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Title: ARCHITECTURE HISTORY


1
ARCHITECTURE HISTORY
Arch.ENG.Shireen Abdelrahman
2
INTRODUCTION
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???????????????? PERAMIDS
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???????????????? PERAMIDS
  • The first and largest pyramid was built for
    Khufu (Cheops)-147m
  • The second largest pyramid was built for Khufu's
    son, Khafra Chephren). guarded by a huge sphinx
    -136m
  • Finally, the third largest pyramid was built for
    the Menkaure (Mycerinus (-62m
  • They are one of the remains world wonders

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4. Pyramids of Giza
  • The Pyramids of Giza are the most famous and
    massive stone structures monuments of ancient
    Egypt.  These were built In the fourth dynasty,
    around 4500 years ago on a rocky desert plateau
    close to the Nile.
  • Their design was based on the pyramids that had
    been built before. And they constructed out of
    stones and covered with white limestone
  • The mysteries surrounding their symbolism,
    design and purpose have inspired passionate
    debate and will never be solved. 
  • The first and largest pyramid was built for the
    pharaoh Khufu (Cheop)
  • The second largest pyramid was built for
    Khufu's son, Khafra (Chephren). In addition to
    the usual parts of a pyramid complex, Khafra's
    pyramid is guarded by a huge sphinx
  • Finally, the third largest pyramid was built for
    the pharaoh Menkaure (Mycerinus)

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pyramids of Giza
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Six of the ten pyramids at Giza. The Furthest one
is the Great Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops), middle is
the pyramid of Khafra (Chephren), and the closest
large one is that of Menkara Mycerinus.
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A. Great pyramid of Giza
Great Pyramid of Khufu was built in about 2600
B.C. It is a huge structure built from over two
million blocks of stone. To find out the height,
area and weight of the Great Pyramid, just follow
the instructions in this challenge.   At about
460 ft high, and 13 acres in space, the pyramid
of Khufu (Cheops) uses around two million blocks
of granite that were carried from southern Egypt
(500 miles away). It is said to have taken 20
years to build. All pyramids at Giza are said to
have been built between 2700-2500 BC
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  • Khufu abbreviation of khanom y f y or god khanom
    protect me and khufu stay 23 years as a king
  • Although the big size of the pyramid nothing
    refer to khufu except some written text by one of
    the labours in red ink at the third room over the
    king chamber said (the 17th year of khufu king
    throne
  • The area of the pyramid is 13 acre and the height
    146m consist of 210 layers and the base length is
    230m and the weight of the stones range between
    1-8 tons and the angle is 50-51 degree
  • The first layers build around mountains which is
    the heart of the peramid and save a lot of stones
    for building
  • the main entrance at 16.8m direct to the north

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  • What was found in the pyramid was a small status
    7.5cm for khufu because the king prevent status
    ????????at that time.
  • The pyramid hide many stories like it hide the
    life secret, it was connected with the lost
    atlantis and even it considered aclear examples
    of the pharoahs engineering, calculus,
    administration and astrologist
  • The main entrance has triangular shape for
    loading distribution and the existing entrance
    opened by khalifa Maamoun using dynamite to
    search the assets


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the status was found without the head and it
takes the archeologists 14 days filtering the
sand to find it
The only found status of khufu
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The main entrance and the present used entrance
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Great pyramid of Giza
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Great pyramid of Giza
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The Great Pyramid of Khufu (on the right) had a
smooth outer layer. This layer eroded over the
centuries, or was vandalized,
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The pyramid of Khafra still has some of the
original outer layer which you can see in the
above and below pictures.
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The "smallest of the biggest", the pyramid of
Menkara is small enough to be cute, yet big
enough to be majestic.  
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The pharaoh Khufu, like the pharaohs before him,
began planning his 'house of eternity' as soon as
he took the throne. A spot was chosen for
building on the west bank of the Nile. Cemeteries
were usually built on the west bank because the
sun 'died' on the western horizon every night.
Khufu's architects were wise and experienced men.
They knew the importance of building the
pharaoh's final resting place so that its sides
faced directly north, south, east and west.
They planned a large pyramid- the largest one
ever built in ancient Egypt. The outlines of the
pyramid were measured and marked in the desert
sand.
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Then the building began. Large blocks of stone
were cut from quarries nearby. They were dragged
by groups of men across the desert to the site of
the pyramid and set in place. Most of the workers
were farmers who worked on building the pyramid
during the flood season when their fields were
under water.
After the first level of blocks was in place, the
workers built ramps of mud-brick, limestone chips
and clay. The workers dragged the large stones up
the ramps to build the next level of the pyramid
According to herodet, presets and stories For
about 20 years for the Pyramid and 10 years for
the paths and the annexes building, hundreds of
men worked on building the pyramid. As they built
each level, they also built up the ramps around
the pyramid.
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  • When the pyramid was almost finished, a special
    block covered in shining metal (either gold or
    electrum was placed on the top of the pyramid.
  • Then, blocks of white limestone from quarries
    across the Nile were used to cover the pyramid.
    The blocks were trimmed to make the outside of
    the pyramid smooth
  • . Finally, the pyramid was finished.
  • The pyramid stones cut out from the surrounding
    and the covering stones from Torrah mountain and
    the Granite from Aswan
  • The stone was cut and separated by digging holes
    at equal short distances then digging timber
    slides in the holes knocking on them and dredging
    water on the timber which increasing the size and
    knocking again till separation happened and then
    smoothen the stones using granite or diorite

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  • Khufu's pyramid was only part of the complex
    built for him at
  • Giza. The complex had many different parts
  • Three pyramids for Khufu's queens.
  • Several deep pits containing boats that had been
    buried.
  • A mortuary temple where Khufu would be worshipped
    after he died.
  • A causeway leading from the pyramid complex down
    to the valley temple.
  • A valley temple where the pharaoh's funeral would
    begin.
  • A small 'satellite pyramid.
  • The mastaba tombs of nobles.

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A. Outside the pyramid
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Outside the pyramid The Great Pyramid was part
of a complex that included a special walkway, two
temples, other pyramids, boat pits and the
mastabas of nobles. Complex A group of
buildings that are connected in some way
Complicated.
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  • Top block (pyramidion)
  • At the very top of the pyramid there would have
    been a block of stone in the shape of a pyramid.
    This block was probably covered with a thin sheet
    of either gold, electrum or some other metal that
    would reflect the rays of the sun.

1. Top block (pyramidion)
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2. Valley temple At the end of the cause way
was the valley temple. Some experts believe that
the valley temple was where the pharaoh's funeral
began. None of this building survives today. But
archaeologists believe that there was once a
valley temple because other pyramids had
them Causeway A paved pathway.
4. Valley Temple Causeway
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4. Valley Temple Causeway
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3. Boat pits Next to the pyramid there are
several boat pits. Some experts believe that the
boats buried in these pits represented the bark
that the pharaoh would travel in after he died.
Others believe that these boats were actually
used in Khufu's funeral procession across the
Nile. A few years ago a large wooden boat was
found inside one of these pits. The ancient
Egyptians had taken the boat apart and carefully
placed it in the pit. A modern Egyptian restorer
was able to put the pieces of the boat back
together. The complete boat is now on display in
its own museum at the base of the pyramid.
3. Boat pits
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  • Sun Boats
  • The majestic huge boat made of rice wood
    discovered in 1945 used for mortuary furniture
    of the king
  • At the head there is an umbrella cover the
    middle part and the rear contain the main room
    look like a roof stand over palm tree columns
  • The boat dimensions are 43.3m long, 5.90m
    width, and 5m to 7m height
  • The boat has columns, risers, followings
  • Five pits were carved for the boats near khufu
    pyramid

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Boat museum at the base of Khufu's pyramid
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Boat pit near khufu pyramid
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Boat museum at the base of Khufu's pyramid
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4. Valley Temple Causeway The causeway was a
long walkway that joined the valley temple and
the mortuary temple. Although most of Khufu's
causeway is now gone, some of the blocks that
made up the causeway can still be seen today. The
causeway would have had walls decorated with
painted reliefs and perhaps a ceiling with
painted stars.
4. Valley Temple Causeway
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5.Satellite pyramid A small satellite pyramid
was built near the queens' pyramids. Some experts
believe that this may have been built as a
symbolic tomb for Khufu's spirit) Satellite
Something that is connected with, but not
attached to, something larger.
5.Satellite pyramid
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6. Mastaba An Arabic word meaning 'bench' that
is commonly used to describe an early ancient
Egyptian tomb. Mastabas have an underground
burial chamber and an above ground offering
chapel. These chapels look like the benches found
outside some modern Egyptian homes, thus the word
'mastaba' is used to describe them. Surrounding
the pyramid there are several hundred mastaba
tombs of nobles. The nobles wanted to be buried
close to their pharaoh so that they would stay
close to him in the next life
6. Mastabas
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Mastabas Tombs around the Pyramids
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7. Queens' pyramids Three small pyramids were
built on the eastern side of the pyramid. These
pyramids were built for Khufu's queens.    
7. Queens' pyramids
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Two Queens' pyramids
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Inside one of the queens' pyramids, the tombs are
very elaborate in design.
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8. Mortuary temple Next to the great pyramid
there was a mortuary temple for offerings and
daily rituals were carried out for the king. The
only part of this temple that survives today is
the floor. Archaeologists have made educated
guesses about what the temple might have looked
like from studying the floor, and looking at
other ancient Egyptian mortuary temples.
8. Mortuary temple
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This lintel is from the tomb of a priest who
worked in one of the temples in Khufu's pyramid
complex.
lintel from the tomb of a priest
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9. Casing block When the pyramid was almost
finished, casing blocks of white limestone were
laid on top of the main pyramid blocks. Each
casing block was then trimmed so that the outer
surface of the pyramid would be smooth and white.
The casing blocks from the Great Pyramid were
all removed in the 14th and 15th centuries A.D.
and used to build the city of Cairo. Some casing
blocks still remain on the top of the pyramid of
Khafra.
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Casing block from the Great Pyramid
Casing blocks at the top of Khafra's pyramid
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B. Inside the pyramid

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B. Inside the pyramid

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B. Inside the pyramid

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1. King's chamber This was the burial chamber
of the pharaoh Khufu. The room is now completely
empty except for the granite sarcophagus in the
corner. Khufu's mummy and all of his funerary
goods for the next life were probably taken out
of the pyramid by ancient tomb robbers after
Khufu was buried there. Sarcophagus A large
stone or wood box in which coffins were placed
for burial.
1. King's chamber
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The King's Chamber in the heart of the Great
Pyramid holds the now empty stone sarcophagus. 
This stark room is walled by huge granite blocks.
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2. Chambers above King's chamber Above the
king's chamber there were five rough chambers.
These chambers helped to shift the weight of the
heavy stones at the top of the pyramid off the
inner chambers. The names of two groups of
workmen who built the pyramid are written on the
walls in one of these chambers.
2. Chambers above King's chamber
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3. Grand gallery This passageway is called the
grand gallery. It leads from the ascending
passage to the king's chamber. The ceiling in
this passageway is almost nine meters high.
3. Grand Gallery
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3. Grand Gallery
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Grand Gallery of the Great Pyramid drawn in 1799
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4. Underground chamber This room under the
great pyramid is a mystery. Some people believe
that this room was left unfinished for religious
reasons. Others believe that it was originally
meant to be the burial chamber of Khufu, but that
the architects changed their minds. Finally, some
people believe that this room was built to fool
tomb robbers and lead them away from the real
burial chamber.
4. Underground chamber
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5. Queen's chamber This chamber is commonly
known as the 'Queen's chamber'. However, it was
never meant to be the burial chamber for a queen.
Khufu's queens had their own separate pyramids
built nearby. This chamber may have been built as
a room to hold Khufu's funerary objects This
copper tool and pounding stone were found in one
of the air shafts off the 'Queen's chamber'.
5. Queen's chamber
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4. Queen's chamber
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  • 6. Ascending passage
  • From an entrance just above the base of the
    Great Pyramid, a cramped Ascending Passage climbs
    for 36 meters up through the solid stone core to
    a towering Grand Gallery.  This climbs another 46
    meters to reach the King's Chamber and the now
    empty
  • This ascending passageway leads from the
    entrance of the pyramid up to the grand gallery.
    It is only about one meter wide and a little over
    one meter tall.
  • The point where this passage meets the
    descending passage was plugged up with large
    stone blocks by the ancient Egyptians to
    discourage tomb robbers.

6. Ascending passage
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6. Ascending passage
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7. Descending passage This descending
passageway leads from the entrance of the pyramid
down to the unfinished chamber below the pyramid.
It is about twenty-nine meters long. Descending
Moving down going down.
7. Descending passage
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8. Connecting passage This passage allowed
workers to get out of the pyramid after large
blocks of stone were lowered to block the
ascending passage.
8. Connecting passage
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9. South pointing air shafts These small shafts
extend out from the rooms in the pyramid to the
outer surface of the pyramid. Some experts
believe that they were built to provide
ventilation for the people working inside the
pyramid while it was being built. Other experts
believe that these shafts had a religious purpose
because they are directed towards certain stars.
This air shaft points towards the constellation
of Orion. The ancient Egyptians associated Orion
with their god Osiris. Constellation A group
of stars
9. South air shafts
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10. North pointing air shafts These small shafts
extend out from the rooms in the pyramid to the
outer surface of the pyramid. Some experts
believe that they were built to provide
ventilation for the people working inside the
pyramid while it was being built. Other experts
believe that these shafts had a religious purpose
because they are directed towards certain stars.
This air shaft is directed towards the northern
polar stars.
10. North air shafts
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Giza Pyramids General Characteristics
  • The three great pyramids and six small pyramids
    are situated on the left bank of the Nile in
    Cairo.
  • The pyramids earlier than Giza are Step pyramid
    of King Zoser in Saqqara (early III Dynasty),
    Step pyramid in Medum (III-IV Dynasty), the
    pyramid in Dahshur (IV Dynasty) and others IV
    Dynasty 2545-2450 B.C
  • The Pyramid of Cheops is 230.364m square at base,
    137.18m height (originally 146m) and the incline
    is 51.52 degree.
  • The Pyramid of Chephren is 215.25m square at
    base, 136.5m height (originally 143.5m)and the
    incline is 53.20 degree.
  • The Pyramid of Mycerinus is 108.5m square at
    base, 66.5m height and the incline is 51 degree.

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The Pyramid of Cheops, Chephren and Mycerinus
from left to right
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Remarkable Characteristic of Pyramid Construction
  • Its strictness of the geometrical measurement and
    construction.
  • Each face is exactly direct the four cardinal
    points.
  • The differences of the length of four base sides
    are 111mm maximum and 7mm minimum or 14000.
  • The maximum difference of the level of base is
    only 21mm.
  • The separated distances between two stones not
    more than 0.5 mm

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Giza Pyramids- Khafra- Chephren Pyramid
  • Khafra-ra shining and priests called it
    Wr-Khafra great khafra and his pyramid is an
    example of the complete construction of the
    pyramid complex
  • The main height was 143.5m now 136.5m
  • The base sides 215.25m and the angle 53.10
    degree
  • It was constructed over the famous Hill of Giza
    10m above the base of khufu pyramid which seem
    for the viewer that the two pyramids have the
    same heights
  • There are two entrances for the pyramid ad two
    descending at the northern side the first lead to
    the fineries and the other is 16m above the first

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  • The base parts still covered with granite
    stones and head also still maintain the covering
    limestone but the other parts were dropped and
    the
  • Khafra finery box mad of gray granite and half
    of it covered with thick layer
  • King Chephren tried to cast his pyramid with
    granite blocks but he died before achieving his
    goal. One third of the castcan still be seen at
    its summit.
  • The Valley temple of King Chephren is located at
    the 400m east from the veneration temple in the
    pyramid complex. Both temples are joined by the
    covered passage

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The pyramid of Chephren, Sphinx and the pyramid
of Mycerinus.
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The Pyramid of Cheops and Chephren from left
to right
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The Pyramid of Chephren from the Valley Temple
through dromos.
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The Valley temple of King Chephren. South half of
T-shaped hypostyle hall
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The Pyramid of Chephren
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The Pyramid of Chephren
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Inside Chephren Pyramid and the Funerary Box
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  • Beside the pyramid, the mortuary temple and the
    500m length and 13m height descending passage
    lead to the valley temple covered with granite

Remainance of Chephren Pyramid Mortuary Temple
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Remainance of Chephren Pyramid valley Temple
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Inside Chephren Pyramid valley Temple
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  • The king guests in the valley temple during the
    construction and after he died it used for
    visitors
  • Khafra status is copied at the Egyptian
    currencies 10 liras
  • Inside the temple there is water well thought
    that for willing by dropping currencies

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Sunset behind the Pyramid of Khafre
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Giza Pyramids- Mycerinus Pyramid
  • The pyramid is the smallest and the name means
    (forever Ra souls) and it was completed by king
    cheps ses kaf.
  • The Pyramid of Mycerinus is 108.5m square at
    base, 66.5m height and the incline is 51 degree.
  • Due to cut out some stones the base now is
    102.2x104.6m and the height 62m.
  • The first 16 layers covered with granite.
  • The funerary room cut in the rock down the
    pyramid and can be reached through the northern
    entrance.

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  • The funerary room closed with 3 granite stones
    dropped through vertical openings in the walls.
  • The interior room used as storage while the
    other covered with sloping roof used for funerary
    box of Menkaw ra which made of basalt
  • Now laid at the ground pesky Gulf and the cover
    which is status of Menkaw ra at the British
    Museum in London

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  • 5. Great Sphinx
  • The Great Sphinx is a large human-headed lion
    that was carved from a mound of natural rock. It
    is located in Giza where it guards the front of
    Khafra's pyramid.
  • The name comes from BA Hol the place of the lion
    or from hereon Canaanites god and sphinx is Greek
    name.
  • Sphinx (Aboul Hul or Jadaf-ra ) has the head of
    King Chephren and a lion body. It is 20m high and
    73m long. The face is 4m width.
  • Legends have been told for many years about the
    Great Sphinx. These stories tell about the powers
    and mysteries of this sphinx. Some people even
    believe that there are hidden passageways or
    rooms underneath the Great Sphinx, but nothing
    has been found yet

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  • The beginning of one story about the Great
    Sphinx is written on a stele between the sphinx's
    paws (The dream Stele)
  • The story reads that one day, a young prince
    fell asleep next to the Great Sphinx. He had been
    hunting all day, and was very tired. He dreamt
    that the Great Sphinx promised that he would
    become the ruler of Upper and Lower Egypt if he
    cleared away the sand covering its body (the
    Great Sphinx was covered up to its neck)
  • The rest of the story is gone. This stele was
    put up by the pharaoh Thutmosis IV who lived
    around 1400 B.C.  

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  •  
  • The beard was added during the New Kingdom
    hundreds of years after the Great Sphinx was
    first carved.
  • Nose, beard, and the Kobra which was over the
    head were lost and now parts of the beard
    situated in the Egyptian museum while other parts
    at British museum
  • It is 73.5m tall and 20m and it covered with
    small lime stones for maintenance but it was
    replaced afterward
  • When Napoleon came to said to his solders you
    are standing in front of 4000 years looking for
    your victory and when he back he destroyed the
    nose
  • Some stories said that Saeim Al-Ddaher Mamlouk
    religious man who destroyed the nose as it
    forbidden to worshiping Assnam

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Sphinx. The view from the Valley Temple of King
Chephren
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The head of the Sphinx
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The Great Sphinx.
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The Sphinx and Great Pyramid of Khufu at Giza. 
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part of the beard of the Great Sphinx.
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The Stele of the Great Sphinx.
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The Pyramid of Chephren eastside and Sphinx.
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Pyramid Construction Process
  • The pharaohs use the sand road for the pyramids
    construction where the stones laid at a wooden
    ski over palm trees columns used as escalators
    and pulled by cows with ropes and spreading water
    on sand to assist the cows
  • The sand spring surround the pyramid till the
    head and start emitting the sand after covering
    the construction with the white limestone
  • Each 1m height used 10m long which mean the
    length of the sand road is 1.5km
  • About 100,000 labor used in construction and they
    construct villages for them near the pyramids
  • Mohammed Ali the controller use some of the
    pyramids stones in the construction of Al-kanater
    El-Kheiriyah and some others stones used in
    Islamic buildings in Cairo like mosques

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  • Floor plan of King Sahure's pyramid
  • Landing stages where boats docked
  • Mortuary temple with date-palm columns
  • Causeway
  • Entrance hall
  • Open court
  • Small chamber containing five statue niches
  • Sanctuary and five rooms
  • Corridor and burial chamber
  • Subsidiary pyramid court

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The Village of the Pyramid Builders
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