Is Efficiency Fair? Why Transportation Solutions Are Often Rejected - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Is Efficiency Fair? Why Transportation Solutions Are Often Rejected PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 6c901f-ZjJjO



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Is Efficiency Fair? Why Transportation Solutions Are Often Rejected

Description:

Is Efficiency Fair? Why Transportation Solutions Are Often Rejected Professor Michael D. Meyer, P.E. Georgia Institute of Technology Sehlin Lecture – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:2
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Date added: 4 September 2019
Slides: 57
Provided by: Natio94
Learn more at: http://nexus.umn.edu
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Is Efficiency Fair? Why Transportation Solutions Are Often Rejected


1
Is Efficiency Fair? Why Transportation Solutions
Are Often Rejected
  • Professor Michael D. Meyer, P.E.
  • Georgia Institute of Technology
  • Sehlin Lecture
  • Delivered at the University of Minnesota
  • April 29. 2005

2
Terms
  • Economic Efficiency Cannot rearrange the
    production or allocation of goods to make one
    person better off without making anybody else
    worse off.

An efficient economy is not necessarily a fair
one.
Hall and Lieberman, Microeconomics, 2005.
3
Is Efficiency Fair? Why Transportation
Solutions Are Often Rejected
4
What is important in decision making (or to
decision makers)?
  • Solves a problem
  • Benefits are apparent
  • Cost effective (or benefits outweigh costs)
  • Public acceptance
  • We can certainly measure these and do.

5
What is important in decision making (or to
decision makers)? contd
  • Fairness/equity or
  • my turn
  • the burdens should be shared fairly.
  • Politics or
  • how do I maximize my piece of the pie?
  • or.
  • you scratch my back and Ill scratch
  • yours

6
  • These are not so easily measured.
  • or if measured, are often difficult to
    incorporate into trade-off analyses (at least the
    way engineers and planners do them).

7
Why are politics and fairness/equity even a
concern in transportation decision making?
  • Our very form of government is based on the
    concept of protecting the rights of minority
    groups
  • Transportation is the foundation of society as
    we know it. Meyer, over the past 25 years in
    college classes

8
  • Transportation systems enable other activities to
    occur, thus relate to such things as quality of
    life, economic development, accessibility, etc.
  • By definition, transportation systems are located
    spatially and thus provide these enabling forces
    disproportionately from one location to another.

9
  • Whether through revenues generated from fares,
    fuel charges, taxes, or tolls, society pays for
    the transportation system.
  • Whether through fares, fuel costs, taxes or
    tolls, individual users face a price to use the
    system.

10
  • The construction and operation of transportation
    facilities (and of the entire network as a whole)
    results in significant external costs .e.g.,
    pollution, health risks, community cohesion,
    noise, etc.
  • Significant amounts of dollars are spent each
    year to build, operate and maintain the nations
    transportation system.

11
  • In many metropolitan areas, (although the same
    can be said for rural areas at a slightly larger
    scale), population groups have a tendency to
    cluster (although latest figures show a
    decentralization of this phenomenon), thus
    magnifying the impact of disruptions to such
    communities.
  • In Atlanta, for example ,.

12
(No Transcript)
13
(No Transcript)
14
(No Transcript)
15
(No Transcript)
16
  • Engineers and planners, are educated in the
    efficiency school, that is, what is the most
    efficient (and lowest cost) manner of providing
    desired facilities and services?

-- Engineering economics -- Transportation
engineering (standards and standard operating
procedures) -- Rational planning
17
  • But because of the network or lumpiness
    effect associated with civil infrastructure, what
    might be most efficient could run into a buzz
    saw of politics

18
  • Having been involved with transportation
    decision making at all levels of government, in
    most cases, the efficient (or at least the
    closest to efficient) strategy is most often
    adoptedto the best of our ability to determine
    efficiency.
  • However, .

19
From my own experience, not always so.
  • The 15 rule.
  • Congressional balancing law in Georgia
  • Revenue return for new transit in Seattle
  • Modal pre-destiny
  • Racial politics in Atlanta

20
  • The 15 rule

21
  • Congressional balancing law in Georgia

22
  • Revenue return for new transit in Seattle

Subarea equity
23
Modal pre-destiny
24
Racial politics in Atlanta
25
Racial politics in Atlanta
26
Why?
  • Urban vs rural
  • Center city vs suburbs vs exurbs
  • Race/ethnic reasons
  • Donors vs donees
  • Get someone else to pay
  • Those already in vs newcomers
  • Bring home the bacon (quid pro quo or exercise
    of political power)

27
(No Transcript)
28
Up to this point, efficiency trumped by politics
or perceptions of fairness What about fairness
being trumped by efficiency? Lets go back to
the Atlanta example.
29
Where are the new transportation investments (53
billion) going? Based on a rational
prioritization scheme, the following system
investment was recommended.
30
Freeway Capacity Projects
Cross-Regional Roadway Capacity Projects
Managed Lanes / HOV Lanes Concept
Transit System Concept
31
  • Transportation enables what for whom?
  • Who pays?
  • Is the price fair?
  • Who faces the external costs?
  • Who gets (and does not get) the benefits?

32
Foundations for the Consideration of
Fairness/Equity
  • Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • 1969 National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
    section 109(h)
  • Executive Order in 1994 Federal Actions to
    Address Environmental Justice in Minority
    Populations and Low-Income Populations

33
  • FHWA Order in 1998--the following information
    should be obtained
  • Population served and/or affected by race, or
    national origin, and income level
  • Proposed steps to guard against
    disproportionately high and adverse effects on
    persons on the basis of race or national origin,
    and
  • Present and proposed membership by race or
    national origin in any planning or advisory body
    that is part of the program

34
Steps in Transportation Planning
Evaluation
Plan
Leads to.
Policies Operations strategies Infrastructure
projects Studies Regulations Education and
awareness Financing strategies Partnerships Collab
orative undertakings
Understanding the Issues
Including as one product
35
Evaluation
Plan
Leads to.
Policies Operations strategies Infrastructure
projects Studies Regulations Education and
awareness Financing strategies Partnerships Collab
orative undertakings
Vision, Goals, Performance Measures
Including as one product
36
Evaluation
Plan
Leads to.
Policies Operations strategies Infrastructure
projects Studies Regulations Education and
awareness Financing strategies Partnerships Collab
orative undertakings
Data and Analysis Methods
Including as one product
37
Data/Analysis Methods
  • What is the current status of data as it reflects
    equity considerations in transportation planning?
    What is missing?
  • What are the deficiencies in data collection
    strategies and methods?
  • How do state-of-the-practice models and analysis
    methods treat gender-, ethnic- and
    demographic-related travel phenomena? What
    improvements are needed?

38
For analysis tools.
Just as the late 1960s and early 1970s
questioned modal bias in the substance and form
of transportation demand models, I suspect the
2000s will question the gender and demographic
bias (or at least limitations) incorporated into
our underlying travel behavior theories,
databases, and model constructs.
39
Evaluation Methods
Evaluation
Plan
Leads to.
Policies Operations strategies Infrastructure
projects Studies Regulations Education and
awareness Financing strategies Partnerships Collab
orative undertakings
Including as one product
40
For evaluation methods. Current approaches to
evaluation and presentation of information to
decision makers seldom examine in a serious way
the distributional (or equity) impacts of plans,
strategies, or investment actions.not only for
under- represented groups, but also for
women. In many ways, this is a key precursor to
changing policies and plans
41
Impacts Impacts Impacts Impacts Impacts Impacts Impacts Impacts
MOE 1 MOE 2 MOE 3 MOE 4 MOE 5 . MOE n
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
Direct
Groups Affected
Groups Affected
Indirect
Source Meyer and Miller, 1984
42
(No Transcript)
43
(No Transcript)
44
Mobility and Access Mobility for whom? How does
the project affect non-motorist access to
businesses, public services, schools, and other
facilities? Does the project impede or enhance
access between residences and community
facilities and businesses? Does it shift
traffic? How does the project affect access to
public transportation? How does the project
affect short- and long-term vehicular access to
businesses, public services, and other
facilities? Does it affect parking availability?
45
Social and Psychological Aspects Will the project
cause redistribution of the population or an
influx of population? How will the project affect
interaction among persons and groups? How will
it change social relationships and patterns? Will
certain people be separated or set apart from
others? Will the project cause a change in social
values? What is the perceived impact on quality
of life?
46
Provision of Public Services Will the proposed
action lead to or help alleviate overcrowding of
public facilities (i.e., schools and recreational
facilities)? Will it lead to or help alleviate
underuse? How will it affect the ability to
provide adequate services? Will the project
result in relocation or displacement of public
facilities or community centers (e.g., places of
worship)?
47
Displacement What are the effects on the
neighborhood from which people move and into
which people are relocated? How many residences
will be displaced? What types? multi- unit,
single family, others? Are there residents with
special needs (disabled, minority, elderly) being
displaced? How many businesses and farms will be
displaced? What types? Do they have unique
characteristics, such as specialty products or a
unique customer base? Are there available sites
to accommodate those displaced?
48
Outcomes Effects, Consequences, Lessons Learned
Evaluation
Plan
Leads to.
Policies Operations strategies Infrastructure
projects Studies Regulations Education and
awareness Financing strategies Partnerships Collab
orative undertakings
Including as one product
49
Fairness issues likely to face typical U.S.
metro areas in the next 25 years
  • Tradeoffs in housing vs transportation costs
  • Transportation for an aging population
  • Spatial and modal distribution of investment
  • Transit funding (sales tax)

50
Fairness issues.. contd
  • Increasing proportion of population growth
    attributed to immigrants
  • Operations strategies, e.g., ramp metering
  • External costs and distribution thereof
  • Pricing, e.g., toll roads (not to my
    constituents, you dont!!), HOT lanes or
    interestingly TOT lanes

51
TOT Alternative 1 Major Truck Corridors
  • Voluntary TOT
  • I-75 N
  • I-85 N
  • I-285
  • I-75 S
  • HOV network
  • Entire region

52
TOT Alternative 2 Service to Commercial
Deliveries
  • Voluntary TOT
  • I-75 N
  • I-85 N
  • I-285
  • I-75 S
  • HOV network
  • Current HOV lanes inside I-285 restricted to
    light duty trucks in midday

53
TOT Alternative 3 TOT Network Outside/On I-285
  • Voluntary TOT
  • Outside I-285
  • On I-285
  • HOV network
  • Inside I-285 only
  • TOT replaces HOV outside and on I-285

54
In sum..
  • The efficiency fairness relationship
    will become even more important in the future
  • It will be found in many different types of
    transportation strategies infrastructure,
    operations, pricing, system management
  • The transportation planning process is the place
    where this relationship needs to be understood
    and considered (not in the project
    development/mitigation stage)

55
In sum.. contd
  • Implications for data collection, analysis tools,
    evaluation methods, and prioritization schemes
  • Places additional pressures on already-pressured
    transportation agencies
  • Certainly suggests we need to examine how we
    educate the next generation of transportation
    professionals

56
Thank you
  • University of Minnesota
  • Department of Civil Engineering
  • Sehlin Family
  • Audience
About PowerShow.com