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The Thirteen Colonies and the British Empire

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Title: The Thirteen Colonies and the British Empire


1
The Thirteen Colonies and the British Empire
  • 1607-1750

2
Introduction
  • Between the founding of Jamestown in 1607 and the
    founding of Georgia in 1733, thirteen distinctly
    different English colonies developed along the
    Atlantic Coast of North America.
  • Every colony received its identity and its
    authority to operate by means of a charter, a
    document granting special privileges, from the
    English monarch.

3
Over time, three types of charters- and three
types of colonies- developed
  • Corporate colonies, such as Jamestown (before
    1624), were operated by joint-stock companies.
  • Royal colonies, such as Virginia after 1624, were
    to be under the direct authority and rule of the
    crown.
  • Proprietary colonies, such as Maryland and
    Pennsylvania, were under the authority of
    individuals granted charters of ownership by the
    king.

4
Unlike those who settled the French and Spanish
colonies in the Americas, the English colonists
brought with them a tradition of independence and
representative government.
  • Accustomed to holding elections for
    representatives who would speak for property
    owners and either approve or disapprove important
    measures, such as taxes, proposed by the kings
    government
  • While political and religious conflicts and civil
    war dominated England, feelings for independence
    grew in the colonies

5
The Chesapeake ColoniesVirginia and Maryland
  • In 1632, King Charles I subdivided the vast area
    that had been the Virginia colony.
  • He chartered a new colony located on either side
    of Chesapeake Bay and granted control of it to
    Lord Calvert (Lord Baltimore), as a reward for
    this Catholic noblemans loyal service to the
    crown.
  • The new colony of Maryland thus became the first
    of several proprietary colonies.

6
Maryland
  • Charles I decided to establish proprietorships
    rather than granting more colonies to joint-stock
    companies because he believed that loyal
    proprietors like Lord Baltimore could be trusted
    to faithfully carry out the kings policies and
    wishes.
  • The first Lord Baltimore died before he could
    fulfill his twin ambitions of
  • - achieving great wealth in his colony
  • - providing a safe haven for his fellow
    Catholics
  • Control of the Maryland proprietorship passed in
    1632 to his son Cecilius Calvert- the second Lord
    Baltimore- who set about implementing his
    fathers plan in 1634.

7
Maryland (continued)
  • To avoid the intolerance and persecution of their
    Puritan enemies, a number of wealthy Catholics
    emigrated to Maryland and established large
    colonial plantations.
  • Catholic settlers, however, were outnumbered from
    the start by Protestant farmers (mostly
    Anglicans).
  • The Calverts quickly realized that they
    (Catholics) would always be a minority in the
    colony.
  • In 1649, Calvert sent from England the draft of
    an Act Concerning Religion (Act of Religious
    Toleration), which assured the freedom of
    worship, though only within the bounds of
    Trinitarian Christianity.
  • One of the earliest laws of religious liberty, it
    was limited to Christians

8
Maryland (continued)
  • Despite the passage of the Act of Toleration,
    tensions between the Catholic minority and
    Protestant majority fueled political strife as
    zealous Jesuits and crusading Puritans vied for
    religious dominance
  • For a period during the late 17th century, the
    Protestant majority, having triumphed, barred
    Catholics from voting and in 1692 succeeded in
    repealing the Toleration Act.

9
The Chesapeake Colonies
  • Due to several factors, the population of the
    Chesapeake colonies grew slowly
  • unhealthy climate
  • high death rate due to disease and Indian attacks
  • imbalance between the number of men and women
  • - most of the early settlers were young men from
    England and Scotland brought as indentured
    servants to work the tobacco fields
  • - for example, in 1619, for example, a boatload
    of Englishwomen were transported to Jamestown to
    become wives of the colonists. Women were
    purchased for 120 pounds of tobacco

10
TobaccoLarge scale cultivation of tobacco
required large tracts of land and an extensive
labor supply. To meet demand for labor, planters
in the Chesapeake colonies employed a system of
indentured servitude.
  • Indentured Servants
  • In exchange for payment of their passage to
    America, young people from the British Isles
    entered into labor contracts with landowners
    obligating them to work for a specified period of
    time (usually seven years) in exchange for room
    and board
  • In effect, indentured servants were under the
    absolute rule of their masters
  • At the expiration of the specified period, they
    gained their freedom
  • Headright System
  • In an effort to attract new settlers and workers,
    the headright system was established, first in
    Virginia and later in Maryland.
  • In Virginia, the headright system offered fifty
    acre grants of land which new settlers could
    acquire in a variety of ways.
  • - each new settler who paid for his own passage
    received fifty acres
  • - anyone (new settler or old) who paid for the
    passage of other immigrants to Virginia would
    receive an additional headright for each new
    arrival.

11
Turbulent Virginia and Bacons Rebellion
  • Economic problems
  • - beginning in the 1660s, low tobacco prices,
    due in part to overproduction, brought hard
    times to the Chesapeake colonies
  • Economic distress fueled political unrest
  • Sir William Berkeley, the royal governor of
    Virginia (1641-1652 1660-1677), adopted policies
    that favored the large planters and used
    autocratic powers to govern on their behalf.
  • - By 1670, the vote was restricted to
    landowners, and elections were rare
  • - each county continued to have only two
    representatives, even though some of the new
    counties of the interior contained many more
    people than the older counties of the tidewater
  • - Thus, settlers of the backcountry, many of
    them former servants and recent arrivals, were
    underrepresented in the colonys government in
    Jamestown

12
Bacons Rebellion
  • In 1676, backcountry unrest and political
    rivalries combined to create Bacons Rebellion
  • Nathaniel Bacon, newly arrived from England and a
    member of the backcountry gentry, seized upon
    the grievances of western farmers to lead a
    rebellion against Berkeleys government.
  • Bacon and those who joined him resented the
    economic and political control exercised by the
    Jamestown elite

13
Bacons Rebellion
  • Howard Zinn describes Bacons Rebellion as not
    easily classifiable as either anti-aristocrat or
    anti-Indian because it was both.
  • According to Zinn, Bacons Declaration of the
    People of July of 1676 shows a mixture of
    populist resentment against the rich and frontier
    hatred of the Indians.
  • Bacon indicted the Berkeley administration for
  • 1. unjust taxes
  • 2. putting favorites in high positions
  • 3. monopolizing the fur trade
  • 4. for not protecting western farmers from the
    Indians

14
Bacons Rebellion
  • Backcountry settlements constantly under the
    threat of attack from Indians angry about
    European intrusions (encroachment) into their
    lands
  • Begins with a series of attacks by frontier
    settlers against Indians to defend western
    districts from Indian raids
  • As fighting intensified, Bacon and other
    backcountry farmers, angry with Berkleys
    cautious and indecisive response to their cries
    for help in fighting the Indians, perpetrated a
    series of unauthorized raids and massacres
    against Indian villages on the Virginia frontier.
  • In response, Berkeley proclaimed Bacon and his
    men rebels and what had started as an
    unauthorized assault on the Indians became a
    military challenge to the colonial government
    and the most powerful, violent, insurrection
    against established authority in the history of
    the colonies until the Revolutionary Era.

15
Bacons Rebellion
  • Bacons army (a motley force of Englishmen and
    Negroes, a mixture of freemen, servants, and
    slaves) succeeded in burning Jamestown and
    forcing the governor into exile
  • Bacons death of dysentery in the fall of 1676,
    however, coupled with the arrival of British
    troops from England enabled the colonial
    government under Berkeley to quickly bring the
    rebellion to an end.
  • - Servants and slaves were eventually captured
    and delivered up to their masters. In the end,
    twenty-three rebel leaders were hanged (Zinn, A
    Peoples History, 34)

16
Significance of Bacons Rebellion
  • Bacons Rebellion exposed (revealed)
  • the continuing struggle to define the boundary
    between Indian and white lands in Virginia
  • the bitterness of the competition between
    eastern and western landowners
  • the potential for instability in the colonys
    large and growing population of free, landless
    men
  • - these men-most of them former indentured
    servants, propertyless, unemployed, with no real
    prospects made up the majority of Bacons Army
  • - what had begun as a conflict against Indians
    became a violent manifestation of class
    resentment directed at the tidewater gentry
  • -according to Zinn, what was especially
    fearsome for the wealthy white planters was that
    white servants and black slaves joined forces
  • How might these potent forces of social unrest be
    kept in check?

17
Significance of Bacons Rebellion
  • According to Morgan, there was an obvious lesson
    in the rebellion, although Virginians did not
    immediately grasp it
  • Resentment of an alien race might be more
    powerful than resentment of an upper class.

18
Significance of Bacons Rebellion
  • If freemen with disappointed hopes should make
    common cause with slaves of desperate hope, the
    results might be worse than anything Bacon had
    done. The answer to the problemwas racism, to
    separate dangerous free whites from dangerous
    slave blacks by a screen of racial contempt
    (Morgan, American Slavery, American Freedom,
    328).
  • And so, the most significant effect of Bacons
    Rebellion is the shift toward slavery, toward
    racism. Recognizing the need to prevent social
    unrest from below, large plantation owners of the
    Chesapeake increasingly turned to the African
    slave trade to fulfill their need for labor.

19
Development of New EnglandA Theocratic Society
in Massachusetts
  • Ministers had no political power, but exerted
    great influence on church members, who were the
    only people who could vote or hold office
  • Government, in turn, protected the ministers,
    taxed the (members and non-members alike) to
    support the church, and enforced the law
    requiring attendance at religious services
  • Dissidents had no more freedom to worship than
    the Puritans had had in England
  • - Puritan religious leaders were intolerant of
    anyone who questioned the religious teachings
    and practices of the colony
  • - A common method for dealing with dissidents
    was to banish them from the Bay Colony
  • Colonial Massachusetts could be described as a
    theocracy, a society in which the line separating
    church and state was hard to see

20
Development of New EnglandRhode Island and
Connecticut
  • As the population of Massachusetts increased,
    many settlers- those who did not accept all the
    religious tenets of the colonys leaders or those
    who lacked church membership (and hence, the
    right to vote) left and began to spread
    settlement throughout present-day New England.
  • Dissidents formed the nucleus for the founding of
    several colonies in New England, which would
    ultimately develop into Rhode Island and
    Connecticut

21
Rhode Island
  • Roger Williams went to Boston in 1631 as a
    respected Puritan Minister
  • He believed, however, that individual conscience
    was beyond the control of any civil or religious
    authority (Liberty of Conscience).
  • Denied the authority of civil government to
    regulate religious behavior (in effect, an
    endorsement of separation of church and state)
  • In conflict with other Puritan leaders, Williams
    is banished from the Bay colony.
  • Leaving Boston, he flees southward to
    Narragansett Bay where he and several followers
    found the settlement of Providence in 1636
  • Providence
  • The new colony is unique in two respects
  • It recognized the rights of Native-Americans and
    paid them for the use of their land
  • Williams government provided for complete
    religious toleration by allowing Catholics,
    Quakers, and Jews to worship freely
  • - for example, no oaths regarding religious
    beliefs, no taxes to support a state church, no
    compulsory attendance at worship

22
Anne Hutchinson
  • Dissident who questioned the doctrines of Puritan
    religious leaders
  • Openly challenged the right of the Massachusetts
    clergy to exercise authority over their
    congregations
  • Also created alarm by affronting prevailing
    assumptions and norms regarding the proper role
    of women in Puritan society by hosting religious
    gatherings in her home
  • Branded an antinomian (someone who refuses to
    obey the laws of god or man), she was placed on
    trial and banished from the Bay colony
  • Founded the colony of Portsmouth in 1638, not far
    from Willliams Providence
  • Eventually settled in New Netherland and was
    killed in an Indian uprising (Kiefts War)

23
Rhode Island (continued)
  • In 1644, Roger Williams was granted a charter
    from the English Parliament joining Providence
    and Portsmouth into a single colony, Rhode Island
  • Because this colony offered religious freedom for
    all, it served as a refuge for people of various
    faiths

24
ConnecticutTo the west of Rhode Island, the
fertile Connecticut River Valley attracted
settlers who did not agree with all the religious
tenets of the leaders of Massachusetts
  • Hartford
  • The Rev. Thomas Hooker led a large group of
    Boston Puritans into the valley and founded the
    colony of Hartford in 1636.
  • The Hartford colonists drew up the first written
    constitution in American history, the Fundamental
    Orders of Connecticut (1639), which established a
    representative government consisting of a
    legislature elected by popular vote and a
    governor chosen by that legislature.
  • New Haven
  • South of Hartford, a second settlement in the
    Connecticut Valley was started by John Davenport
    in 1637
  • In 1665, New Haven joined with Hartford to form
    the colony of Connecticut.
  • The royal charter for Connecticut granted it a
    limited degree of self-government, including
    election of the governor.

25
New Hampshire
  • Last colony to be founded in New England,
    consisting of a few settlements north of Boston
  • Originally part of Massachusetts, it was
    separated from the Bay colony by King Charles II
    in 1679 in an attempt to increase royal control
    over the colonies
  • Made a royal colony, it was subject to the
    authority of an appointed governor

26
Development of New England (continued
  • The Halfway Covenant
  • by the 1660s, a generation had passed since the
    founding of the first Puritan colonies
  • the New England-born settlers showed signs of
    being less committed to religious faith and more
    interested in material pursuits
  • especially alarming was the apparent decline in
    conversions testimonials by individuals that
    they had received Gods grace and therefore
    deserved to be admitted to the church as members
    of the elect.
  • How was the Puritan church to retain its power
    and influence if younger people failed to become
    church members?

27
The Halfway Covenant
  • In an effort to maintain the churchs power and
    influence in New England society, troubled
    ministers in 1662 announced a new formula for
    partial church membership, the halfway covenant
  • the halfway covenant offered partial membership
    rights to people not yet converted by admitting
    to baptism- but not full communion- the
    unconverted children of existing members
  • Effects
  • over time, the halfway covenant helped to open
    Puritan church doors fully to all comers, whether
    converted or not
  • widening of church membership gradually erased
    the distinction between the elect and other
    members of society
  • from this time onward women were a majority in
    Puritan congregations

28
New England Confederation
  • In the 1640s, the various New England colonies
    were under the constant threat of attack from
    Native Americans, the Dutch, and the French
  • Because of civil war in England, the colonists
    could expect little aid
  • In 1643, four New England colonies (Plymouth,
    Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut, and New Haven
    formed a military alliance known as the New
    England Confederation
  • - directed by a board comprised of two
    representatives from each colony
  • - limited powers to act on boundary disputes,
    the return of runaway servants, and dealings
    with Native-Americans
  • the confederation lasted until 1684, when
    colonial rivalries and renewed control by the
    English monarch brought this first experiment in
    colonial cooperation to an end
  • set an important precedent for colonies taking
    unified action toward a common purpose

29
King Philips War
  • Causes
  • continued encroachment of English settlers onto
    Native American lands sparked Indian resistance
  • Metacom, Chief of the Wampanogs, known to
    colonists as King Philip, forged a pan-Indian
    alliance in southern New England by uniting
    several tribes and mounted a series of bloody
    Indian raids against English settlements along
    the frontier
  • Effects
  • 52 Puritan towns were attacked and 12 destroyed
    entirely
  • Hundreds of colonists and Indians died in the
    bloodshed
  • although King Philips War slowed the westward
    march of English settlement, the war inflicted a
    lasting defeat on New England Native-Americans
  • Reduced in numbers, dispirited, disbanded,
    Native-Americans would never again seriously
    threaten New England colonists

30
Salem Witch Trials
  • The Salem Witch Trials, one of the most
    frightening religious episodes in colonial
    American history, was sparked by the accusations
    of adolescent girls who claimed to have been
    bewitched by certain older women
  • a hysterical witch hunt ensued, resulting in the
    legal lynching of 20 individuals, 19 of whom
    were hanged and one of whom was pressed to death
  • Two dogs were also hanged
  • Significance
  • revealed deep religious and social conflicts
    within the rapidly evolving Massachusetts village
    in that most of the accused were among Salems
    prosperous merchant ranks while their accusers
    came largely from the ranks of poorer families in
    Salems agricultural hinterland
  • episode reflects the widening social
    stratification of New England, as well as the
    conflict between religious tradition and Yankee
    commercialism

31
Restoration ColoniesNew American colonies were
founded in the late 17th century during a period
in English history known as the Restoration .
The name refers to the restoration to power of an
English monarch, Charles II, in 1660 following a
brief period of Puritan rule under Oliver
Cromwell.
  • The Carolinas
  • as a reward for helping him gain the throne,
    Charles II granted a huge tract of land between
    Virginia and Spanish Florida to eight nobles, who
    became the lord proprietors of the Carolinas
  • In 1729, two royal colonies South Carolina and
    North Carolina, were formed from the original
    proprietorship

32
The Carolinas (continued)
  • South Carolina
  • In 1670, in the southern Carolinas, a few
    colonists from England and some planters from the
    island of Barbados founded the town of Charles
    Town
  • Initially, the economy was based on trading furs
  • prospered through the development of close
    economic ties to the English West Indies by
    providing foodstuffs to provision sugar
    plantations on the islands
  • By the middle of the 18th century, rice emerged
    as the principal export crop
  • Carolinians paid premium prices for African
    slaves experienced in rice cultivation
  • By 1710, blacks constituted a majority of the
    population
  • North Carolina
  • Primarily settled by farmers from Virginia and
    New England, many of whom were squatters
    without legal right to the soil
  • characterized by small, self-sufficient tobacco
    farms
  • fewer large plantations and therefore less
    reliance on slavery
  • Inhabitants earned a reputation for being
    irreligious and anti-authoritarian
  • Officially separated from South Carolina in 1712
    and subsequently each segment became a royal
    colony

33
Stono Rebellion
  • Nearly 100 resentful South Carolina blacks along
    the Stono River exploded in revolt in 1739
  • Seized weapons, killed several whites and
    attempted to march south to Spanish Florida
  • Rebellion was ultimately put down forcefully by
    local militia
  • Most participants were executed

34
New Amsterdam becomes New York
  • New Amsterdam was a company town run by and for
    the Dutch West India company in the interests of
    stockholders
  • Dutch colony was aristocratic, characterized by
    vast feudal estates fronting the Hudson River,
    known as patroonships
  • Extraordinarily diverse, the colony was home to a
    heterogeneous population, including Dutch,
    English, Scandinavian, German, French, and
    African settlers (imported as slaves by the Dutch
    West India Company)
  • Charles II wished to consolidate the crowns
    holdings along the Atlantic Coast and close the
    gap between the New England and the Chesapeake
    colonies
  • In 1664, a British naval fleet seized control of
    the Dutch colony from its governor Peter
    Stuyvesant
  • Colony was thereupon renamed New York, in honor
    of the Duke of York (the future James II)
  • The Dutch had governed their sprawling colony
    (present-day New York, New Jersey, and Delaware)
    without the benefit of an assembly and so the
    duke saw no reason to trouble his government
    with such a body.
  • Ultimately, James was grudgingly forced to yield,
    and New Yorks first assembly met in 1683.

35
New Jersey
  • Believing New York to be too large territorially
    to administer effectively, James gave to two
    friends, Lord John Berkelely and Sir George
    Carteret, the lands located between the Hudson
    River and Delaware Bay
  • In 1674, one proprietor received West New Jersey
    and the other East New Jersey
  • To attract settlers, both proprietors made
    generous land offers and allowed religious
    freedom and an assembly
  • Eventually sold they sold proprietary interests
    to various groups of Quakers
  • the crown decided in 1702 to combine the two
    Jerseys into a single royal colony

36
Pennsylvania and Delaware
  • To the west of New Jersey lay a broad expanse of
    forested land
  • Originally settled by a peace-loving Christian
    sect, the Quakers

37
Quakers or members of the Religious Society of
Friends
  • Quakers believed in the following
  • Equality of all men and women
  • Nonviolence
  • Resistance to military service
  • Quakers furthered believed that religious
    authority was found within each persons private
    soul and not in the Bible or any outside source
  • In the 17th century, such views seemed to pose a
    radical challenge to established authority
  • Quakers of England are widely persecuted and
    jailed for their beliefs

38
William Penn
  • Young convert to the Quaker faith
  • Son of a victorious admiral in the service of the
    King
  • Elder Penn opposed Williams religious beliefs
    but came to respect the sincerity of his sons
    faith and upon his death left his son
    considerable wealth.
  • In addition, the royal family owed the father a
    large debt, which was paid to William in 1681 in
    the form of a land grant in the Americas for a
    colony which he called Pennsylvania or Penns
    woods.

39
The Holy Experiment- Penn wanted to test ideas
he had developed based on his Quaker beliefs
  • Penn wanted his colony to achieve three purposes
  • provide a religious refuge for Quakers and other
    persecuted peoples
  • enact liberal ideas in government
  • generate income and profits for himself

40
The Holy Experiment
  • He provided the colony with a Frame of Government
    (1682-1683 which guaranteed a representative
    assembly elected by landowners and a written
    constitution, the Charter of Liberties (1701),
    which guaranteed freedom of worship for all and
    unrestricted immigration.
  • Unlike other colonial proprietors, who governed
    from England, Penn crossed the ocean to supervise
    the founding of a new town on the Delaware River
    named Philadelphia, bringing with him a grid
    pattern of streets later imitated by other
    American cities.

41
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42
Pennsylvania
  • Penn believed, as had Roger Williams, that Native
    Americans should be reimbursed for their land
  • no major conflicts with Indians during his
    lifetime
  • Penn successfully attracted settlers from
    throughout Europe by offering political and
    religious freedom as well as generous land terms
  • Pennsylvania prospered from the outset because of
    the successful recruitment of emigrants, Penns
    thoughtful planning, and the mild climate and
    fertile soil

43
Delaware
  • In 1702, Penn granted the lower counties of
    Pennsylvania their own representative assembly.
  • This act, in effect, created a separate colony
    Delaware, although until the American Revolution,
    it had the same governor as Pennsylvania.

44
Georgia The Last Colony
  • chartered in 1732
  • last of the British colonies and the only one to
    receive direct financial support from the home
    government in London
  • Two principal reasons for British interest in
    starting a new southern colony
  • to create a defensive buffer to protect the
    prosperous South Carolina plantations from the
    threat of invasion from Spanish Florida
  • to provide a refuge for the impoverished and
    debtors to begin life anew

45
Georgia The Last Colony
  • Given a royal charter for a proprietary colony, a
    group of philanthropists led by James Oglethorpe
    founded Georgias first settlement, Savannah, in
    1733.
  • Oglethorpe acted as the colonys first governor
    and put into effect a plan for making the colony
    thrive.
  • Strict regulations included an absolute ban on
    drinking rum, the prohibition of slavery, and
    restrictions on the size of property holdings
    were imposed.
  • Because of the constant threat of Spanish attack,
    the colony failed to thrive
  • by the early 1750s, the strict rules had been
    loosened (for example, the ban on slavery was
    removed in 1750).
  • In 1752, Oglethorpe and his group of trustees
    returned control of the colony to the King and
    Georgia became a royal colony.
  • The colony grew slowly by developing a plantation
    system along lines similar to South Carolina

46
Mercantilism and the Empire
  • Most European kingdoms in the 17th century
    adopted an economic policy of mercantilism, which
    looked upon trade, colonies, and the accumulation
    of wealth as a basis for a countrys military and
    political power
  • According to mercantilist theory, a government
    should regulate trade and production in order to
    become self-sufficient
  • Under the system of mercantilism, a colonial
    power seeks to establish a favorable balance of
    trade with her colonies. Colonies provide raw
    materials to the parent country for the growth
    and profit of that countrys industries. In
    addition, colonies provide the parent country
    with a market for her manufactured goods.
  • Colonies existed for one purpose to enrich the
    parent country

47
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48
Mercantilism and the Empire
  • Mercantilist policies had guided both the Spanish
    and the French colonies from their inception.
    Mercantilism began to be applied to the English
    colonies, however, only after the turmoil of
    Englands civil war had subsided.
  • Beginning in 1650, Englands government began to
    put in place a mercantilist policy with the
    series of Navigation Acts

49
Acts of Navigation and Trade
  • The Acts of Navigation and Trade (1650-1673)
    established three rules for colonial trade
  • Trade to and from colonies could be carried only
    by English or colonial-built ships, which could
    be operated only by English or colonial crews
  • All goods imported into the colonies, except for
    some perishables, could pass only through ports
    in England
  • Specified or enumerated goods from the colonies
    could be exported to England only. Tobacco was
    the original enumerated good, but over a period
    of years, the list grew to include most colonial
    products

50
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51
Mercantilism Impact on the colonies
  • Positive Effects
  • New England shipbuilding prospered
  • Chesapeake tobacco had a monopoly in England
  • English military and naval forces protected the
    colonies from potential attacks by the French and
    the Spanish
  • Negative Effects
  • Colonial manufacturing was severely restricted
  • Chesapeake farmers received low prices for their
    crops
  • Colonists had to pay high prices for manufactured
    goods from England

52
Enforcement of the Acts
  • Resentment slowly developed in the colonies
    against regulatory laws imposed by the distant
    government in London. Especially in New England,
    colonists would routinely defy the Navigation
    Acts by smuggling in French, Dutch, and other
    prohibited goods.
  • The British government was often lax in enforcing
    the acts, and its agents in the colonies were
    known for their corruption
  • From time to time, the crown would attempt to
    overcome colonial resistance to its trade laws.
    For example, in 1684, the crown revoked the
    charter of Massachusetts Bay because that colony
    had been the center of smuggling activity

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The Dominion of New England
  • A new king, James II succeeded to the throne in
    1685
  • He was determined to increase royal control over
    the colonies by combining them into larger
    administrative units and doing away with
    representative assemblies
  • In 1686, he combined New York, New Jersey, and
    the various New England colonies into a single
    administrative body called the Dominion of New
    England. Sir Edmund Andros was sent from England
    to serve as governor of the dominion
  • The new governor made himself instantly unpopular
    by levying taxes, limiting town meetings, and
    revoking land titles

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The Dominion of New England (continued)
  • James II did not remain in power very long
  • As a result of his heavy-handed style of
    asserting his royal powers, he was deposed in the
    Glorious Revolution in 1688 and replaced with two
    new sovereigns, William and Mary
  • With James fall, the Dominion of New England
    came to an end and Massachusetts Bay, New York
    and the other colonies again operated under
    separate charters
  • Permanent restrictions
  • Despite the Glorious Revolution, mercantilist
    policies remained in force
  • In the 18th century, there were more English
    officials in the Colonies than in any earlier era
  • Restrictions on colonial trade, though poorly
    enforced, were widely resented and resisted

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Institution of Slavery
  • Slavery became rooted in American society in the
    closing decades of the 17th century
  • The number of slaves grew rapidly from only a few
    thousand in 1670 to tens of thousands in the
    early eighteenth century
  • The institution of slavery existed in ALL
    thirteen of the original colonies
  • By 1750, half of Virginias population and
    two-thirds of South Carolinas population were
    slaves

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Increased demand for slavesThe following factors
explain why slavery became increasingly
important, especially in the southern colonies
  1. Reduced migration an increase in wages in
    England reduced the supply of immigrants to the
    colonies
  2. Dependable work force Large-plantation owners
    were disturbed by the political demands of small
    farmers and indentured servants and by the threat
    to the social order posed by Bacons Rebellion.
    Planters believed that slavery would provide a
    stable labor supply that could be better
    controlled
  3. Cheap labor As tobacco prices fell, rice and
    indigo became the most profitable crops. To grow
    such crops required large tracts of land and a
    large supply of unskilled labor

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Slave LawsDrawing of the Color Line
  • As the number of slaves increased, colonial
    assemblies adopted laws to ensure that African
    Americans would be held in perpetual bondage and
    that their slave status would be inherited by
    their children
  • In 1641, Massachusetts became the first colony to
    recognize the slavery of lawful captives
  • Virginia in 1661 enacted legislation stating that
    children of slaves inherited their mothers slave
    status for life
  • By 1664, Maryland passed a law stating that
    baptism did not affect a slaves status and
    barred miscegenation and the intermarriage of
    whites and blacks
  • A color line was drawn as both racism and
    slavery became more deeply entrenched in American
    colonial society

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Triangular Trade
  • For most of the 17th century, the English trade
    in African slaves had been monopolized by a
    single company, the Royal African Company
  • By the late 17th century, the companys monopoly
    expired and New England merchants entered the
    lucrative slave trade and began to compete with
    British slavers
  • Merchant ships would regularly follow a
    triangular, or three part, trade route

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AP Free Response
  1. How did economic, geographic, and social factors
    encourage the growth of slavery as an important
    part of the economy of the southern colonies
    between 1607 and 1775?
  2. Analyze the impact of the Atlantic trade routes
    established in the mid 1600s on economic
    development in the British North American
    colonies. Consider the period 1650-1750.
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