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1. empire

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Title: 1. empire


1
1. empire
  • An extended area under centralized control.

2
2. civilization
  • When a man achieves the milestone of record
    keeping and a writing system.

3
3. Reform
  • An improved state with the same existing
    structure.

4
4. Retro
  • To do again by bringing back from the past.

5
5.Revolution
  • Rapid change.

6
6. Reaction
  • A response to some stimulus.

7
7. Imperialism
  • The extension of a nations power over other
    lands.

8
8. Militarism
  • Solving problem by force.

9
9. Nationalism
  • The unique cultural identity of a people based on
    common language, religion, and national symbol.

10
10. Great War
  • World War 1 (1914-1919).

11
11. 20th Century
  • 1900-1999.

12
12. 21st Century
  • 2000-2099.

13
13. Triple Alliance
  • This alliance, formed in 1882, consisted of
    Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy (Central
    Powers).

14
14. Triple Entente
  • This alliance, formed in 1907, consisted of Great
    Britain, Russia, and France.

15
15. Conscription
  • A military draft.

16
16. Serbia
  • By 1914, they were determined to create a large,
    independent Slavic state in the Balkans. This is
    where WW1 started.

17
17. Archduke Francis Ferdinand
  • The heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary. He was
    assassinated on June 28, 1914.

18
18. Gavrilo Princip
  • A 19-year old Bosnian Serb, succeeded in fatally
    shooting both the archduke and his wife. This was
    the spark that started WW I.

19
19 William II
  • Emperor of Germany during WWI

20
20. Czar Nicholas II
  • He ordered mobilization of the Russian army
    against Austria-Hungary. He was the last of the
    Romanov dynasty to rule Russia.

21
21. Mobilization
  • The process of assembling troops and supplies and
    making them ready for war.

22
22. General Alfred von Schlieffen
  • He Drew up plans to quickly strike France and
    then turn Germanys attention towards Russia.

23
23. Lusitania
  • The British were blamed of using this ship, also
    known as the floating palace, to carry
    ammunition and other war supplies across the
    Atlantic. It was sunk by the Germans and provoked
    the U.S entry into the war

24
24. Propaganda
  • Ideas spread to influence public opinion for or
    against a cause.

25
25. Trench Warfare
  • A type of warfare that involves ditches protected
    by barded wire.

26
26. U Boats
  • Also known as submarines

27
27. War of Attrition
  • War based on wearing the other side down by
    constant attacks on heavy losses.

28
28. Gallipoli
  • Southwest of Constantinople, battle between the
    Ottoman and the allies. 40 north,30 east.

29
29. Lawrence of Arabia
  • A British officer who urged Arab princes to
    revolt against ottoman overlords.

30
30. Total War
  • This involves a complete mobilization of
    resources and people.

31
31. Limited War
  • A conflict that has certain goal using partial
    resources

32
32. Guerilla Warfare
  • Surprise attacks ,run and hide

33
33. Terrorism
  • Random acts of violence against civilians.

34
34. Planned Economies
  • These are systems that are directed by government
    agencies. i.e., Communism.

35
35. Woodrow Wilson
  • United States president during WW1. He argues for
    his 14 points in post WW1.

36
36. Grigori Rasputin
  • He was an uneducated Siberian peasant who claimed
    to be a holy man. He was close to the czarina. He
    was assassinated by a group of Russian nobles.

37
37. Bolsheviks
  • They began as a small faction of a Marxist party
    called the Russian Social Democrats.

38
38. V.I. Lenin
  • The Bolsheviks were under his leadership. He
    leads the communist state in Russia

39
39. Ukraine
  • This was one of the countries that was given up
    when Lenin signed the treaty of Breast-Litovsk,
    as well as Finland, eastern Poland, and the
    Baltic provinces. 50 North, 30 East.

40
40. Siberia
  • Where the White force attacked westward and
    advanced almost to the Volga River before they
    were stopped. It is in northern Russia.

41
41. Urals
  • Where Czar, his wife and children were taken
    after he abdicated. Mountain range that separates
    Europe from Asia.

42
42. Leon Trotsky
  • Thanks to him the Red Army was a well-disciplined
    fighting force and he reinstated the draft and
    emphasized a rigid discipline. He was
    assassinated by assassins sent by Stalin in
    Mexico city. He lost a power struggle with Stalin.

43
43. War Communism
  • This meant government control of banks and most
    of the industries.

44
44. Armistice
  • This is a truce or an agreement to stop the
    fighting.

45
45. David Lloyd George
  • He was the prime minister of Great Britain who
    won a decisive victory in the elections of
    December of 1918. He also wanted Germany to pay.

46
46. Georges Clemenceau
  • He was the premier of France during WW1. He
    wanted to punish Germany.

47
47. Reparations
  • To cover the cost of a war.

48
48. Poland
  • This country is in between Germany and Russia in
    North central Europe.

49
49. Mandates
  • This gave a nation the right to govern another
    nation on behalf of the League of Nations.

50
50. Zimmerman Note
  • Germanys offer to Mexico to attack the United
    States during WW1 in exchange for loss territory.

51
51. Treaty of Versailles
  • The agreement that ended the WW1 in 1919. It
    punished Germany harshly.

52
52. League of Nations
  • A group of victorious nations that gathered and
    settle international disputes and avoid war. It
    was proposed by Wilson however, it was rejected
    by the US Senate.

53
53. Hyperinflation
  • Excessively rapid rise in prices of goods.

54
54. Great Flu Epidemic
  • This was a pandemic of 1910-20 which was made
    worse by trench warfare and soldiers spreading
    the disease when they went home in WWI.

55
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56
55. Great Depression
  • Which began at the end of 1929, brought misery to
    millions of people. The unemployment rate was
    25.

57
56. Stock Market Crash
  • When the prices of the stocks plunged and
    investors throughout the U.S. Withdrew funds
    from Germany and other Europeans markets causing
    banks to collapse.

58
57. Weimar Republic
  • A German democratic state that was plagued with
    problems in between the wars. In post WWI.

59
58. Paul von Hindenburg
  • He was a WWI military hero that was elected
    president at age of 77 of the Weimar Republic.

60
59. John Maynard Keynes
  • A British economist that condemned the old theory
    that, in a free economy, depressions should be
    left to resolve themselves without the government.

61
60. Deficit Spending
  • Government spending tax reciepts.

62
61. Franklin Delano Roosevelt
  • This democratic was able to win a landslide
    victory in the 1932 presidential elections. He
    was president during the Great Depression and
    WWII.

63
62. New Deal
  • An intervention in economy that increased
    publics work and a new social legislation which
    is known as U.S. warfare to boost the economy by
    Government spending.

64
63. Totalitarian State
  • A government that aims to control the political,
    economic, social, intellectual, a cultural life
    of the citizens.

65
64. Benito Mussolini
  • He established the first European Fascist
    movement in Italy in the 1920s. Il Duce

66
65. Facism
  • A political philosophy that glorifies the state
    above one and emphasizing the need for a strong
    government and a doctorial ruler.

67
66. New Economic Policy
  • A modified version of the old capitalist system,
    where peasants were allowed to sell their produce
    openly in Russia by Lenin.

68
67. Joseph Stalin
  • He wasnt only a Politburo member he was the
    secretary for the party. He ruled USSR from
    1929-1953. He is responsible for the murder of as
    many as 25 million people.

69
68. Five Year Plan
  • The purpose for these five years was to transform
    Russia from an agricultural into an industrial
    country.

70
69. Collectivization
  • A system in which private farms were eliminated
    and instead the government owned all of the land
    while peasants worked it.

71
70. U.S.S.R.
  • Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 1917-1989

72
71. Great Purge
  • In the 1930s, Stalins mania for power led him
    to remove, all opponent-or imagined
    opponents-from Russian life.

73
72. Francisco Franco
  • He led the military forces to revolt against the
    democratic government in 1936 in spain.

74
73. Spanish Civil War
  • 1936, Fascist (Francisco Franco) vs. democratic
    government.

75
73. Spanish Civil War
76
74. Adolf Hitler
  • Born in Austria on April 20,1889, he led Germany
    and the Nazi Party in the 1930s until 1944.

77
75. Anti-Semitism
  • Prejudice against Jews

78
76. Munich
  • German City, 48N, 11E.

79
77. Nazi
  • The Nationalist Socialist German Party under
    Adolf Hitler.

80
78. Mein Kampf
  • Adolf Hitlers biography (My Struggle)

81
79. Reichstag
  • The German Congress (parliament).

82
80. Concentration Camps
  • Large prison camps that were build for people who
    opposed the new regime and for extermination.

83
81. Heinrich Himmler
  • He was the leader of the SS which controlled not
    only the secret police forces but also the
    regular police forces.

84
82. Nurember Laws
  • This excluded Jews from German citizenship.

85
83. Kristallnacht
  • Or the night of shattered glass when Nazi
    thugs vandalized Jewish businesses.

86
84. Ideology
  • This is a systematic body of ideas usually about
    human life or culture

87
85. Joseph Goebbles
  • He was Hitlers propaganda minister

88
86. Surrealism
  • A movement that sought a reality beyond the
    material world and found it in the world of
    unconscious.

89
87. Salvador Dali
  • Spanish surrealist painter

90
88. Modernism
  • A movement where writers and artists rebelled
    against the traditional literary and artistic
    styles that had dominated European cultural life
    since the Renaissance.

91
89. Ottomon Turks
  • This Muslim empire had once include parts of
    eastern Europe, the middle East, and North Africa.

92
90. Zionism
  • A movement devoted to the establishment of
    Palestine a homeland for Jews.

93
91. Young Turks
  • They were able to force the restoration of the
    constitution in 1908 and dispose the sultan the
    following year.

94
92. T.E. Lawrence
  • He was the dashing British adventurer who aided
    the nationalist against the Ottoman empire.

95
93. The Armenian Genocide
  • From 1915-1918, an estimated 1 million Armenians,
    were killed by massacres and starvation.

96
94. Genocide
  • The deliberate attempt to exterminate a racial
    group.

97
95. Colonel Mustafa Kemal
  • His force drove the Greeks from the Anatolian
    Peninsula.

98
96. Ataturk
  • Father of modern Turkey. He pushed for the
    westernization of Turkey after WW I. His real
    name is Mustafa Kemal.

99
97. Reza Shah Pahlavi
  • Reza Khan gave himself this new name after he
    established himself as shah, or king

100
98. Iran
  • Persia became the modern stat of this country in
    1935

101
99. Ibn Saud
He established the kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932
102
100. Palestine
  • In this country, the nationalism of Jews and
    Arabs was in conflict.

103
101. Balfour Declaration
  • It expressed support for a national home for the
    Jews in Palestine, but it also added that this
    goal should not undermine the rights of
    non-Jewish people living there.

104
102. W.E.B. DuBois Marcus Garvey
  • Both came from a new generation of young African
    leaders calling for independence.

105
103. Pan-Africanism
  • A movement that stressed the need for the unity
    of all Africans.

106
104. Mohandas Gandhi
  • He became active in the movement for Indian
    self-rule before WWI. The people of Indian called
    him Indias Great Soul

107
105. Civil Disobedience
  • Refusal to obey laws considered to be unjust.

108
106. Jawaharlal Nehru
  • He was part of the upper class and an
    intellectual who studied law in Great Britain. He
    was secular, Western, and modern as opposed to
    Gandhi.

109
107. Zaibutsu
  • A large financial and industrial corporation
    (Japanese and So. Korean) that worked closely
    with the government.

110
108. Manchuria
  • A northern province of China. The Japanese
    conquered this area in the 1930s.

111
109. Marxism
  • The idea that peasants as well as workers would
    make the revolution. This became very attractive
    to many poor people around the world. It is
    communist ideology.

112
110. Karl Marx
  • He found the communist international. It was a
    worldwide organization of communist parties
    dedicated to spreading revolution.

113
111. Ho Chi Minh
  • A Moscow- trained revolutionary that organized
    the Vietnamese against the French and later
    American in Indochina.

114
112. Shanghai
  • This is a commercial and industrial city in
    China's east coast.

115
113. Sun Yat-sen
  • A leader of the nationalist who welcomed the
    cooperation with the CCP.

116
114. Chiang Kai-Shek
  • Founder of Taiwan, he loses the battle against
    Mao (communist)

117
115. Shanghai Massacre
  • April 1927 When the Nationalist being led by
    Chiang Kai-shek attack the communist

118
116. Mao Zedong
  • A communist organizer that was convinced that a
    Chinese revolution depends on peasants. He led
    the communist to victory in 1949.

119
117. Guerilla Tactics
  • Surprise attacks, run and hide

120
118. Redistribution of Wealth
  • The shifting of wealth from a rich minority to a
    poor majority.

121
119. Juan Vicente Gomez
  • A dictator in Valenzuela who the U.S. oil
    companies had a great relationship with.

122
120. Good Neighbor Policy
  • This is rejecting the use of military force on
    Latin America on principle.

123
121. Oligarchy
  • A government where a selected group of people
    exercise control.

124
122. Caudillo
  • Latin American dictator.

125
123. World War II
  • 1939-45 Axis (Germany, Japan, Italy) vs Allies
    (US, Britain, Russia, and France)

126
124. Demilitarize
  • Not permitted to have weapons of fortifications.

127
125. Appeasement
  • This policy was based on the belief that if
    European states satisfied the reasonable demands
    of unsatisfied powers, the unsatisfied powers
    would be content, and stability and peace would
    be achieved in Europe.

128
126. Munich Conference
  • In 1936, British, French, German, and Italian
    representatives did not object to Hitlers plans
    but instead reached an agreement that met
    virtually all of Hitlers demands.

129
127. Joseph Stalin
  • The Soviet communist dictator. He is responsible
    for the death of 25 million people. He died in
    1953.

130
128. Nazi-Soviet Non-aggression Pact
  • Signed on August 23, 1939, Germany and the Soviet
    Union promised not to attack each other.

131
129. New Order
  • Comprising of Japan, Manchuria, and China. Japan
    would attempt to establish a new system of
    control in Asia with Japan guiding its Asian
    neighbors to prosperity.

132
130. Blitzkrieg
  • Also known as lighting war because of how
    Hitler stunned Europe with the speed and
    efficiency of the German attack on Poland.

133
131. Isolationism
  • Remaining impartial by refusing to participate in
    a war between other powers.

134
132. Neutrality
  • Not forming alliances or other international
    political and economic relations.

135
133. Battle of Britain
  • The WW2 German invasion by the Luftwaffe (air
    force) of England in early August of 1940. The
    English were aided by radar. Hitler stopped the
    invasion in late September.

136
134. Luftwaffe
  • The German air force

137
135. December 7, 1941
  • The date in which the Japanese aircraft attacked
    the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor in the
    Hawaiian Islands.

138
136. Axis Powers
  • Germany, Italy, and Japan.

139
137. Erwin Rommel
  • He was nicknamed Desert Fox and commanded the
    Reichs Afrika Korps.

140
138. El Alamein
  • A place in North Africa in which Rommels troops
    were stopped by British forces.

141
139. Stalingrad
  • A major industrial center on the Volga. It was
    also major WWII battle in which the soviet defeat
    the Nazis.

142
140. Battle of Midway Island
  • The turning point of the war in Asia (June 4),
    1942

143
141. Douglas MacArthur
  • This U.S. general moved into the Philippines
    through A. A.New Guinea and the South Pacific
    Islands in an effort to capture Japanese-held
    islands and bypass.

144
142. Normandy
  • This place held historys greatest naval invasion
    in which the Allies fought their way past
    underwater mines, barbed wire, and horrible
    machine gun fire.

145
143. Harry S. Truman
  • He became the president on the death of Roosevelt
    in April.

146
144. Hiroshima
  • The US dropped the first atomic bomb on this
    Japanese city during WW II

147
145. Reinhard Heydrich
  • The leader of the SS, he was put in charge of
    German resettlement plans in the east (Poland and
    USSR)

148
146. Aushwitz
  • The largest extermination center built in poland.

149
147. Collaborators
  • People who assisted the enemy.

150
148. Asia for the Asians
  • Japans propaganda efforts to convince the world
    that Japan should rule Asia.

151
149. Kamikaze
  • Japanese pilots that volunteered to serve as
    suicidal pilots

152
150. Cold War
  • 1946 1989 period of hostility and competition
    between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R.

153
151. Tehran Conference
  • Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill came together in
    November 1943 to decide the final assault on
    Germany.

154
152. Truman Doctrine
  • It stated that the U.S. would provide money to
    countries threatened by communist expansion.

155
153. Marshall Plan
  • This plan was designed to rebuild the prosperity
    and stability of war-torn Europe. It included 13
    billion in aid for Europes economic recovery.

156
154. Satellite States
  • Nations that are dependent or controlled by an
    outside power.

157
155. Policy of Containment
  • It was a policy to keep communism within its
    exiting boundaries and prevent further soviet
    aggressive moves. (Opposite of appeasement)

158
156. Berlin
  • Located deep inside the Soviet zone, it was also
    divided into four zones. It was the capital of
    the Nazis empire.

159
157. Federal Republic of Germany
  • West Germany, western capitalistic.

160
158. German Democratic Republic
  • East German State, communist, Warsaw Pact.

161
159. Arms Race
  • A competition in which both countries build up
    their armies and weapons.

162
160. No. Atlantic Treaty Organization
A military alliances of western nations on which all powers who signed agreed to provide mutual help if any one of them was attacked.
163
161. Warsaw Pact
  • A formal military alliances between the Soviet
    Union, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia,
    E.Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania.

164
162. Deterrence
  • This policy held that huge arsenals of nuclear
    weapons on both sides prevented war.

165
163. Nikita Khrushchev
  • He emerged as the new leader of the Soviet Union
    in 1955 after the death of Stalin.

166
164. Domino Theory
  • The idea that if one country falls to communism,
    the neighboring countries will also fall.

167
165. Soviet Union
  • When it became communist in 1917, it changed its
    name to this.

168
166. De-Stalinization
  • The process of eliminating Stalins policies.

169
167. Charles de Gaulle
  • The war hero that dominated France for nearly a
    quarter of a century after the war.

170
168. Welfare State
  • A state where the government takes responsibility
    to provide citizen with services and a minimal
    standard of living.

171
169. European Economic Community
  • Also known as the Common Market, was a free-trade
    area made up of the six member nations and they
    would impose no tariffs on each others goods.

172
170. John F. Kennedy
  • The youngest elected president in the history of
    the United States.

173
171. Civil Rights Movement
  • Equal right for African Americans.

174
172. Martin Luther King, Jr.
  • The leader of a growing movement for racial
    equality.

175
173. Consumer Society
  • A society that is preoccupied with buying goods,
    not producing one.

176
174. Mikhail Gorbachev
  • He became leader of the Soviet Union in 1985.

177
175. Brezhnev Doctrine
  • It insisted on the right of the Soviet Union to
    intervene if communism was threatened in another
    communist state.

178
176. Détente
  • A relaxation of tensions and improved relations
    between two superpowers.

179
177. Dissidents
  • Those who spoke out against the regime.

180
178. Perestroika
  • Restructuring.

181
179. Ronald Reagan
  • He was elected president of the United States in
    1980.

182
180. Boris Yeltsin
  • President of the Russian Republic.

183
181. Ukraine
  • This country voted for independence on December
    1,1991. South Central Europe

184
182. Vladamir Putin
  • At the end of 1999, Yeltsin resigned and was
    replaced by this man.

185
183. Slobodan Milosevic
  • He became the leader of the Yugoslav republic of
    Serbia in 1987.

186
184. Margaret Thatcher
  • A conservative who pledged to limit social
    welfare, restrict union power, and end inflation
    in England.

187
185. Budget Deficits
  • It exists when the government spends more than it
    collects in revenues.

188
186. George W. Bush
  • In the election of 2000, this Texan narrowly
    defeated Vice President Al Gore in one of the
    most hotly contested elections in American
    history.

189
187. Weapons of Mass Destructn
  • They are nuclear, chemical, and biological
    weapons that can kill tens of thousands of people
    at once.

190
188. Globalization
  • The process that began since the dawn of human
    kind of sharing, human trade, communication, and
    cooperation.

191
189. Roe vs. Wade
  • In this 1973 case the Supreme Court legalized
    abortion.

192
190. Ervin Magic Johnson
  • He was living proof of HIV, the virus that causes
    AIDS, could strike anyone.

193
191. Elvis Presley
  • This musician along with Little Richard and Chuck
    Berry combines jazz, gospel, traditional African,
    and country music to create rock n roll.

194
192. Cultural Imperialism
  • It meant that a Western nation controlled other
    world cultures, much as they had controlled
    governments in the 1800s.

195
193. Multinational Corp
  • These are companies with divisions in more than
    two countries for example Mc Donalds

196
194. Megacity
  • A city with rapidly increasing populations,
    having trouble keeping up with urban services for
    example Mexico City.

197
195. Rio de Janeiro
  • Where streams of poor families moved in hope for
    a better life eastern city of Brazil.

198
196. Favelas
  • Squatter settlements where clean water and
    electricity are in short supply.

199
197. Magic Realism
  • A form of expression unique to Latin American
    literature it combines realistic events with
    dreamlike or fantastic backgrounds.

200
198. Gabriel Garcia Marquez
  • Author of One Hundred Years of Solitude, born in
    Columbia, he is one of the worlds best-known
    modern writers.

201
199. Brasilia
  • Built as Brazils new capital in 1950s-1960s,
    where outstanding examples of Latin American
    architectures can be seen.

202
200. Oscar Niemeyer
  • A Brazilian architect that was chosen to be the
    chief architect for the new capital.
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