lab for Tests of GR beyond static
    weak Grav fields
  • High quality Pulsar Timing Data shows that after
    correcting for ALL known relativistic and
    astrophysical kinematic effects, the binary
    system is losing orbital energy
  • Period (measurable to 50ms accuracy) speeds up by
    14s from 1975-94 as predicted by Einsteins GR.
  • Binary pulsar systems emit gravitational waves

Nobel Prize clinching evidence for Gravitational
waves BUT still Indirect evidence.
6
Astrophysical Sources for Terrestrial GW Detectors
  • Compact binary Coalescence chirps
  • NS-NS, NS-BH, BH-BH
  • Supernovas or GRBs bursts
  • GW signals observed in coincidence with EM or
    neutrino detectors
  • Pulsars in our galaxy periodic waves
  • Rapidly rotating neutron stars
  • Modes of NS vibration
  • Cosmological stochastic background ?
  • Probe back to the Planck time (10-43 s)
  • Probe phase transitions window to force
    unification
  • Cosmological distribution of Primordial black
    holes

7
GW cause Oscillatory Tidal distortions on a
ring of particles
Suspended mirrors of an interferometer
act as (freely falling) test masses (in hor pl
for fgtgtf_pend),undergo tidal deformations leading
to path differences
Strain
  • Path difference due to tidal distortion ? phase
    difference
  • Change in Length manifests as a Change in
    Transmitted Light

8
Challenge of GW Detection A century of waiting
  • Two Fundamental Diffs between GR EM
  • - Weakness of Gravitation relative to EM (10-39)
  • -Massless Spin two nature of Gravitation vs Spin
    one of EM that forbids dipole radiation in GR
  • A NS-NS Binary in the Virgo cluster (20 Mpc)
    produces a strain of h 1022 1021 .
  • For a 4 km detector one must effectively measure
    the miniscule displmnt DL 10-18 m
  • GW detection is about seeing the biggest things
    that ever happen by measuring the smallest
    changes that have ever been measured - Harry
    Collins.

9
LIGO Optical Configuration
Detecting GW with Laser Interferometer
Michelson Interferometer
input test mass
Laser
Difference in distance of Paths ? Interference
of laser light at the detector (Photodiode)
10
Current Status of World-wide GW detection efforts
11
Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave
Observatory (LIGO) USA, 4 km
12
Virgo (Cascina, near Pisa, Italy)
French-Italian, 3km
13
Experimental Milestone
Km-scale interferometric GW detectors LIGO and
Virgo achieved their predicted design goals.
Strain sensitivity lt3x10-23/Sqrt(Hz) at 200 Hz.
  • Unprecedented sensitivity already allows
  • Upper Limits on GW from a variety of
    Astrophysical sources.
  • Improve on Spin down of Crab, Vela pulsars..
  • Less than 2 available energy in
    Crab emitted as GW
  • Surpass Big Bang nucleosynthesis bound on
    Stochastic GW..
  • Pre-dawn GW astronomy

14
Towards Advanced LIGO Virgo
15
Era of Advanced LIGO detectors 2015
  • 10x sensitivity
  • 10x dist reach
  • 1000 volume
  • gtgt 1000X event rate
  • (reach beyond
  • nearest super-clusters)
  • A Day of Advanced LIGO Observation gtgt
  • A year of Initial LIGO
  • observation

16
Mean Expected Annual Coalescence Event Rates
Detector Generation NS-NS NS-BH BH-BH
Initial LIGO (2002 -2006) 0.02 0.0006 0.0009
Advanced LIGO (10X sensitivity) (2014 - ) 40 10. 20.0
In a 95 confidence interval, rates
uncertain by 3 orders of magnitude
NS-NS (0.4 - 400) NS-BH (0.2 - 300) BH-BH
(2 - 4000) yr-1 Based on
Extrapolations from observed Binary Pulsars,
Stellar birth rate estimates, Population
Synthesis models. Rates quoted below are mean of
the distribution.
17
Need for Long baseline global Network IndIGO
opportunities and benefits
18
From the GWIC Strategic Roadmap for GW Science
with thirty year horizon (2007)
Members All major GW Detector groups
  • the first priority for ground-based
    gravitational wave detector development is to
    expand the network, adding further detectors with
    appropriately chosen intercontinental baselines
    and orientations to maximize the ability to
    extract source information. .Possibilities for a
    detector in India (IndIGO) are being studied..
  • Aside Invitation to Present on July 10 during
    GWIC Meeting at
  • Amaldi9 in Cardiff the IndIGO case for GWIC
    Membership

19
Global Network of GW Observatories improves
1. Detection confidence 2. Duty cycle 3.
Source direction 4. Polarization info.
LIGO-India ?
20
LIGO-India the opportunity
Science Gain from Strategic Geographical
Relocation
Source localization error
Courtesy S. Fairhurst
Original Plan 2 1 LIGO USA Virgo
LIGO-India plan 11 LIGO USA
Virgo LIGO-India
LIGO-Aus plan 11 LIGO USA
Virgo LIGO-Aus
21
Gravitational wave legacy in India
  • Indian contribution over two decades, to the
    global effort for detecting GW, internationally
    recognized on two significant fronts
  • Seminal contributions to source modeling at RRI
    Bala Iyer and to GW data analysis at IUCAA
    Sanjeev Dhurandhar
  • RRI Indo-French collaboration for two decades
    to compute high accuracy waveforms for
    in-spiraling compact binaries from which the GW
    templates used in LIGO and Virgo are constructed.
  • IUCAA Designing efficient data analysis
    algorithms involving advanced mathematical
    concepts.. Notable contributions include the
    search for binary in-spirals, hierarchical
    methods, coherent search with a network of
    detectors and the radiometric search for
    stochastic gravitational waves.
  • IUCAA has collaborated with most international
    GW detector groups and has been a member of the
    LIGO Scientific Collaboration (LSC) for a decade.
  • At IUCAA, Tarun Souradeep with expertise in CMB
    data and Planck has worked to create a bridge
    between CMB and GW data analysis challenges.

22
Indian Gravitational wave community strengths
  • Very good students and post-docs produced who
    are
  • Leaders in GW research abroad
    Sathyaprakash, Bose, Mohanty (3) New
    faculty at premier institutions in India (6)
    Gopakumar, Archana Pai, Rajesh Nayak, Anand
    Sengupta, K.G. Arun, Sanjit Mitra, P. Ajith?
  • Strong Indian presence in GW Astronomy in the
    Global detector network where broad international
    collaboration is the norm
  • ? relatively easy to get well trained
    researchers back
  • Close interactions with Rana Adhikari (Caltech),
    B.S. Sathyaprakash (Cardiff), Sukanta Bose ( WU,
    Pullman), Soumya Mohanty (UTB), Badri Krishnan (
    AEI)
  • Very supportive International community as
    reflected in the International Advisory committee
    of IndIGO Chair Abhay Ashtekar
  • LIGO-Lab participation in IndIGO schools,
    commitment to training and assisting in high
    end technology tasks
  • EGO proposal to explore MoU for GW
    collaboration
  • Roadmap Meeting on Nov 1-2 ,2011 at IUCAA

23
High precision Expertise in India
  • TIFR C.S. Unnikrishnan
  • High precision experiments and tests of
    weak forces
  • Test gravitation using most sensitive torsional
    balances and optical sensors.
  • Techniques related to precision laser
    spectroscopy, electronic locking, stabilization.
  • G.Rajalakshmi (IIA ? TIFR, 3m prototype)
  • Suresh Doravari (IIA ? LIGO, Caltech
    expt./AdvLIGO)
  • IITM Anil Prabhakar and IITK Pradeep Kumar
    (EE depts)
  • Photonics, Fiber optics and communications
  • Characterization and testing of optical
    components and instruments for use in India..
  • RRCAT
  • S.K. Shukla on INDUS, A.S. Raja Rao (exRRCAT)
    --UHV
  • Sendhil Raja, P.K. Gupta - Optical system
    design, laser based instrumentation, optical
    metrology, Large aperture optics, diffractive
    optics, micro-optic system design.
  • Rijuparna Chakraborty, France ? LIGO/EGO pdf?
    Adaptive Optics.

24
Large experiment expertise in India
  • RRCAT.
  • IPR
  • S.B. Bhatt on Aditya and Ajai Kumar - UHV
    experience, Lasers
  • Support role in large volume UHV system,
    Control systems etc
  • Groups at BARC and RRCAT involved in LHC
  • providing a variety of components and subsystems
    like precision magnet positioning stand jacks,
    superconducting correcting magnets, quench heater
    protection supplies and skilled manpower support
    for magnetic tests and measurement and help in
    commissioning LHC subsystems.
  • Teams at Electronics Instrumentation Groups at
    BARC
  • (may be interested in large
    instrumentation projects in XII plan)
  • Groups at ISRO,.

25
Nodal Institutions
  • CMI, Chennai
  • Delhi University
  • IISER Kolkata
  • IISER Trivandrum
  • IIT Madras (EE)
  • IIT Kanpur (EE)
  • IUCAA, Pune
  • RRCAT, Indore
  • TIFR, Mumbai
  • IPR, Bhatt
  • Others
  • RRI
  • Jamia Milia Islamia
  • Tezpur Univ

26
The IndIGO Consortium
  • IndIGO Council
  • Bala Iyer ( Chair) RRI,
    Bangalore
  • Sanjeev Dhurandhar (Science) IUCAA, Pune
  • C. S. Unnikrishnan (Experiment) TIFR, Mumbai
  • Tarun Souradeep (Spokesperson) IUCAA, Pune
  • Data Analysis Theory
  • Sanjeev Dhurandhar IUCAA
  • Bala Iyer RRI
  • Tarun Souradeep IUCAA
  • Anand Sengupta Delhi University
  • Archana Pai IISER,
    Thiruvananthapuram
  • Sanjit Mitra JPL , IUCAA
  • K G Arun Chennai Math. Inst., Chennai
  • Rajesh Nayak IISER, Kolkata
  • A. Gopakumar TIFR, Mumbai
  • T R Seshadri Delhi University
  • Patrick Dasgupta Delhi University
  • Sanjay Jhingan Jamila Milia Islamia, Delhi
  • L. Sriramkumar, Phys., IIT M
  • Bhim P. Sarma Tezpur Univ .
  • Sanjay Sahay BITS, Goa
  • P Ajith Caltech , USA
  • Sukanta Bose, Wash. U., USA
  • Instrumentation Experiment
  • C. S. Unnikrishnan TIFR, Mumbai
  • G Rajalakshmi TIFR, Mumbai
  • P.K. Gupta RRCAT, Indore
  • Sendhil Raja RRCAT, Indore
  • S.K. Shukla RRCAT, Indore
  • Raja Rao ex RRCAT, Consultant
  • Anil Prabhakar, EE, IIT M
  • Pradeep Kumar, EE, IIT K
  • Ajai Kumar IPR, Bhatt
  • S.K. Bhatt IPR, Bhatt
  • Ranjan Gupta IUCAA, Pune
  • Bhal Chandra Joshi NCRA, Pune
  • Rijuparna Chakraborty, Cote dAzur, Grasse
  • Rana Adhikari Caltech, USA
  • Suresh Doravari Caltech, USA
  • Biplab Bhawal (ex LIGO)

27
IndIGO the goals roles - I
  • Provide a common umbrella to initiate and expand
    GW related experimental activity and train new
    technically skilled manpower
  • 3m prototype detector in TIFR (funded) -
    Unnikrishnan
  • Laser expt. RRCAT, IIT M, IIT K - Sendhil
    Raja, Anil Prabhakar, Pradeep Kumar
  • Ultra High Vacuum controls at RRCAT, IPR,
    BARC, ISRO, . Shukla, Raja Rao, Bhatt,
  • UG summer internship at National International
    GW labs observatories.
  • Postgraduate IndIGO schools, specialized
    courses,
  • Seek pan-Indian consolidated IndIGO membership in
    LIGO Scientific Collaboration (LSC) for
    participation in Advanced LIGO.
  • Create a Tier-2 data centre in IUCAA for LIGO
    Scientific Collaboration Deliverables and as a
    LSC Resource
  • Start collaborative work on joint projects under
    the IUSSTF Indo-US IUCAA-Caltech joint Centre at
    IUCAA

28
IndIGO 3m Prototype Detector
Funded by TIFR Mumbai on campus (2010)PI C.
S.Unnikrishnan (Cost INR 2.5cr) Technology
Development and Training Platform
29
IndIGO the goals roles - II
  • Set up a major experimental initiative in GW
    astronomy
  • MOU with ACIGA to collaborate on GW Astronomy
  • Earlier Plan Partner in LIGO-Australia (a
    diminishing possibility)
  • Advanced LIGO hardware for 1 detector to be
    shipped to Australia at the Gingin site, near
    Perth. NSF approval
  • Australia and International partners find funds
    (equiv to half the detector cost 140M and 10
    year running cost 60M) within a year.
  • Indian partnership at 15 of Australian cost
    with full data rights.
  • Today LIGO-India
  • Letter from LIGO Labs with offer of LIGO-India
    and Requirement Document
  • Advanced LIGO hardware for 1 detector to be
    shipped to India.
  • Two 4km arm length ultra high vacuum tubes in L
    configuration
  • India provides suitable site and infrastructure
    to house the GW observatory, Staffing for
    installing, commissioning and operation and 10
    year Running costs
  • Indian cost Rs 1000Cr
  • The Science technology benefit of LIGO-India is
    transformational

30
LIGO-India Why is it a good idea? for the World
  • Geographical relocation Strategic for GW
    astronomy
  • Increased event rates (x4) by coherent analysis
  • Improved duty cycle
  • Improved Detection confidence
  • Improved Sky Coverage
  • Improved Source Location required for
    multi-messenger astronomy
  • Improved Determination of the two GW
    polarizations
  • Potentially large Indian science user community
    in the future
  • Indian demographics youth dominated need
    challenges
  • Improved UG education system will produce a
    larger number of students with aspirations
    looking for frontline research opportunity at
    home.
  • Substantial data analysis trained faculty exists
    in India and Large Data Analysis Center
    Facilities are being planned

31
LIGO-India Why is it a good idea?
..for India
  • Jump start direct participation in GW
    Observations Astronomy
  • Provides an exciting challenge at the
    International forefront of experimental science.
    Can tap and siphon back the extremely good UG
    students trained in India. (a cause for brain
    drain).
  • 1st yr summer intern 2010 ? MIT for PhD
  • Indian experimental scientist ? Postdoc at LIGO
    training for Adv. LIGO subsystem Another Postdoc
    under consideration in LIGO EGO
  • Experimental expertise related to GW
    observatories will thrive and attain high levels
    due to LIGO-India.
  • Challenging endeavour involving unforgiving
    technology mandates symbiotic interplay of
    Engineering and Science disciplines.. Revival of
    Advanced Instrumentation
  • Inclusive cooperation between Basic science
    research Institutes, High Technology DAE Labs,
    ISRO,..Educational IISERs and Universities for
    highly visible frontier research

32
Science Payoffs
  • Synergy with other major Astronomy projects
  • SKA Pulsars timing and GW background, GW
    from Pulsars ,
  • ( RADIO Square Kilometer array)
  • CMB GW from inflation, cosmic phase
    transitions, dark energy .
  • (Cosmic Microwave Background WMAP, Planck,
    CMBPOl, QUaD,)
  • X-ray satellite (AstroSat) Spacetime near
    Black Holes, NS, .
  • Gamma ray observatory GRB triggers from GW
  • (FermiLAT, GLAST,.)
  • Thirty Meter Telescope Resolving multiple
    AGNs, optical follow-up,
  • INO cross correlate neutrino signals from SN
    event
  • LSST Astro-transients with GW triggers,
    Cosmic distribution of dark matter , Dark energy
  • New Astronomy, New Astrophysics, New Cosmology,
    New Physics
  • A New Window ushers a New Era of Exploration in
    Physics Astronomy
  • Testing Einsteins GR in strong and time-varying
    fields
  • Testing Black Hole phenomena
  • Understanding nuclear matter by Neutron star EOS
  • Neutron star coalescence events
  • Understanding most energetic cosmic events ..
    Supernovae, Gamma-ray bursts, LMXBs, Magnetars
  • New cosmology..SMBHBs as standard sirens..
  • EOS of Dark Energy
  • Phase transition related to fundamental
    unification of forces
  • Multi-messenger astronomy
  • The Unexpected !

33
Summary (Part 1)
  • LIGO-India will raise public profile of science
    since it will be making ongoing discoveries
    fascinating the young.
  • GR, BH, EU and Einstein have a special attraction
    and a pioneering facility in India participating
    in important discoveries will provide science
    technology role models with high visibility and
    media interest. Einstein_at_home Black Hole Hunter
  • Opportune to a launch a promising field (GW
    astronomy) with high end technological spinoffs,
    well before it has obviously blossomed. Once in
    a generation unique opportunity to host in India
    a sophisticated International Experiment
    straining to hear the feeble notes of Einsteins
    GW Symphony playing in the universe and
    deciphering the dark secrets that light or EMW
    can never reveal..
  • A GREAT opportunity but a very sharp deadline of
    31 Mar 2012.
  • LIGO-Lab needs to seek NSF nod latest by Dec
    2011
  • We must be ready with credible plan proposal from
    India by Nov 2011

34
End of Part I
  • Thank you !!!
  • Over to Tarun

35
IndIGO Advisory Structure
Committees
National Steering Committee Kailash Rustagi
(IIT, Mumbai) Chair Bala Iyer (RRI)
Coordinator Sanjeev Dhurandhar (IUCAA)
Co-Coordinator D.D. Bhawalkar (Quantalase,
Indore)Advisor P.K. Kaw (IPR) Ajit Kembhavi
(IUCAA) P.D. Gupta (RRCAT) J.V. Narlikar
(IUCAA) G. Srinivasan
International Advisory Committee Abhay Ashtekar
(Penn SU) Chair Rana Adhikari (LIGO, Caltech,
USA) David Blair (ACIGA UWA, Australia) Adalberto
Giazotto (Virgo, Italy) P.D. Gupta (Director,
RRCAT, India) James Hough (GEO Glasgow,
UK)GWIC Chair Kazuaki Kuroda (LCGT,
Japan) Harald Lueck (GEO, Germany) Nary Man
(Virgo, France) Jay Marx (LIGO, Director,
USA) David McClelland (ACIGAANU,
Australia) Jesper Munch (Chair, ACIGA,
Australia) B.S. Sathyaprakash (GEO, Cardiff Univ,
UK) Bernard F. Schutz (GEO, Director AEI,
Germany) Jean-Yves Vinet (Virgo, France) Stan
Whitcomb (LIGO, Caltech, USA)
Program Management Committee C S Unnikrishnan
(TIFR, Mumbai), Chair Bala R Iyer (RRI,
Bangalore), Coordinator Sanjeev Dhurandhar
(IUCAA, Pune) Co-cordinator Tarun Souradeep
(IUCAA, Pune) Bhal Chandra Joshi (NCRA, Pune) P
Sreekumar (ISAC, Bangalore) P K Gupta (RRCAT,
Indore) S K Shukla (RRCAT, Indore) Sendhil Raja
(RRCAT, Indore)
36
LIGO-India the opportunity
Strategic Geographical relocation science gain
Polarization info
Homogeneity of Sky coverage
Courtesy S.Kilmenko G. Vedovato
37
LIGO-India the opportunity
Strategic Geographical relocation science gain
Sky coverage Synthesized Network
beam (antenna power)
Courtesy B. Schutz
38
LIGO-India the opportunity
Strategic Geographical relocation science gain
Sky coverage reach /sensitivity in different
directions
Courtesy B. Schutz
39
Strategic Geographical relocation science gain
Network HHLV HILV AHLV
Mean horizon distance 1.74 1.57 1.69
Detection Volume 8.98 8.77 8.93
Volume Filling factor 41.00 54.00 44.00
Triple Detection Rate(80) 4.86 5.95 6.06
Triple Detection Rate(95) 7.81 8.13 8.28
Sky Coverage 81 47.30 79.00 53.50
Directional Precision 0.66 2.02 3.01
40
Using GWs to Learn about the Source an Example
Over two decades, RRI involved in computation of
inspiral waveforms for compact binaries their
implications and IUCAA in its Data Analysis
Aspects.
Can determine
  • Distance from the earth r
  • Masses of the two bodies
  • Orbital eccentricity e and orbital inclination i

41
vit
Gravitational wave Astronomy
GWIC Roadmap Document
42
Unique Technology Payoffs
  • Lasers and optics..Purest laser light..Low phase
    noise, excellent beam quality, high single
    frequency power
  • Applications in precision metrology, medicine,
    micro-machining
  • Coherent laser radar and strain sensors for
    earthquake prediction and other precision
    metrology
  • Surface accuracy of mirrors 100 times better than
    telescope mirrors..Ultra-high reflective
    coatings New technology for other fields
  • Vibration Isolation and suspension..Applications
    for mineral prospecting
  • Squeezing and challenging quantum limits in
    measurements.
  • Largest Ultra-high vacuum system 10-9 torr
    (1picomHg) in the region. Such a UHV system will
    provide industry a challenge and experience.
  • Computation Challenges Cloud computing, Grid
    computing, new hardware and software tools for
    computational innovation.

43
vit
Gravitational wave Astronomy
  • Synergy with other major Astronomy projects
  • SKA Pulsars timing and GW background, GW
    from Pulsars ,
  • ( RADIO Square Kilometer array)
  • CMB GW from inflation, cosmic phase
    transitions, dark energy .
  • (Cosmic Microwave Background WMAP, Planck,
    CMBPOl, QUaD,)
  • X-ray satellite (AstroSat) Spacetime near
    Black Holes, NS, .
  • Gamma ray observatory GRB triggers from GW
  • (FermiLAT, GLAST,.)
  • Thirty Meter Telescope Resolving multiple
    AGNs, optical follow-up,
  • INO cross correlate neutrino signals from SN
    event
  • LSST Astro-transients with GW triggers,
    Cosmic distribution of dark matter , Dark energy

GWIC Roadmap Document
44


23 July 2011 Dear Bala

I am writing to invite you to attend
the next meeting of the Gravitational Wave
International Committee (GWIC) to present the
GWIC membership application for IndIGO. This
in-person meeting will give you the opportunity
to interact with the members of GWIC and to
answer their questions about the status and plans
for IndIGO. Jim Hough (the GWIC Chair) and I have
reviewed your application and believe that you
have made a strong case for membership
Invitation to Present IndIGO case for GWIC
Membership on July 10 at GWIC meeting at Cardiff
45
Space Time as a fabric
Special Relativity (SR) replaced Absolute
space and Absolute Time by flat 4-dimensional
space-time (the normal three dimensions of
space, plus a fourth dimension of time). In
1916, Albert Einstein published his famous Theory
of General Relativity, his theory of gravitation
consistent with SR, where gravity manifests as
a curved 4-diml space-time Theory
describes how space-time is affected by mass and
also how energy, momentum and stresses affects
space-time. Matter tells space-time how to
curve, and Space-time tells matter how to move.
46
Space Time as a fabric
Earth follows a straight path in the curved
space-time caused by suns mass !!!
47
What happens when matter is in motion?
48
Detecting GW with Laser Interferometer
B
A
Difference in distance of Path A B ?
Interference of laser light at the detector
(Photodiode)
49
(No Transcript)
50
Concluding remarks
  • A century after Einsteins prediction, we are on
    the threshold of a new era of GW astronomy
    following GW detection. Involved four decades
    of very innovative and Herculean struggle at the
    edge of science technology
  • First generation detectors like Initial LIGO and
    Virgo have achieved design sensitivity ?
    Experimental field is mature
  • Broken new ground in optical sensitivity, pushed
    technology and proved technique.
  • Second generation detectors are starting
    installation and expected to expand the
    Science reach by factor of 1000
  • Cooperative science model A worldwide network is
    starting to come on line and the ground work has
    been laid for operation as a integrated system.
  • Low project risk A compelling Science case with
    shared science risk, a proven design for Indias
    share of task (other part opportunity w/o
    responsibility)
  • National mega-science initiative Need strong
    multi-institutional support to bring together
    capable scientists technologist in India
  • An unique once-in-a-generation opportunity for
    India. India could play a key role in Intl.
    Science by hosting LIGO-India.

51
Concluding remarks
  • A GREAT opportunity but a very sharp deadline of
    31 Mar 2012. If we cannot act quickly the
    possibility will close. Conditions laid out in
    the Request Doc of LIGO-Lab will need to be ready
    for LIGO-Lab examination latest by Dec 2011 so
    that in turn LIGO-Lab can make a case with NSF by
    Jan 2012.
  • Of all the large scientific projects out there,
    this one is pushing the greatest number of
    technologies the hardest.
  • Every single technology theyre touching theyre
    pushing, and theres a lot of different
    technologies theyre touching.
  • (Beverly Berger, National Science
    Foundation Program director for gravitational
    physics. )
  • One is left speculating if by the centenary of
    General Relativity in 2015, the first discovery
    of Gravitational waves would be from a Binary
    Black Hole system, and Chandrasekhar would be
    doubly right about
  • Astronomy being the natural home of general
    relativity.

52
Initial LIGO Sensitivity Goal
  • Strain sensitivity lt3x10-23 1/Hz1/2 at 200 Hz
  • Sensor Noise
  • Photon Shot Noise
  • Residual Gas
  • Displacement Noise
  • Seismic motion
  • Thermal Noise
  • Radiation Pressure

53
Advanced LIGO
  • Take advantage of new technologies and on-going
    RD
  • gtgt Active anti-seismic system operating to lower
    frequencies
  • (Stanford, LIGO)
  • gtgt Lower thermal noise suspensions and optics
  • (GEO )
  • gtgt Higher laser power 10 W ? 180 W
  • (Hannover group, Germany)
  • gtgt More sensitive and more flexible optical
    configuration
  • Signal recycling
  • Design 1999 2010 10 years of high end R
    D internationally.
  • Construction Start 2008 Installation 2011
    Completion 2015

54
A Century of Waiting
  • Almost 100 years since Einstein predicted GW but
    no direct experimental confirmation (a la Hertz
    for Maxwell EM theory)
  • Two Fundamental Difference between GR and EM
  • - Weakness of Gravitation relative to EM (10-39)
  • -Spin two nature of Gravitation vs Spin one of EM
    that forbids dipole radiation in GR
  • Low efficiency for conversion of mechanical
    energy to GW Feeble effects of GW on any
    Detector
  • GW Hertz experiment ruled out. Only
    astrophysical systems involving huge masses and
    accelerating very strongly are potential
    detectable sources of GW signals.

55
GW ?? Astronomy link
  • Astrophysical systems are sources of copious GW
    emission
  • GW emission efficiency (10 of mass for BH
    mergers) gtgt
  • EM radiation via Nuclear fusion (0.05 of
    mass)
  • Energy/mass emitted in GW from binary gtgt EM
    radiation in the lifetime
  • Universe is buzzing with GW signals from cores
    of astrophysical events
  • Bursts (SN, GRB), mergers, accretion, stellar
    cannibalism ,
  • Extremely Weak interaction, hence, has been
    difficult to detect directly
  • But also implies GW carry unscreened
    uncontaminated signals

56
Scientific Payoffs
  • Advanced GW network sensitivity needed to
    observe
  • GW signals at monthly or even weekly rates.
  • Direct detection of GW probes strong field
    regime of gravitation
  • ? Information about systems in which strong-field
    and time dependent gravitation dominates, an
    untested regime including non-linear
    self-interactions
  • GW detectors will uncover NEW aspects of the
    physics
  • ? Sources at extreme physical conditions (eg.,
    super nuclear density physics), relativistic
    motions, extreme high density, temperature and
    magnetic fields.
  • GW signals propagate un-attenuated
  • weak but clean signal from cores of astrophysical
    event where EM signal is screened by ionized
    matter.
  • Wide range of frequencies ? Sensitivity over a
    range of astrophysical scales
  • To capitalize one needs a global array of GW
    antennas separated by continental distances to
    pinpoint sources in the sky and extract all the
    source information encoded in the GW signals

57
Principle behind Detection of GW
58
LIGO-India from LIGO
Dear Prof. Kasturirangan,

1 June 2011 In its road-map with a
thirty year horizon, the Gravitational Wave
International Committee (a working unit of the
International Union of Pure and Applied Physics,
IUPAP) has identified the expansion of the global
network of gravitational wave interferometer
observatories as a high priority for maximizing
the scientific potential of gravitational wave
observations. We are writing to you to put
forward a concept proposal on behalf of LIGO
Laboratory (USA) and the IndIGO Consortium, for a
Joint Partnership venture to set up an Advanced
gravitational wave detector at a suitable Indian
site. In what follows this project is referred to
as LIGO-India. The key idea is to utilize the
high technology instrument components already
fabricated for one of the three Advanced LIGO
interferometers in an infrastructure provided by
India that matches that of the US Advanced LIGO
observatories.
LIGO-India could be operational early in the
lifetime of the advanced versions of
gravitational wave observatories now being
installed the US (LIGO) and in Europe (Virgo and
GEO) and would be of great value not only to the
gravitational wave community, but to broader
physics and astronomy research by launching an
era of gravitational wave astronomy, including,
the fundamental first direct detection of
gravitational waves. As the southernmost member
observatory of the global array of gravitational
wave detectors, India would be unique among
nations leading the scientific exploration of
this new window on the universe. The present
proposal promises to achieve this at a fraction
of the total cost of independently establishing a
fully-equipped and advanced observatory. It also
offers technology that was developed over two
decades of highly challenging global RD effort
that preceded the success of Initial LIGO
gravitational wave detectors and the design of
their advanced version.
59
Binary Pulsars..NS-NS Binary
Pulsar
companion
High quality observational data that GW exist.
60
Indian Gravitational wave strengths
  • Very good students and post-docs produced from
    this.
  • Leaders in GW research abroad
    Sathyaprakash, Bose, Mohanty (3) New
    faculty at premier Indian institutions (6)
    Gopakumar, Archana Pai, Rajesh Nayak, Anand
    Sengupta, K.G. Arun, Sanjit Mitra, P. Ajith?
  • Gopakumar (Jena ? TIFR) and Arun (Virgo ? CMI)
    PN modeling, dynamics of CB, Ap and cosmological
    implications of parameter estimation
  • Rajesh Nayak (UTB ? IISER K) , Archana Pai (AEI ?
    IISER T), Anand Sengupta (LIGO, Caltech? Delhi),
    Sanjit Mitra (JPL ? IUCAA ) Extensive experience
    on single and multi-detector detection,
    hierarchical techniques, noise characterization
    schemes, veto techniques for GW transients,
    bursts, continuous and stochastic sources,
    radiometric methods,
  • P. Ajith (Caltech, LIGO/TAPIR ? ? )
  • Sukanta Bose (Faculty UW, USA ? ?)
  • Strong Indian presence in GW Astronomy with
    Global detector network
  • ? broad international collaboration is the norm
  • ? relatively easy to get people back.
  • Close interactions with Rana Adhikari (Caltech),
    B.S. Sathyaprakash (Cardiff), Sukanta Bose ( WU,
    Pullman), Soumya Mohanty (UTB), Badri Krishnan (
    AEI)
  • Very supportive International community
    reflected in International Advisory committee of
    IndIGO Chair Abhay Ashtekar
  • EGO-IndIGO meeting on Nov 1-2 ,2011 at IUCAA to
    explore collaboration

61
LIGO-India Why is it a good idea?
..for India
  • Provides an exciting challenge at an
    International forefront of experimental science.
    Can tap and siphon back the extremely good UG
    students trained in India. (a cause for brain
    drain).
  • 1st yr summer intern 2010 ? MIT for PhD
  • Indian experimental scientist ? Postdoc at LIGO
    training for Adv. LIGO subsystem
  • Indian experimental expertise related to GW
    observatories will thrive and attain high levels
    due to LIGO-India.
  • Symbiotic interplay of Engineering and Science
    disciplines for a challenging endeavour
    involving unforgiving technology
  • Jump start direct participation in GW
    Observations Astronomy
  • Synergy with other major Astronomy projects
  • SKA Pulsars timing and GW background, GW
    from Pulsars ,
  • ( RADIO Square Kilometer array)
  • CMB GW from inflation, cosmic phase
    transitions, dark energy .
  • (Cosmic Microwave Background WMAP, Planck,
    CMBPOl, QUaD,)
  • X-ray satellite (AstroSat) Spacetime near
    Black Holes, NS, .
  • Gamma ray observatory GRB triggers from GW
  • (FermiLAT, GLAST,.)
  • Thirty Meter Telescope Resolving multiple
    AGNs, optical follow-up,
  • INO cross correlate neutrino signals from SN
    event
  • LSST Astro-transients with GW triggers,
    Cosmic distribution of dark matter , Dark energy

62
LIGO-India Why is it a good idea?
..for India
  • Provides an exciting challenge at an
    International forefront of experimental science.
    Can tap and siphon back the extremely good UG
    students trained in India. (a cause for brain
    drain).
  • 1st yr summer intern 2010 ? MIT for PhD
  • Indian experimental scientist ? Postdoc at LIGO
    training for Adv. LIGO subsystem
  • Indian experimental expertise related to GW
    observatories will thrive and attain high levels
    due to LIGO-India.
  • Symbiotic interplay of Engineering and Science
    disciplines for a challenging endeavour
    involving unforgiving technology
  • Jump start direct participation in GW
    Observations Astronomy

63
Indirect evidence for Gravitational waves
Binary pulsar systems emit gravitational waves
  • leads to loss of orbital energy
  • period speeds up 14 sec from 1975-94
  • High quality Pulsar Timing Data..
  • measured to 50 msec accuracy
  • deviation grows quadratically with time

Pulsar
Hulse and Taylor Results for PSR191316
companion
64
Oscillatory Tidal Effect of GW on a ring of test
masses
If Interferometer mirrors are the test masses
  • Path difference due to tidal distortion ? phase
    difference
  • The effects of gravitational waves appear as a
    fluctuation in the phase differences between two
    orthogonal light paths of an interferometer.

65
Equal arms Dark fringe
Unequal arm Signal in PD
66
Rewards and Spinoffs
  • Detection of GW is the epitome of breakthrough
    science!!!
  • LIGO-India ? India could become a partner in
    international science of Nobel Prize significance
  • GW detection is an instrument technology
    intensive field pushing frontiers simultaneously
    in a number of fields like lasers and photonics.
    Will impact allied areas and smart industries.
  • The imperative need to work closely with industry
    and other end users will lead to spinoffs as GW
    scientists further develop optical sensor
    technology. Presence of LIGO-India will lead to
    pushing technologies and greater innovation in
    the future.
  • Increase number of research groups performing at
    world class levels and produce skilled
    researchers. Increase international
    collaborations in Indian research Potential for
    Indian Science Leadership in the Asia-Pacific
    region.
  • LIGO has a strong outreach tradition and
    LIGO-India will provide a platform to increase it
    and synergistically benefit.
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