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The 13 British Colonies (1689

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Title: The 13 British Colonies (1689


1
The 13 British Colonies(16891754)
2
The English Civil War
  • Englands Parliament was made up of
    representatives of the people.
  • It had the power to make laws and approve new
    taxes.
  • King Charles I demanded money from towns and
    cities without Parliaments consent.
  • Parliament saw this as an attempt to limit its
    power and the rights of English property owners.

3
  • Parliaments forces defeated and executed King
    Charles in 1649.
  • The leader of Parliament, Oliver Cromwell,
    governed England until his death in 1659.
  • In 1660, Parliament restored the monarchy by
    placing Charles II, the son of Charles I, on the
    throne.

4
Mercantilism
  • Theory of Mercantilism
  • A country should try to get and keep as much
    bullion, or gold and silver, as possible.
  • To achieve this, a countrys balance of trade, or
    the difference between imports and exports,
    should show more exports than imports.

5
Mercantilism
  • Effects on War and Politics
  • The Navigation Act tightened English control over
    colonial trade by requiring the colonies to sell
    certain goods only to England.
  • If colonists wanted to sell goods to other parts
    of the world, they had to pay a duty, or tax, on
    it.

6
Mercantilism
  • Effects on Trade Laws
  • European countries fought over territory and
    trade routes.
  • British rulers tightened controls over the
    American colonies.
  • King James II tried to take direct control over
    New York and New England by creating the Dominion
    of New England.

7
Mercantilism
  • Anger in the Colonies
  • Colonists resented Jamess grab for power.
  • They were angry with the governor of the Dominion
    that James had appointed.
  • When Parliament replaced James II with his
    daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange,
    New England citizens rebelled and ended the
    Dominion.

8
Britains Colonial Policy in the Early 1700s
  • Origins of Self-Government
  • In theory, the royal governors of the colonies
    had great power.
  • In reality, the colonial legislatures held the
    most power.
  • They created and passed laws regarding defense
    and taxation.
  • They set salaries for royal officials and
    influenced appointments of local officials.

9
  • Salutary Neglect
  • Britain allowed its colonies more freedom to
    govern themselves than other European nations
    did.

10
  • This British policy, known as salutary neglect,
    had three causes
  • England had a long tradition of strong local
    government and weak central power.
  • British government lacked the resources to
    enforce its wishes.
  • Britain gave the colonies freedom because the
    existing economy and politics served the British
    interests.

11
Diverse Colonial Economies
  • Southern Colonies
  • This economy was based on staple cropscrops that
    are in constant demand.
  • Staple crops included tobacco and rice, both
    grown on large plantations worked by slaves.

12
Diverse Colonial Economies
  • Middle Colonies
  • The economy of the Middle Colonies was a mixture
    of farming and commerce.
  • Rich, fertile soil produced wheat, barley, and
    rye.
  • New York and Philadelphia supported the business
    of merchants, traders, and craftspeople.

13
Diverse Colonial Economies
  • New England Colonies
  • The New England economy relied on carrying
    trade.
  • Merchants carried crops and goods from one place
    to another.
  • The business of trading goods between the
    Americas, Europe, and Africa, was called
    triangular trade.

14
Colonial Society
  • American colonists brought many ideas and customs
    from Europe.
  • Most colonists believed
  • The wealthy were superior to the poor.
  • Men were superior to women.
  • Whites were superior to blacks.

15
  • The differences between social ranks could be
    seen in colonial clothes, houses, and manners.
  • Ordinary people wore dresses or plain pants and
    shirts.
  • Gentry (gentle folk ) wore wigs, silk
    stockings, lace cuffs, and the latest fashions.
  • Gentry men and women wealthy enough to hire
    others to work for them

16
Wealth in Land
  • For English colonists, land was the foundation
    for real wealth.
  • Most landowners were white men.
  • In the 1700s, gentry built mansions to display
    their wealth and filled them with fine furniture,
    silver, and porcelain.
  • In each colony, a small group of elite,
    landowning men dominated politics.

17
Trades and Occupations
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22
Colonial Women
  • Women and the Law
  • Under English common law, a husband had complete
    control over his wife.
  • Women could not
  • Own property.
  • Vote.
  • Hold office.
  • Serve on a jury.
  • Husbands were allowed to beat their wives.

23
  • Womens Duties
  • Cooking
  • Gardening
  • Washing
  • Cleaning
  • Weaving cloth
  • Sewing
  • Assisting other women in childbirth
  • Training daughters to do all of the above

24
The Nature of Work
  • The goal of the colonial household was to be
    self-sufficient.
  • Self-sufficient able to make everything needed
    to maintain itself

25
  • Everyone in the household worked to produce food
    and goods.
  • Men grew crops, or made goods like shoes, guns,
    and candles.
  • Women ran the household and assisted with the
    crops.
  • Children helped both parents.

26
Colonial Education
  • During colonial times, children received very
    little formal education.
  • Because Puritans believed everyone should be able
    to read the Bible, the New England Colonies
    became early leaders in the development of public
    education.

27
  • In 1647, Massachusetts passed a law requiring
    towns to set up grammar schools for boys.
  • Girls were expected to learn from their mothers
    at home.
  • Generally, only the wealthy attended college,
    where they trained to be lawyers or ministers.
  • Harvard, Yale, and William and Mary were the only
    three colleges in the colonies until the 1740s.

28
The Middle Passage
  • The Middle Passage was one leg of the triangular
    trade between the Americas, Europe, and Africa.
  • This term also refers to the forced transport of
    slaves from Africa to the Americas.

29
  • Roughly 10 to 40 percent of Africans on slave
    trips died in the crossing.
  • Slaves were beaten and had to endure chains
    heat and cramped, unsanitary conditions.
  • Occasionally enslaved Africans staged a mutiny,
    or revolt, on the slave ships.
  • Many of these were successful.

30
Slavery in the Colonies
  • South Carolina and Georgia
  • High temperatures and disease made slave
    conditions especially harsh in this region.
  • African Americans made up the majority of the
    population in South Carolina and more than one
    third of Georgias population.
  • Southern slaves kept their culture alive through
    their speech, crafts, and music.

31
Slavery in the Colonies
  • Virginia and Maryland
  • Slaves in Virginia and Maryland made up a
    minority of the population.
  • Few of those slaves came directly from Africa.
  • Slaves had other tasks in addition to growing
    crops.
  • There was more integration of European American
    and African American cultures than in South
    Carolina and Georgia.
  • To save money, slave-owners encouraged slaves to
    have families.

32
Slavery in the Colonies
  • New England and the Middle Colonies
  • There were far fewer slaves in New England and
    the Middle Colonies than in the South.
  • Slaves had more freedom to choose their
    occupations.
  • Slaves in this region typically worked as cooks,
    housekeepers, and personal servants.
  • They also worked as skilled artisans,
    dockworkers, merchant sailors, fishermen,
    whalers, privateers, lumberjacks, and in
    manufacturing.

33
Estimated African American Population, 16901750

SOURCE Historical Statistics of the United
States, Colonial Times to 1970
34
Free Blacks
  • Slaves that earned money as artisans or laborers
    had the possibility of saving enough to purchase
    their freedom.
  • Free African Americans did the same kind of work
    as enslaved African Americans, but were often
    worse off economically and socially.

35
  • Free blacks faced poorer living conditions and
    more discrimination than slaves who were
    identified with specific white households.
  • Free blacks could not vote, testify in court, or
    marry whites.

36
Laws and Revolts
  • Laws
  • Slaves could not go aboard ships or ferries, or
    leave the town limits without a written pass.
  • Slaves could be accused of crimes ranging from
    owning hogs or carrying canes to disturbing the
    peace or striking a white person.
  • Punishments included whipping, banishment to the
    West Indies, and death.

37
Laws and Revolts
  • Revolts
  • In the Stono Rebellion, several dozen slaves in
    South Carolina killed more than 20 whites.
  • The rebels were captured and killed.
  • New York City had slave rebellions in 1708, 1712,
    and 1741.
  • After the 1741 revolt, 13 African Americans were
    burned alive as punishment.
  • African Americans undertook almost 50 documented
    revolts between 1740 and 1800.

38
Western Expansion
  • In the mid-1700s, the colonial population was
    increasing rapidly, nearly doubling every 25
    years.
  • Birth rates were rising.

39
  • Immigrants from England, Ireland, Germany, and
    other countries were settling in colonial
    America.
  • As the population grew, settlers pushed west in
    search of more land.
  • These settlers were part of a migration, or
    movement, in search of land on which they could
    build independent lives and maintain their
    households.
  • Immigrants people who enter a new country to
    settle

40
Native American and French Reaction
  • Native American Response
  • As white settlers migrated into Indian territory,
    the Indians were forced to relocate into lands
    already occupied by other Native American groups.
  • The Cherokees, Creeks, Chickasaws, and Choctaws
    put up a powerful struggle to block westward
    colonial expansion.

41
Native American and French Reaction
  • French Actions
  • In 1752, the French built Fort Presque Isle in
    Pennsylvania and attacked and killed the men
    defending an English trading post in the Ohio
    Valley.
  • By the early 1750s, it became clear that
    Pennsylvania would become the setting for a
    struggle between the colonists, Native Americans,
    and the French.

42
Religious Tensions
  • The British colonies were primarily Protestant.
  • Southern planters, northern merchants, and
    northern professionals tended to belong to the
    Church of England.
  • Most New Englanders were either
    Congregationalists or Presbyterians.
  • Quakers, Lutherans, and Mennonites were common in
    Pennsylvania.
  • The Dutch Reformed Church thrived in the colonies
    of New York and New Jersey.

43
The Great Awakening
  • The Great Awakening refers to a revival of
    religious feeling that began in the early 1700s.
  • These revivals were designed to renew religious
    enthusiasm and commitment.
  • Jonathan Edwards Edwards, a Massachusetts
    minister, is believed to have started the Great
    Awakening.
  • His success inspired other ministers to increase
    their efforts to energize their followers.

44
The Great Awakening
  • George Whitefield Whitefield was an itinerant,
    or traveling, preacher who toured the colonies
    seven times between 1738 and 1770.
  • These ministers preached that any Christian could
    have a personal relationship with Jesus Christ.
  • They stated that faith and sincerity, rather than
    wealth and education, were the major requirements
    needed to understand the Gospel.

45
Churches Reorganize
  • In the 1740s and 1750s, many New Englanders
    converted to the Baptist faith.
  • In the South, both the Baptist and the Methodist
    churches drew many followers through their
    powerful, emotional ceremonies and their
    celebration of ordinary people.
  • Revivals caused several churches to break apart.
    While some embraced the new emotionalism, others
    rejected it.

46
  • Some of the splinter groups were more tolerant
    of dissent than the organizations from which
    they split.
  • Dissent difference of opinion
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