A Paper on Minority Settlement Strategies : Focus on English Speaking Black Community of Montreal Presented at The Cultural Communities Conference of the The Union Cultural Communities Committee Montreal, Qc. December 4 2010 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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A Paper on Minority Settlement Strategies : Focus on English Speaking Black Community of Montreal Presented at The Cultural Communities Conference of the The Union Cultural Communities Committee Montreal, Qc. December 4 2010

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Title: A Paper on Minority Settlement Strategies : Focus on English Speaking Black Community of Montreal Presented at The Cultural Communities Conference of the The Union Cultural Communities Committee Montreal, Qc. December 4 2010


1
A Paper on Minority Settlement Strategies Focus
on English Speaking Black Community of Montreal
Presented atThe Cultural Communities
Conferenceof the The Union Cultural
Communities CommitteeMontreal, Qc. December 4
2010
  • Dr. Clarence S. Bayne
  • Director of the Institute for Community
    Entrepreneurship and Development, JMSB,
    Concordia
  • President of the Black Studies Center and the
    QBBE.

2
ICED
  • The Institute for Community Entrepreneurship
    and Development
  • (ICED)had its beginnings as the Minority
    Institute in 1993
  • It was created by JMSB (Concordia) in response
    to a call from the University to its Faculties to
    Balance the Equation with respect to minority
    communities and the distribution of knowledge
    products in those communities
  • Two pilot studies on minority community
    development were
  • conducted in the English and French
    speaking Black communities.
  • These were funded by a private foundation,
    the Provincial
  • Government, and teaching resources provided
    by JMSB.
  • Later the results were adapted to create a
    customized community entrepreneurship and
    entrepreneurship program for the James Bay Cree
    Regional Authority. The Cree-Concordia
    Entrepreneurial Spirit Program.
  • IC ED has adopted a social entrepreneurship
    approach to assist community development and
    works from within the framework of
  • a cultural self-adaptive theory where
    sharing is facilitated by an information and
    communication technology.

3
General Purpose of ICED
  • "Helping visible and immigrant minorities to
    persist in acquiring skills as successful social
    and business entrepreneurs and supporting
    their initiatives to advance themselves,
    strengthen and build sustainable healthy
    communities".

4
Certificate in Office Management of
Community-Based Organizations Level
II(Administrative Assistants)
5
Graduates Economic Development Officers
6
The Cree-Concordia Training Program Graduates
7
Lessons From the Black Community and Cree
Projects
  • The problems of survival and development of these
    two kinships groups cannot be solved by simply
    applying competitive market oriented success
    strategies borrowed from mainstream society
  • The market exchange system is only one aspect of
    the social framework within which different
    kinship groups develop and plan their survival
    strategies.
  • The population space (landscape) is peopled by
    diverse racial and cultural groups.
  • Different groups occupy different
    positions in the landscape face different
    topographies, have different access to
    information, and have different information
    processing capacities different factor
    endowments in the form of learned skills and
    histories,
  • To understand why some groups survive and strive
    while others do not do as well, we need to adopt
    a holistic approach to development.
  • We need to study the patterns in the demographic
    changes of multiple kinship groups in the
    context of the entire social system and its
    adaptive processes and mechanisms.
  • We need to see how information is shared between
    all kinship groups, how learning takes place and
    the degree of access each group has to resources
    and the means and capacity for living life
    beyond the level of mere subsistence.
  • What are the types of relationships and
    institutional arrangements that define the
    system? What forms of operation, learning
    strategies and capabilities, and social
    relationships best improve the resiliency of
    the system, and provide a fair and socially
    acceptable quality of life for all kinship
    groups?

8
Canada As a Fitness Landscape
  • Canada is a biosphere consisting of subspaces
    supporting life and ensuring the perpetuation of
    life
  • The focus is on human life and human activity in
    this space
  • The central focus of life is self-preservation
    and self-perpetuation and improvement. The primal
    action of man in an environment is a social
    entrepreneurial action, a survival response
    captured by his continuous search for food,
    safety and security, and a purpose.
  • The human specie through a process of knowledge
    creation and accumulation has developed many
    strategic approaches to accomplish this central
    purpose
  • Development of self adaptive learning
    capabilities based on success failure experiences
  • Through kinship linkages and sharing, Western
    societies have created cultures (production and
    spiritual) capable of surviving disastrous
    events.
  • Self-adaptive learning model with a cultural
    change algorithms will help to explain the
    settlement and development strategies of
    minorities
  • Proposition there is a need in Canada to widen
    the kinship boundaries along certain dimensions
    in order to facilitate greater sharing and to
    achieve a sustainable and socially equitable
    society.

9
Introducing the Self Adaptive Cultural Change
Model An Abstraction
  • The fitness landscape concept is about the
    perpetuation and reproduction of life in an
    environment. The physical environment has
    properties and laws that govern its existence.
    The life species have properties that govern
    their existence and chances for perpetuating
    life.
  • There is conflicting dependencies between the
    shorter human consumption and production cycles
    and the longer natural cycles of the life
    supporting eco-systems that make up the
    biosphere.
  • The self adaptive cultural change model will
    assume two types of spaces the belief space and
    the population space.
  • The belief space is a depository of knowledge
  • Situational knowledge
  • Normative knowledge
  • The population space is where the species work,
    play, celebrate, worship and interact with each
    other in a physical life-supporting environment
  • there is an environmental and a social context to
    this space.
  • Activities in the population and the belief
    spaces are linked through acceptance (pragmatic,
    legal, moral and cognitive/transcendental
    legitimization ) and influencing (best practices,
    technology, learned skills, and ingenuity
    capacity) channels.

10
Agent-Based Modeling of Cultural Change
  • The next two slide present diagrams taken from an
    article Agent-based Modeling of Cultural Change
    in Swarm Using Cultural Algorithms.
  • Authors Ziad Kobi, Robert G. Reynolds, and Tim
    Kholer.
  • The diagrams illustrate graphically the
    population and the belief spaces the flow of
    knowledge to the belief space from the population
    space and the legitimization and feedback of
    updated accumulated knowledge to influence
    decision-making and action in the local
    population space.

11
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12
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13
Fitness Landscape
  • The concept of the Fitness landscape as used in
    ICED facilitates an analysis of the struggle of
    the species to overcome physical and social
    barriers to their survival and the improvement of
    life
  • It introduces the concept of social
    entrepreneurship which is very different from the
    concept of business entrepreneurship (profit
    accumulation and wealth maximization).

14
The Fitness Landscape
  •  

15
Belief Space Use of case-based knowledge as situational knowledge to assess and influence change in the plans/strategies for survival of individual households and organizations Belief Space Global learning and accumulation of success experiences as normative knowledge and generalized population preferences
Determine level of satisfaction of social and
economic needs Determination of socially
desirable distribution of wealth among
households and kinship groups Determine the
level of fitness enjoyed by households and
kinship groups compared to some socially
cohesive ideal Create communication, production,
and improved problem solving and survival
strategies Update knowledge in belief space
Acceptance function
Influence function
Households
External factor input and labour flows
Public Agencies
Factors of production
Goods and services Market
Firms and organizations
Population space a social interactive and
exchange space
A Multi-agent Cultural Change model as a
Competitive Market Democracy with an Open Social
System
16
The Fitness Landscape
  • The wellbeing/welfare function (see notes on
    previous slide) can be further explored in terms
    of a fitness landscape model
  • We will describe Quebec as a landscape or as a
    region within a larger biosphere system from
    which it derives a certain capacity to support
    life.
  • The possibilities for human existence and the
    perpetuation of life and the quality of life are
    challenging and threatened by the uncertainty of
    negative influencing events. Thus a mapping of
    total possible outcomes resulting from all human
    decisions aimed at attaining the best life
    possible would define a fitness landscape that is
    multi-dimensional and very difficult to chart
  • The landscape may have many configurations
    relatively smooth undulating features, deep
    canyons, mountains rising to great peeks and
    plunging to valleys and rough terrain. Different
    kinship groups are located at different fitness
    peaks.
  • These contours take the form of economic boom
    and bust, famine, pandemics, floods, storms,
    earthquakes, wars, degradation of life
    supporting eco-systems, and the possible
    disastrous consequences of human activity on
    the biosphere
  • Thus the fitness landscape is an environment
    that offers a range of possible relationships
    between different kinship groups, organisms,
    societies in its space. The landscape
    (Environment) itself may change depending on the
    nature of these relationships (the structure of
    the interdependencies)

17
Group Objective is Survival
  • The task of any group is to search for, find and
    move to higher fitness peaks on the landscape.
  • Movement is not a simple task. One needs
    resources security and support systems, access
    to information and knowledge goods, equal
    opportunity, ingenuity and the determination to
    succeed.
  • There are many possible fitness peaks, some of
    which may already be occupied and reserved
    exclusively for particular (established) kinship
    groups. This creates vertical mosaics (John
    Porter, 1965) that inhibit movement and
    improvement in the fitness of newer and less
    established groups.
  • Moreover, it is not known with certainty whether
    other peaks exist that offer greater fitness. It
    is this uncertainty and the urgency of the
    situation (the need for opportunity to benefit or
    do good) that motivates the business and social
    entrepreneur to intensify their search.
  • The intensity and oligopolistic competitive
    nature of the search (Baumol, 2005) adds to the
    complexity and uncertainty in the population
    space (Homer-Dixon, 2000).
  • This may create an ingenuity gap (Homer-Dixon,
    2000) inadequate supply of new knowledge to
    construct effective decision search rules (W. H.
    Tauber, 1969) to reach higher fitness peaks or
    avoid the disastrous consequences of stagnating
    on one ( fossil fuel dependent economy)

18
Black Immigrants and the Canadian Fitness
Landscape
  • In 1960 the number of Blacks living in Montreal
    were 6000, almost all English speaking
  • By census 2001 the number of Blacks numbered 147
    000, approximately 50 000 English speaking from
    the Caribbean countries and 70 000 Haitians and
    other French speaking Blacks
  • Black immigrants faced a hostile fitness
    landscape. Other minority immigrants face similar
    environments
  • In social terms exclusions from the host society,
    benevolent neglect (Robin Winks, 1971).
  • The colour line/racial profiling are barriers
    to better jobs, housing, access to quality use of
    public spaces, and quality education for young
    Blacks and other visible minorities.
  • Ineffective public sector development and
    integration plan. Low expectations on the part of
    the host populations

19
The Bottom of the Totem Pole
  • If Canadian society were like a totem with all
    things British at the top and all other Europeans
    graded and fitted into the middle, then Blacks,
    the First Nations, Asians were at the bottom in
    the valleys and foothills of the fitness
    landscape.
  • The Vertical Mosaic existed as an experiment in
    Nation building
  • Blacks not only entered Canada in large numbers
    at the bottom of the Totem, but in Quebec the
    largest numbers came at a time when Quebec was
    being redefined by the French as being a society
    that was all French.
  • Bill 101 was enacted to make French the official
    language in Quebec in all aspects of life. For
    some English speaking Blacks from the Caribbean
    this was equivalent to asking them to live
    through colonialism twice in a lifetime.

20
Key Issues addressed by the New Organizations
  • Persistent work over thirty to forty years
    challenging and engaging the government and
    private sector to commit to the reduction of
    discrimination in the labour force
  • Addressing structural economic weaknesses in the
    Black Communities Working in collaboration
    with provincial Government to create a long term
    strategy to help Blacks start and sustain
    successful businesses a problematic
    relationship.
  • Working with school Boards and parents to reduce
    the drop out rates among Black Youth. Serious
    obstacles when working with French School Boards.
  • Creating a net work of support for Black families
    and Black Organizations
  • The promotion of Black Culture and the arts
    through theatre, dance, and festivals
    (problematic relationships).
  • Facilitating the full participation of Blacks in
    Quebec society.

21
Partial Comparative Indicators of Fitness
  • Participation in the Labour force and comparative
    employment and unemployment rates are good
    indicators of the location of a group in the
    fitness landscape
  • Historically Blacks have been admitted to Canada
    and valued for their labour service content. This
    has effectively been shown by Robins Winks in
    the Blacks in Canada, and James W. St. G Walker
    (1980) A History of Blacks in Canada.
    Commoditization of Blacks and immigrant
    minorities need revision.
  • Improvements in scientific knowledge, and the
    social sciences have lead to dramatic changes in
    Canadian normative knowledge (values and sense of
    right and wrong)
  • In Canada updated concepts of democracy (The
    Constitution Act, including Charter of Human
    Rights and Freedoms, 1980) and race relations
    make all kinship groups equal under the law and
    legitimizes their rights to their particular
    cultures and heritage equal access to health and
    education services and equal access to
    employment
  • However, Statistics Canada data continue to show
    a disturbing picture of inequalities in the
    comparative level of fitness of immigrant and
    visible minority kinship groups.
  • Normative knowledge accumulates but it does not
    influence change in the population space at an
    equivalent rate. Racial profiling and
    discrimination in the job market persist.

22
A Summary Look at the Fitness Story
  • Studies by Statistics Canada, McGill Consortium,
    The Quebec Government, and ICED point to a grim
    situation
  • The data on employment over the last quarter
    century show that whether a Black Person was born
    in Canada or outside of Canada lived in St John,
    Halifax, Moncton, Montreal,. Toronto, Vancouver,
    or elsewhere an equivalent education profile to
    Whites or not ( had a certificate, a diploma, a
    trade, or none of the above).
  • Whether the person is young or old, male or
    female that he or she would be more likely than a
    white person to have lived an entire life
    exposed to low level jobs and incomes, to be
    unemployed he or she would be less likely to own
    a home to have started a business
  • In the period 2001 2006 unemployment among
    Blacks in Montreal was 21.3 percent compared with
    12.2 percent in Toronto
  • In the same period unemployment rates for Whites(
    not visible Minorities) was 17.2 percent
    (Montreal) and 10.1 percent in Toronto.
  • Blacks in the age group 45-64 experienced
    unemployment rates between 24-39 percent in
    Montreal (Nationally 14-18 percent). This
    compared to 12-16 percent for Whites in Montreal(
    8-10 per cent Nationally)
  • Even during periods of boom the disparity between
    Blacks and Whites, visible minorities and not
    visible minorities, remained dramatically
    different and disfavourable towards Blacks and
    other visible minorities

23
The Response of the Black Kinship Groups to
Exclusion
  • The rise of social entrepreneurship as part of
    the search decision rules for improving fitness
    the removal of barriers
  • Black social entrepreneurs in the English
    speaking sectors attacked the colour line and
    used the media and public forums to remove
    anti-social influencing exemplars from the social
    and belief spaces
  • Black leaders created social and cultural
    organizations, mutual societies, religious
    institutions, educational institutions to assist
    the community in the struggle for survival and to
    improve the quality of life.
  • Black Leadership negotiated with Quebec
    Provincial and Governments to be included in the
    Quebec social economy.
  • Mathieu Da Costa Foundation was an outcome of
    those negotiations, as well as the creation of a
    table de concertation during the Bourassa
    administration.
  • Vigorous participation in the debates that lead
    to Aces Egalite laws
  • Replacement of Mathieu Da Costa by the Black
    Entrepreneurs Fund and new initiatives to
    integrate Black communities into the Quebec
    Social Economy.

24
The social economy may consist of organizational
arrangements that are non- profit oriented, civic
society organizations, social economy
businesses community based organizations
involved in community development and
combinations of all these. That is to say all
these forms or combinations (networks and
partnerships) may be used purely for the
preservation and the perpetuation of life for the
kinship group or the largest number of different
kinship groups. Black Community social
entrepreneurship organizations are concentrated
in the public non-profit and community
development groupings.
25
The Emergence of Social Entrepreneurship
  • The next slide illustrates the emergence of a
    leadership and organizations that define the
    social entrepreneurships action in of the English
    Speaking Black Communities of Quebec and the
    Black Communities across Canada.
  • This is only a sample of the action. It is not
    intended to be a complete picture of Black social
    entrepreneurship as we define the term in this
    paper.

26
Date of Registration Organization Type Objective
1969 1985 The National Black Coalition of Canada National Alliance of Black social, political and community based Organizations A federation of Black organizations across Canada dedicated to the creation of a united voice for Blacks in Canada seeking to create a more inclusive Canada a more socially cohesive Canada a fuller social, political and economic integration of Blacks and Black cultures into the National fabric of Canada .
1971 Black Studies Center Community Development Community development social studies Specialist in social entrepreneurship and self employment facilities for business incubation.
197? The Black Coalition of Quebec (has its origins from the national Black Coalition of Canada) Community development and anti-discrimination activism Mission is the search for identity unity and liberation of Blacks in Quebec. Engaged in the struggle for human rights and freedoms struggle to ensure that justices prevails everywhere and every time.
1971 Quebec Board of Black Educators Education Remedial and SEL elementary and high school Research and development Educational reform
1971 The Black Theatre Workshop Arts and Culture The development of the Black performance arts the creation of a Black Canadian literature the promotion of Black theatre in the schools and throughout Quebec and Canada.
1973 -1993 The Black Community Council of Quebec ( and its outreach regional programs ) Community Development Pan-African alliance of Black organizations aimed at creating an economically autonomous Black community speaking with a single political voice within the Canadian framework of Canada as a Federated Multicultural society.
Late 80s to present Black Community Associations of Lasalle, Laval, CDN, NDG, Verdun, the West Island A network of front line community family service agencies Outreach organizations of the original BCCQ with similar aims and objectives Autonomous with respect to their regional mandates
The Garvey Institute Education Black publication Black School provision of Scholarships to Blacks community education and development, social and political criticism and activism.
1991 (February) Black History Month A City Montreal Citywide Celebration A City wide celebration of Black culture, art , and contributions by Black Community and Montrealers in collaboration with the City of Montreal.
Carifiesta, Rythme du Monde, Vue Dafrique Festivals and Cultural Displays
1994 The Quebec Black Medical Association Research and Health care Education Helping motivated and socially involved youth to gain access to various careers in the field of health care. Dissemination of health care information in the community. Maintenance of fund for research and education in healthcare.
1995 Black Community Resource centre Community Development A holistic approach to social and emotional training of youth, supporting organizations and engaging in community building community networks.
27
Key Issues addressed by the New Organizations
  • Persistent work over thirty to forty years
    challenging and engaging the government and
    private sector to commit to the reduction of
    discrimination in the labour force
  • Addressing structural economic weaknesses in the
    Black Communities that is working in
    collaboration with provincial Government to
    create a long term strategy to help Blacks start
    and sustain successful businesses.
  • Working with school Boards and parents to reduce
    the drop out rates among Black youth
  • Creating a net work of support for Black families
    and Black organizations
  • The promotion of Black Culture and the arts
    through theatre, dance, and festivals.
  • Facilitating the full participation of Blacks in
    Quebec society

28
Location of ICED in the Cultural Change Model
  • ICED is a facilitator of learning both in the
    belief system and at the level of the local
    kinship groups in the population space
  • It facilitates communication and collaboration
    within and between minority kinship groups and
    between minority and mainstream kinship groups.
  • It conducts research, creates and disseminates
    knowledge
  • Acts to update cultural knowledge in the belief
    space
  • Promotes and encourages the entrepreneurial
    spirit as a strategy for development

29
A Communication and Planning Chart
30
QBBE-ICED BUSINESS SUMMER SCHOOL 2010
Faculty and studentsSample of presentations
31
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32
Business Type
  • Brizzy Bryce Promotions is a sole proprietorship
    which is responsible for contracting, the
    promotional packages, and sales within the venue
    of choice

33
Elements Deco Vision mission statement
  • Elements Deco an incorporation registered under
    the incorporation act of Québec.
  • Our mission apply our design expertise to
    companies and particulars alike.
  • Implementing a space that reflects their values.
  • We offer a range of products and services that
    include painting, flooring, window treatment,
    custom furniture and custom artwork.

34
Products services cont
  • Additional elements Windows, upholstering,
    flooring, accessories, custom artwork or
    furniture is charged accordingly.
  • Custom artwork complementary to an overall
    design or theme
  • Personalized artwork

35
Bellas Day Spa2010
  • By Isabelle Reignier

36
Mission StatemenT
  • Bellas Day Spas mission is to run a profitable
    business by providing aesthetician services in a
    clean, caring, upscale, and professional
    environment. We intend to tailor the client's
    experience based on initial interview
    information, as well as feedback during the
    treatments, to ensure the client's comfort and
    satisfaction. We are thoughtful of the overall
    experience at our day spa - using only the finest
    oils and beauty products. Special lighting,
    music, decor, and textiles are used throughout
    the spa to complete the comfortable, rich
    environment and enhance the client's overall spa
    experience.

37
VISIT ICED PORTAL
  • A complete one hour presentation of the Summer
    business program can be viewed at
  • http//www.icedportal.com/
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