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Information Architecture and Internet

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Information Architecture and Internet Lecture 12 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Information Architecture and Internet


1
Information Architecture and Internet
  • Lecture 12

2
Summary of Previous Lecture
  • The Internet
  • History
  • Resource that can be shared
  • Applications of Internet
  • Client/Server Architecture
  • Internet Service Providers
  • HTML
  • Web Browsers

3
Summary of Previous Lecture
  • Searching the Web
  • Tips and Techniques
  • Search Process
  • Different Web search tools
  • Outlook Express

4
Todays Lecture
  • Intranet
  • Webpage and Website
  • Web servers
  • Static Website and Dynamic Websites
  • Purpose of Information Architecture and basic
    problem.
  • Common Mistakes
  • Information Architecture Defined
  • Information Architect

5
Today's Lecture
  • Main Concepts of Information Architecture
  • Structuring, organizing and Labeling
  • Finding and Managing
  • Art and science
  • Library and WWW
  • Difference between books and websites
  • Difference between libraries and websites
  • Different roles of Information Architect
  • IA Job and Role

6
Todays Lecture
  • Why IA matters?
  • Example design structure of a University website.
  • Structural schemes for website design.
  • Navigation system in a website

7
Intranet
  • A private network of any company.
  • Resources are shared within the organization.
  • Allows small group of people to access specific
    information.
  • E.g. Journals and Articles Access on COMSATS
    Intranet, Not permitted outside.

8
COMSATS LAB Intranet Students are using network
Resources
9
Webpage and Website
  • A web page is one single page of information,
    while a website is made up of a number of
    different web pages connected by links.
  • Website is a set of related web pages containing
    content (media) such as text, images, video,
    audio, etc.

10
Web servers
  • A web server is a computer which host websites.
  • Hosted website can be accessible via network such
    as the Internet or Intranet through an Internet
    address known as a Uniform Resource Locator.

11
How Does the Web Work?
Server
Folder that your site is saved in
Computers around the world
Your computer
12
Static Website
  • Visitors are not able to control information they
    receive using static web site.
  • Simple Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) based
    website is a static website.
  • Contents of the website do not change by itself.

13
Dynamic Websites
  • A dynamic website is one that changes or
    customizes itself frequently and automatically,
    based on certain criteria.
  • A backend database is mostly associated with
    dynamic websites.
  • Contents of the website are changed on the change
    in database.
  • Users are able to customize their search
    preferences.

14
Static Vs Dynamic Websites
15
Defining the purpose
  • If a website is difficult to use most people
    leave it
  • If an Intranet site is difficult to use most
    companies will suffer productivity issues
  • Low intranet usability costs the world economy up
    to or more than 100 billion/year in lost
    employee productivity.
  • Jakob Nielsen, www.useit.com

16
Example of Poorly Designed Website
INFORMATION EXPLOSION
Example of Worst Web Page With Bundle of
Information
17
The Problem
  • Organizations carry huge volume of day to day
    business data.
  • Mostly stored in Database Systems.
  • Questions arises how to put data on organization
    web.
  • Web Design
  • Information Presentation
  • Ease of use

18
Common Mistakes
  • Lot of time spent on efficient information
    storage and retrieval, small time to present it.
  • Not using Graphical User Interfacing (GUI)
    properly.
  • Unknown concepts related Human Computer
    Interaction (HCI).
  • Technical people considered as Business
    Development Managers.
  • Let them present information whatever they want.

19
Result
  • Information search
  • becomes cumbersome.

Solution understand Information Architecture for
WWW.
20
A big Chaos
  • Imagine a book store with organization scheme.
  • Thousands of books are simply tossed into huge
    pile.
  • Gould's Book Arcade, Australia.

Nearly Impossible to find a book by Topic
21
What is Information Architecture?
  • The art and science of structuring and
    classifying web sites and intranets to help
    people find and manage information.
  • When users look for answers (on your website) and
    find them in the right place you have better
  • Sales (e-commerce)
  • service (marketing)
  • and productivity (good Intranet usage).

22
Information Architect (IA)
  • The individual who organizes the patterns
    inherent in data, making the complex clear.
  • A person who creates the structure or map of
    information which allows others to find their
    personal paths to knowledge.

Woman, R.S. and Bradford, P. (eds). (1996).
Information Architects. Zurich, Switzerland
Graphis Press.
23
Information architecture is not new
  • Managing and presenting data remained a KEY issue
    in history. For example consider the case of
    Library.
  • The Library of Alexandria, in Egypt, was the
    largest and most significant great library of the
    ancient world (330 B.C.).
  • It housed 120 scroll
  • bibliography.

24
Main concepts of IA
  • Structuring, organizing and Labeling
  • Finding and Managing
  • Art and Science

25
Structuring, Organizing and Labeling
Granularity refers to relative size or chunks of
information varying levels could be journal
issue, article, paragraph or sentence
  • SOL Its what IA is
  • Defining granularity and deciding how to relate
    them to one another
  • Grouping into meaningful categories
  • Labeling means what to call those categories
  • How then to decide on the navigation from those
    choices

26
Finding and Managing
  • Findability is a critical success factor for
    overall usability.
  • Users have the option of
  • Searching
  • Browsing
  • Asking
  • and if they cant find it then the site fails.

27
Finding and Managing
  • While designing a website, Information Architect
    must balance the needs of the user and the goals
    of the business (Return on Investment).

But this is hard to do
28
Finding and Managing
  • Dewey Decimal System
  • A proprietary system of library classification
    developed by Melvil Dewey in 1876.
  • Greatly modified and expanded in the course of
    the twenty-two major revisions, the most recent
    in 2004.
  • Attempts to divide knowledge in classes and
    sub-classes.
  • Books are placed on shelf in numerical order.

29
Art and Science
  • IA must rely on experience, intuition and
    creativity.
  • You must be willing to take risks and trust your
    imagination.
  • It is often difficult to understand.

30
Library and World Wide Web
  • In the similar fashion, we organize library
    books, information in web sites can also be
    organized.
  • Information Architecture of a Library is
    essential to study information architecture of
    web sites.

31
Library, Books and WWW
32
Difference between books and websites.
33
Difference between libraries and Websites
34
Browsing in a Library and Internet for a Book
Both provides ordered book browsing faciltiy
35
Different Roles of Information Architect
  • Explaining different jobs of IA in his/her own
    wordings,
  • IA as Internet Librarian
  • I'm an information architect. I organize huge
    amounts of information on big web sites and
    intranets so that people can actually find what
    they're looking for. Think of me as an Internet
    librarian."

36
Different Roles of Information Architect
  • IA as online merchandiser
  • "I am an information architect. I help my company
    by making it easy for customers to find our
    products on our web site. I'm a kind of online
    merchandiser. I apply one-to-one marketing
    concepts on the Internet."

37
Different Roles of Information Architect
  • IA as Information load organizer.
  • "I am an information architect. I'm the one who
    takes on that information overload problem that
    everyone's been complaining about lately."

38
Information Architect Job
  • IA focuses on the structure or organization of a
    web site.
  • How the different pages of the site relate to one
    another.
  • It involves such activities as
  • Content analysis and planning
  • Organization of the pages
  • Providing cues to help users orient themselves
  • Labeling, search techniques, and navigation
    design

39
Information Architect Job
  • IA Jobs is not related to
  • Graphic Designer
  • Scientist
  • Software Developers

40
Information Architect Role
In typical web design project, the IA is found
between the administrative team and the
development team An important role for the
IA is as boundary spanner between these groups
41
Why Information Architecture Matters?
  • Several reasons exists, including
  • Return on Investment
  • Cost of finding information
  • Value of education
  • Cost of construction
  • Cost of maintenance
  • Cost of training
  • The value of the brand

42
Return on Investment
  • How much an organization invested on developing
    the web site and what is the possible benefit out
    of it.
  • Consider a case in which an organization spent a
    lot of money on developing, hosting and
    maintaining a web site and user feels not
    comfortable with it.

43
Cost of Finding Information
  • What does it cost if every employee in any
    company spends an extra five minutes per day
    struggling to find answers on the intranet?
  • What will be the cost of frustrating the
    customers with a poorly organized web site?
  • How many bad decisions are made every day in your
    organization because employees didn't find the
    information they needed?
  • How many customers do you lose because they
    couldn't find the product they want on your web
    site?

44
Value of Education
  • Value of educating the users about new products
    and services on your website is really
    beneficial.
  • This is only possible through interactive web
    design.

45
Cost of construction
  • Cost of designing and building a website.
  • How much it will cost when after few months
    later, you decide to change the website because
    it does not support search and does not scale.

46
Cost of maintenance
  • People who update and manage website must know
    where to put new content and when to remove
    outdated contents on the companys website.

47
Cost of training
  • How much it cost to train the employees to use
    the website.
  • For example a call center website.
  • How much a company can save if it is not
    complicated to use.

48
The value of the brand
  • No matter how beautiful your web site, if
    customers can't find what they need, your brand
    loses value in their eyes.

49
Example design of a university website
Home
A1
A3
A4
A6
A2
A5
A7
A8
A9
A10
A11
Key Home A3 Programs A3.1 MIS A3.1.3 Current
curriculum A3.1.3.1 New curriculum
A3.1
A3.3
A3.4
A3.5
A3.2
A3.1.1
A3.1.3
A3.1.4
A3.1.5
A3.1.2
A3.1.3.1
50
Structural schemes for design
  • Many types of structure scheme to design a
    website can be used, this includes
  • Hierarchical (flat and broad)
  • Hierarchical (narrow and deep)
  • A wheel
  • Sequential (an entry way into and an exit from a
    core)
  • An organic hypertext structure
  • Frames
  • Sub-sites
  • Database model

51
Hierarchical (flat and broad)
52
Hierarchical (narrow and deep)
53
The Wheel
54
Sequential
55
Hyperlinked structure
56
Frames
57
Sub sites
58
Database Model
59
Types of Navigation system in a Website
  • Hierarchical
  • The navigation follows the tree structure
  • This is a rigid system without linking across
    branches
  • Contextual Navigation
  • Global navigation
  • Can reach any page from any other page
  • This has limits depending on the size of the site
  • Local navigation
  • Can reach any page from any other page in the sub
    site
  • Site map

60
(No Transcript)
61
Site design and basic questions
Where am I?
Where can I go?
What can I do here?
62
Summary
  • In todays lecture
  • We overviewed the essential concepts related the
    information architecture.
  • We defined
  • Intranet
  • Web page and web site
  • We understood how to structure the web site and
    how to organize the contents of a web site.
  • This is a growing and increasingly important
    subject today.
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