Muscular System Objective 1.04 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Muscular System Objective 1.04

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Muscular System Objective 1.04 Functions of the Muscular System What are the functions of the muscular system? 1.05 Understand the functions and disorders of the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Muscular System Objective 1.04


1
Muscular SystemObjective 1.04
2
The Muscular System
  • Comprises nearly half our weight.
  • Over 650 muscles.
  • Each muscle is made up of hundreds or thousands
    of muscle fibers.

3
The Muscular SystemMuscle Fibers
  • Bundles of threadlike structures called
    myofibrils
  • Composed of
  • Myosin
  • Actin
  • Form overlapping pattern called sarcomere
  • muscle muscle fiber
  • sarcolemma sarcomere
  • functional unit of muscle movement

4
Structures of the muscular system
  • Muscles
  • Skeletal
  • Smooth
  • Cardiac
  • Sphincter
  • Connective tissue
  • Tendons
  • Fascia

5
Structures of the muscular system
  • Types of Muscle
  • Skeletal muscles
  • Attached to bone
  • Striated (striped) appearance
  • Voluntary
  • Multinucleated muscle cell bundles

6
Structures of the muscular system
  • Types of Muscle
  • Smooth muscles
  • Also known as visceral muscles
  • Involuntary
  • Located in walls of digestive system, uterus
    blood vessels

7
Structures of the muscular system
  • Types of Muscle
  • Cardiac muscle
  • Found only in the heart
  • Striated, branched
  • Involuntary
  • Cells are fused- when one contracts, they all
    contract, creating the heartbeat

8
Structures of the muscular system
  • Types of Muscle
  • Sphincter muscles
  • Also called dilator muscles
  • Special, circular muscles
  • Located in the
  • digestive system
  • urinary system

9
Structures of the muscular system
  • Types of Muscle
  • Skeletal
  • Smooth
  • Cardiac
  • Sphincter

10
Structures of the muscular system
  • Connective tissue
  • Tendons
  • dense bands that connect skeletal muscle to the
    bone

11
Structures of the muscular system
  • Connective tissue
  • Fascia
  • Fibrous connective tissue sheets that wrap around
    muscle bundles

12
How do skeletal muscles get their names?
  • Location
  • Size
  • Direction
  • Number of origins
  • Location of origin and insertion
  • Action flexor
  • Extensor
  • Depressor
  • However, not all muscles are named by
  • the above methods!

13
Head Neck Muscles
14
Torso/Trunk(anterior)
15
Torso/Trunk(anterior)
16
Torso/Trunk(posterior)
17
Upper extremities
18
Lower extremities
19
The muscular system reviewAnterior view
20
The muscular system reviewPosterior view
21
Characteristics of Muscles
  • Contractibility
  • Excitability
  • Extensibility
  • Elasticity

22
Characteristics of Muscles
  • Contractibility

23
Characteristics of Muscles
  • Contractibility
  • Myoneural stimulation
  • contraction of muscle proteins
  • movement and heat

24
Characteristics of Muscles
  • Excitability

25
Characteristics of Muscles
  • Extensibility

26
Characteristics of Muscles
  • Elasticity

27
Characteristics of Muscles
  • Contractibility
  • Excitability
  • Extensibility
  • Elasticity

28
Characteristics of Muscles
  • Contractibility

29
Characteristics of Muscles
  • Contractibility
  • Myoneural stimulation
  • contraction of muscle proteins
  • movement and heat (side effect)

30
Characteristics of Muscles
Contractibility Neurotransmitter at site of
muscle stimulus.
  • The sodium-potassium pump of the membrane of a
    muscle cell.
  • The purpose of this slide is to illustrate the
    complexity of the process of movement.

31
Muscle Tone
  • Discuss muscle tone.
  • Atrophy
  • a- ________ -trophy _nourishment /
    development___
  • Hypertrophy
  • hyper- _______ -trophy _nourishment /
    development__

32
Muscle Tone
  • John just got a cast off his leg. His calf
    muscle on the affected leg is 1 smaller in
    diameter than his other calf muscle.
  • What happened?
  • How do you explain this to him?

33
Muscle Fatigue
  • Discuss muscle fatigue
  • What causes muscle fatigue?
  • How does the body correct muscle fatigue?
  • Is muscle fatigue dangerous? Why / why not?
  • Discuss aerobic and anaerobic exercise.
  • Give examples of each.

34
Functions of the Muscular System
  • What are the functions of the muscular system?

35
MovementSkeletal Muscle
  • Receptors in muscles provide the brain with
    information about body position and movement.
  • The brain controls the contraction of skeletal
    muscle.

36
Movement
  • As your muscle contracts, one of the bones will
    move with the other will remain stationary.
  • Point of origin (end of the muscle that is
    attached to the stationary bone)
  • Point of insertion (end of muscle that is
    attached to the moving bone)
  • Prime mover or agonist
  • Antagonist muscles that cause movement in the
    opposite direction
  • Synergists assist primary mover

All movement is a result of contraction of
primary movers and relaxation of opposing muscles.
37
MovementDigestive System
  • The nervous system regulates the speed at which
    food moves through the digestive tract.

38
MovementCirculatory SystemHeartbeat
  • The nervous system and hormones regulate the
    speed at which the heart beats.

39
Posture
  • How does the muscular system effect posture?

40
Body Heat
  • What is the bodys response to cold? Why?
  • How is this response helpful?
  • How does the body respond to exercise? Why?

41
Fibromyalgia
  • Discuss the pictures and how they relate to
    fibromyalgia.
  • Cause - unknown
  • Symptoms chronic pain, fatigue, depression
  • Diagnosis location of pain
  • Treatment symptom mgt
  • Prognosis goodmanagement

42
Hernia
  • Weakness in the muscles of the abdominal wall
    that allows loops of intestine to balloon outward
  • Causes muscle weakness, excessive internal
    pressure
  • Locations groin, abd
  • Symptoms protrusion, pain
  • Diagnosis palpation, mri
  • Treatment - surgery
  • Prevention abd exercises

43
Muscle Spasms(Involuntary hypertonicity)
  • Symptoms severe pain
  • Diagnosis hx, physical exam
  • Treatment rest, stretching, exercise
  • Prognosis - good

44
Muscular Dystrophy
  • Cause genetic defectprogressive weakness and
    degeneration of skeletal muscle
  • Symptoms muscle weakness, drooling, falling,
    eyelid drooping (ptosis)
  • Diagnosis physical exam, genetic test
  • Treatment no treatment to stop or reverse
    MDtreat symptoms
  • Prognosis - variable

45
Myasthenia Gravis
  • Cause - Autoimmune attack at neuromuscular
    junctionaffects voluntary musclesproblem with
    how nerves stimulate muscles to contract
  • Symptoms progressive, fluctuating muscle
    weakness and fatigue
  • Diagnosis blood tests, EMG
  • Treatment steroids, immunosuppressant drugs
  • Prognosis with treatment may lead a normal,
    active liferemission possible

46
Strain
  • Overstretching of the tendons or the muscles
    themselves (pulled muscle).
  • Treatment RICE

47
Tendonitis
  • Usually from chronic injury, overuse
  • Pain and inflammation are common
  • Treatment (P)RICE

48
Tetanus (Lockjaw)
  • Caused from a bacterial infection of clostridium
    tetani usually after puncture wound.
  • Symptoms include progressive muscle spasms,
    paralysis, stiffness and pain especially in jaw.
  • Diagnosis - physical exam, lab tests, history of
    wound
  • Treatment wound hygiene, tetanus vaccine, pain
    management
  • Prognosis without treatment 1 in 4 diewith
    treatment less than 10 infected die
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