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Early British Colonies

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Early British Colonies Chapter 1 Section 3 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Early British Colonies


1
Early British Colonies
  • Chapter 1
  • Section 3

2
John Smith
  • Joined Virginia Company
  • Group of merchants who intended to start a colony
    in North America
  • Landed near Chesapeake Bay in 1607
  • Built a fort to protect the first English
    settlement in North America, Jamestown
  • See p. 22

3
Problems from the Beginning
  • Funding
  • Unlike Spanish colonies, which were funded by the
    Spanish rulers, English colonies were funded by
    joint-stock companies, who invested money to
    support a colony hoping to make a profit
  • Expected a quick return
  • Colonists neglected farming in hopes of finding
    gold or silver to satisfy the investors

4
Problems from the Beginning
  • Consequences
  • Famine
  • Diseases from drinking contaminated water
  • John Smith was able to hold the colony together
  • Forced the colonists to farm
  • Formed relations with the Powhatan peoples, who
    helped support the colony

5
Pocahontas
  • Only 10-12 years old at the time
  • Captain Smith claimed she saved his life by
    throwing herself onto him to save him from a
    beating
  • Unclear whether Smith was actually going to be
    beaten
  • Married John Rolfe
  • No romantic relationship with John Smith

6
Tobacco
  • Eventually, the colonists learned to grow tobacco
  • Became a very profitable export
  • Needed field laborers
  • Indentured servants
  • Received passage to America, food, and shelter
    upon arrival in exchange for 4-7 years worth of
    labor
  • Mostly from Englands lower class

7
Clashes with Native Americans
  • Desire for more and more land led to conflict
    with the Native Americans
  • Unlike the Spanish, the English conquest over the
    native peoples was total and complete
  • They did not intermarry
  • Colonists living on the outskirts of the colonies
    constantly fought with Native Americans

8
New England
  • Pilgrims
  • A group of Puritans, known as Separatists because
    they wanted to separate themselves from the
    English church
  • Came to North America on the Mayflower
  • Founded Plymouth Colony in 1620, the second
    permanent English colony in North America
  • The Mayflower Compact
  • Outlined the government to be used in the colony
  • Important landmark in the development of American
    democracy

9
New England
  • Massachusetts Bay Colony
  • Established by another group of Puritans in 1630
    seeking religious refuge
  • Boston became a thriving port city
  • Led by Puritan Leader John Winthrop
  • Plymouth was eventually incorporated into the
    Massachusetts Bay Colony

10
New England
  • Puritans
  • Came to America to practice their own religion
  • Were not tolerant of other religions
  • Roger Williams
  • Disagreed with some Puritan practices
  • Declared English settlers had no rightful claim
    to the land unless they purchased it from the
    natives
  • Argued every person should be free to worship
    according to his or her conscience
  • Founded Providence and guaranteed religious
    freedom

11
Native American Resistance
  • Natives had helped colonists
  • Provided them with land and gave agricultural
    advice
  • Colonists began to settle more and more land
  • Native Americans began to fear an end to their
    way of life
  • Resented the colonists efforts to convert them
    and some of their laws
  • Such as no hunting or fishing on Sundays
  • How would you react if you were a Native American?

12
King Philips War
  • Tension continued to rise for 40 years
  • Metacom (Wampanoag chief)
  • Referred to as King Philip by the English
  • Formed an alliance with other tribes in an
    attempt to wipe out the colonists
  • King Philips War begins in 1675
  • Natives burned outlying settlements
  • Colonists responded by killing many natives, even
    those from friendly tribes

13
King Philips War
  • Brutality lasted over a year
  • Natives finally surrendered or fled
  • Heavy casualties
  • Food shortages
  • Disease

14
Middle Colonies
  • The Dutch established a colony, New Netherland
  • Thrived on fur trading
  • 1664 ? English took over the colony
  • Renamed it New York after the duke of York

15
Middle Colonies
  • 1660-1682 ? Charles II (new English king)
  • Gave large portions of land to William Penn
  • In return for a debt owed to Penns father
  • Penn establishes Pennsylvania and Delaware
  • Penn belonged to a Protestant sect known as the
    Quakers
  • Rejected war and promoted equality
  • Paid natives for any new land they acquired

16
Thirteen Colonies
  • 1600s-1700s ? More British colonies were
    established for many reasons
  • Maryland
  • North Carolina
  • South Carolina
  • Georgia
  • By 1752, the Crown had begun to exercise more and
    more control over colonial economies and
    governments

17
Thirteen Colonies
  • Existed primarily for the benefit of England
  • Colonies exported raw materials to England
  • Lumber and fur
  • Imported manufactured goods from England
  • Original 13 colonies
  • Represented a wide variety of people, skills,
    motives, industries, resources, and agricultural
    products

Colonizing Country
Raw materials
Manufactured goods
Colony
18
Mercantilism
  • European nations competed for wealth and power
    through mercantilism
  • Theory of Mercantilism
  • A nation can increase its wealth in one of two
    ways
  • Obtain as much gold and silver as possible
  • Establish a favorable balance of trade
  • What would be a favorable balance of trade?

19
Mercantilism
  • Colonies were key to this process
  • They provided the raw materials that could not be
    found in the home country
  • See the colonies on p. 29, answer Geography
    Skillbuilder
  • To tighten control of colonial trade, English
    Parliament passed the Navigation Acts in 1651
  • Read the Navigation Acts on p. 28
  • How do the acts benefit England? What about the
    colonies?

20
Colonial Government
  • Governor ? Appointed by the Crown served as the
    highest authority
  • Could veto laws of the Assembly

Advisory council ? Appointed by the Governor
  • Colonial Assembly ? elected by the landowning
    white males
  • Raised money through taxes and initiated and
    passed laws
  • Paid the governors salary

21
Growing Self-Determination
  • Self-government
  • Created conditions for a potential rebellion
  • Desired more economic and political breathing
    room
  • Read A Personal Voice on p. 30

22
HW
  • Critical Thinking
  • 3 and 4
  • At least 4 sentences each
  • 8 pts.
  • Movie Clip
  • The Diversity of Colonial Communities
  • 24 min.
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