Religious Reformation and Education - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Religious Reformation and Education PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 6a7023-OThmZ



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Religious Reformation and Education

Description:

Religious Reformation and Education The Enlightenment and Education – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:71
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Date added: 11 October 2019
Slides: 44
Provided by: 02APRI05
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Religious Reformation and Education


1
Religious Reformation and Education
  • The Enlightenment and
  • Education

2
Thirty Year War
  • 1618-1648
  • Religious war
  • Peace of Augsburg -1955
  • Ruler established religion
  • Divided into creeds
  • Lutherans
  • Calvinist
  • Roman Catholic
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donation_of_Constanti
    ne

3
Scene of Thirty Years War Battle
http//www.fortunecity.com/victorian/riley/787/30/
4
Henry VIII (1491-1547)
  • Established the Church of England
  • Protestant Reformation affected education
  • defend the faith against rival creed
  • Need to learn how to read the bible
  • Demand for universal literacy

5
THE SIX WIVES OF HENRY VIII
http//tudorhistory.org/wives/
6
Catherine of Aragon 1509 - 1533Divorced
  • He married Catherine of Aragon (widow of his
    brother, Arthur) in 1509
  • The king cited a verse from the biblical book of
    Leviticus that stated that a man who took his
    brother's wife would be punished by
    childlessness.
  • The union produced one daughter, Mary.

7
Anne Boleyn 1533 - 1536Executed
  • Henry married the pregnant Anne Boleyn in 1533
  • She gave him another daughter, Elizabeth, but was
    executed for infidelity (a treasonous charge in
    the king's consort) in May 1536.

8
Jane Seymour 1536 - 1537Died
  • He married Jane Seymour by the end of the same
    month.
  • Jane died giving birth to King Henry's lone male
    heir, Edward, in October 1536.

9
Anne of Cleves 1540 Jan. - JulyDivorced
  • Early in 1540, Henry arranged a marriage with
    Anne of Cleves, after viewing Hans Holbein's
    beautiful portrait of the German princess.
  • Unfortunately, Henry found her unattractive and
    the marriage was never consummated.

10
Kathryn Howard 1540 - 1542Executed
  • In July 1540, he married the adulterous Catherine
    Howard
  • She was executed for infidelity in March 1542.

11
Katherine Parr 1543 - 1547Widowed
  • Catherine Parr became his wife in 1543
  • King Henry married her so she could provide for
    the needs of both him and his children until his
    death in 1547.

http//www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon41.ht
ml
12
Love Letter to Anna Boleyn
  • Mine own sweetheart, these shall be to advertise
    you of the great loneliness that I find here
    since your departing, for I ensure you methinketh
    the time longer since your departing now last
    than I was wont to do a whole fortnight  I think
    your kindness and my fervents of love causeth it,
    for otherwise I would not have thought it
    possible that for so little a while it should
    have grieved me, but now that I am coming toward
    you methinketh my pains been half released.... 
    Wishing myself (specially an evening) in my
    sweetheart's arms, whose pretty dukkys I trust
    shortly to kiss.  Written with the hand of him
    that was, is, and shall be yours by his will.
  • H.R.

13
Act of Royal Supremacy (1534)
  • In November the statute of the Royal Supremacy
    declared the King (Henry VIII) to be Supreme Head
    of the English Church, and an oath was
    prescribed, affirming the Pope to have no
    jurisdiction in the realm of England.
  • The actual ministry of preaching and of the
    sacraments was left to the clergy, but all the
    powers of ecclesiastical jurisdiction were
    claimed by the sovereign.

http//www.newadvent.org/cathen/01498a.htm
14
Act of Royal Supremacy (1534)
  • The Act of Supremacy required that the King, as
    Supreme Head of the Church, "shall have full
    power and authority from time to time to visit,
    repress, redress, reform, order, correct,
    restrain, and amend all such errors, heresies,
    abuses, offences, contempt, enormities whatsoever
    they be which by any manner, spiritual authority
    or jurisdiction ought or may be lawfully
    reformed" (26 Henry VIII, i).

15
Act of Royal Supremacy cont
  • The Acts of Supremacy and Uniformity (1559)
    established the Church of England as a compromise
    between radical Calvinism and conservative
    Catholicism.
  • The Crown had absolute control in the appointment
    of bishops.

16
Act of Royal Supremacy
  • The Archbishop was bound under the same penalties
    to consecrate the bishop within twenty days after
    the King's command.
  • This enactment, which an Anglican bishop in
    recent times has aptly described as "the Magna
    Charta of tyranny" remains in force to the
    present day.
  • Within the last few years the Law Courts have
    ruled that no opposition to the episcopal
    confirmation of a person nominated by the Crown
    can be allowed.

17
Peace of Westphalia (1648)
  • Lutheranism was established in northern and
    eastern Germany, Sweden, Denmark.
  • Calvinism was established in urban areas of
    Europe such as Switzerland, Netherlands,
    Scotland
  • Roman Catholicism was established in Spain,
    Portugal, France, Italian states. (Hapsburg
    empire)

18
Map of Europe
Calvinist
Catholic
Calvinist
Catholic
Catholic
19
(No Transcript)
20
Portrait of Martin Luther
http//www.research.ibm.com/image_apps/luthp.html
95 Theses
  • Martin Luther dealt the symbolic blow that began
    the Reformation when he nailed his Ninety-Five
    Theses to the door of the Wittenberg Church.

21
Martin Luther
  • That document contained an attack on papal abuses
    and the sale of sins by church officials.
  • Reformation was more important than a revolt
    against ecclesiastical abuses.
  • He believed it was a fight for the gospel.
  • The gospel--the teaching that Christ's own
    righteousness is imputed to those who believe,
    and on that ground alone, they are accepted by
    God.

22
Martin Luther Educational Theory
  • Universal literacy (Translated Bible into German)
  • Vocational education religious, political,
    economic
  • Parents needed to cultivate literacy, religion,
    character
  • Vernacular schools taught religion, writing,
    arithmetic, music, gymnastics.
  • State officials supervised elementary, secondary,
    colleges.

23
John Calvin (1509 1564)
  • Calvinism is a system of Christian theology and
    an approach to Christian life and thought within
    the Protestant tradition articulated by John
    Calvin, a Protestant Reformer in the 16th
    century.

24
Calvinism
  • Calvin's system of theology and Christian life
    forms the basis of the Reformed tradition, a term
    roughly equivalent to Calvinism.
  • God chose numerous people for eternal salvation.
  • People are innately corrupt (Adam Eve)
  • Disciplining children (corporal punishment)
  • Old Deluder Satan Act

25
Calvinist Schools
  • Dual track school system
  • Vernacular schools taught catechism, reading,
    writing, arithmetic, history
  • Classical Latin grammar schools prepared
    ministers, lawyers, future leaders (Latin,
    Greek Hebrew)
  • Once children were nurtured in the right values
    Christian duties, then they were ready for more
    formal schooling.

26
Anglican Reformation
  • Adopted a laissez-faire educational policy
  • Upper class students attended humanist schools
    and received a classical education.
  • Academic freedom was affected-Thirty-Nine
    Articles of the Anglican faith.
  • Act of Supremacy of 1562-required teachers to
    swear an oath.

27
Saint Ignatius of Loyola
  • Inigo Lopez de Loyola, who later took the name
    Ignatius, was the youngest son of a nobleman of
    the mountainous Basque region of northern Spain.
  • Trained in the courtly manner of the time of King
    Ferdinand. (Virgin Mary-chivalry devotion)
  • Graduated from University of Paris

28
Society of Jesus 1540
  • Ignatius and a small band of friends extended
    prayer and meditation according to his Spiritual
    Exercises.
  • The first Jesuits were ordained to the Catholic
    priesthood in Venice and offered themselves in
    service to Pope Paul III.
  • Ignatius was elected General Superior and served
    in that post until his death in 1556 at the age
    of 65.

29
Jesuit Method
  • Stressed classroom management.
  • Lesson Plan Cycle
  • Praelectio introduction
  • Repetitio repetition of subject matter
  • Exercitatio written exercise
  • Concertatio oral public exam (contest)
  • Argumentum scribendi elaborate on classical
    themes

30
Enlightenment
  • Intellectual movement 1600 to 1789
  • Age of Reason
  • French Revolution
  • Philosophes were major group
  • Rejected the Calvinist Catholic view
  • Thought the fewer rules, the better
  • Humanitys Natural Goodness

31
Characteristics
  • Attacked superstition, ignorance, and acceptance
    of authority
  • Scientific Method
  • Demolished old ideas
  • Looked _at_ the world Scientifically
  • Natural Laws (Newton)
  • View of man changed (Were not all the same?

32
Further Changes
  • Art became more refined
  • Fluid oratory was replaced w/ clarity
  • Religion
  • Suspicious
  • Impressed w/ scientific findings
  • Deism

33
Education
  • Schools resisted philosophes ideas
  • Education was classical humanism (rigid
    discipline and authoritarian)
  • Students thought sinful, arrogant indifferent
  • Schoolmasters
  • Controlled by religious denominations
  • Schools
  • Elementary
  • Secondary
  • Higher Education

34
New Ideas in Education
  • Increased emphasis on the sciences Physics,
    Chemistry and Biology
  • Art became more refined
  • Fluid oratory replaced by simple clarity
  • Built around Childs Natural Development
    (Emotional, Physical, and Intellectual)
  • John Locke (Tabula Rasa)
  • Educated Citizens
  • Jean Jacques Rousseau
  • Emile

35
John Locke
  • www.herodote.net/Images/Locke.jpg
  • www.loc.gov/exhibits/world/images/s38.1.jpg

36
Jean Jacques Rousseau
  • http//newschool.edu/het/profiles/image/Rousseau.g
    if
  • www.leeds.ac.uk/library/adopt-a-book/pies.jpg

37
Jean-Jaques Rousseau
  • Children are naturally good
  • People develop through various stages
  • As a result education must be individualized
  • Mental activity is a direct development of bodily
    activity
  • Educators should control the educational
    environment
  • People should reason their way through their own
    conclusions (Discovery Learning Today)

38
Rousseaus Five Stages of Development
  • Stage 1 Infancy (birth to two years)
  • Stage 2 The age of Nature (two to 12)
  • Stage 3 Pre-adolescence (12-15)
  • Stage 4 Puberty (15-20)
  • Stage 5 Adulthood (20-25)

39
Mathematics in Enlightenment
  • Use of Arabic numbers
  • Francois Vieta introduced math symbols
  • Calculus was introduced for tabulating the
    motions of planets
  • Galileo Galilei
  • Isaac Newton

40
Inventions of Enlightenment
  • Telescope
  • Microscope
  • Pendulum Clock
  • Thermometer

41
Deism
  • Deist is defined as One who believes in the
    existence of a God or supreme being but denies
    revealed religion, based on the light of nature
    and reason.
  • People became suspicious of religion
  • Impressed by findings in science

42
Other Prominent Philosophers
  • Thomas Paine
  • Voltaire
  • David Hume
  • Immanuel Kant

43
Resources
  • www.infed.org/thinkers/et-rous.htm
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Age_of_Enlightenm
    ent
  • www.blupete.com/Literature/Biographies/Philosophy/
    Locke.htm
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pendulum_clock
  • http//inventors.about.com/library/inventors/bltel
    escope.htm
  • http//inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blthe
    rmometer.htm?oncetrue
  • http//members.tripod.com/mr_sedivy/enlite.html
About PowerShow.com