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Reform Era: Temperance, Education, Women


Reform Era: Temperance, Education, Women s Rights, Prison, Care for the Mentally Ill, Abolitionism, 2nd Great Awakening Question: What is reform? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Reform Era: Temperance, Education, Women

Reform Era Temperance, Education, Womens
Rights, Prison, Care for the Mentally Ill,
Abolitionism, 2nd Great Awakening
Question What is reform?
Demon Rum The Old Deluder
  • The temperance movement organized because
    consumption of alcohol significantly increased
    caused social problems
  • Goal To encourage moderation in the consumption
    of intoxicating liquors or press for complete
  • Heavy drinking led to many social problems
  • Decreased efficiency of work
  • On the job accidents
  • Breakdown of the family
  • Poor health
  • Poverty
  • Movement was led by churches and religious groups
  • Propaganda focused on the sufferings of innocent
    mothers and their children

Important People Achievements in the Temperance
  • The effects of their efforts included
  • Government regulation
  • Instruction on alcoholism in schools
  • Energized study of alcoholism
  • 18th Amendment (1919-1933) which led to
    Prohibition (ban on manufacture, consumption,
    distribution sale of alcohol)
  • Some of the most notable figures associated with
    the U.S. temperance movement were Susan B.
    Anthony, Frances E. Willard and Carry A. Nation

Temperance Unions
  • Groups such as these pushed for total prohibition
  • Considered liquor consumption to be morally wrong
    and believed it should be prohibited by law
  • Their demands led to experiments with more strict
  • After a few years, these laws disappeared from
    everywhere but New England
  • Still, the movement drastically reduced alcohol
    consumption from 1830-1860
  • The Civil War stalled efforts by reformers but it
    was later revisited during the Progressive Era

Woman's Christian Temperance Union (1874)
Temperance Movement
  • Goals To ban alcoholic drinks
  • Characteristics thoughts were that consumption
    of alcohol caused social problems focused on the
    sufferings of innocent mothers and their children
  • Leaders churches, religious groups, women
    childrens activists

Education Reform
  • Early Schools
  • Short-term schools from the colonial era
  • 10-12 weeks per year
  • Provided basic instruction
  • Charged a fee along with community funding
  • Preferred teaching white boys.
  • Schooling, costly and religious, was designed for
    the privileged few.
  • Parents were considered the primary educators
  • Families relied on each other and churches for
    additional learning
  • it takes a village to raise a child

Horace Mann and Common Schools
  • Reformers argued that INFORMED CITIZENS were
    needed for our republican GOVERNMENT TO THRIVE
  • Workers wanted their children to have a chance to
    pursue the American dream
  • Horace Mann promoted PUBLIC SCHOOLS as the only
  • He argued that it was impossible that educated
    people could remain permanently poor
  • Mann worked for many reforms in public education
  • Paid for and run by the public
  • Inclusive of children from different backgrounds
  • Taught by well-trained professional teachers

Early Public Schools
  • Despite reformers efforts, public school
    conditions were poor
  • Lacked funding, books, and equipment
  • Teachers were poorly paid and often poorly
  • Kids that went beyond the elementary grades went
    to private academies
  • Public schools did not become well established
    until after the Civil War

1800s Georgia school house
Education Reform
  • Goals Reformers argued that INFORMED CITIZENS
    were needed for our republican GOVERNMENT TO
  • Characteristics PUBLIC SCHOOLS were promoted as
    the only way to EQUALIZE SOCIETY
  • Leaders Horace Mann

Prison Reform
  • During the late 1700s to early 1800s the
    general belief about human nature was that people
    were generally good and capable of improvement
  • This new belief was a big shift from the earlier
    Puritan belief of humans as naturally sinful
  • This idea brought many changes for prisoners and
    the disabled

From Prison to Penitentiary
  • Colonial prisons were used as holding places
    before punishments or as places for debtors
  • Reformers argued that society would benefit more
    from rehabilitating prisoners than punishing them
  • Would also help our economy because prisons could
    double as workshops for profit
  • By 1850, most states had adopted the penitentiary
  • Penitentiary prisons used for housing prisoners
    as punishment and rehabilitation

Prison Reform
  • Goals Campaign for better prison conditions
  • Characteristics society would benefit more from
    rehabilitating prisoners than punishing them
  • Leaders John Howard Dorothea Dix

Prisons and the Mentally Ill
  • Before the 1800s, the mentally ill were kept at
    home or imprisoned
  • By 1815, asylums appeared that separated the
    mentally ill from prisoners
  • Dorothea Dix led the reform movement for the
    mentally ill
  • Boston school teacher who was asked to teach
    Sunday school at the East Cambridge House of
    Correction in 1841
  • Found a room full of mentally ill women neglected
    and left without heat during the New England

Tranquilizing Chair
Dorothea Dix and Reform
the present state of insane persons confined
within the Commonwealth, in cages, closets,
cellars, stalls, pens! Chained naked beaten with
rods, and lashed into obedience!
  • After her experience, Dix spent two years
    investigating jails and asylums in Massachusetts
  • Keepers of the institutions called her charges
    slanderous lies but she won the support of
    leading reformers
  • 20 states adopted laws to improve conditions
  • 32 new hospitals were built due to her efforts

Improved Treatment for Mental Illness
  • Goals better treatment of mentally ill
  • Characteristics Mentally ill were often housed
    with criminals or abused. Treated VERY poorly
    (often locked in unheated rooms, chained to their
    beds beaten into obedience. Many were sent to
  • Leaders Dorothea Dix

Womens Rights
  • Cult of Domesticity popular 1800s view of the
    womans sphere
  • Women were to be perfect in all senses
  • Piety believed to be more religious and
    spiritual than men
  • Purity pure in heart, mind, and body
  • Submission held in "perpetual childhood" where
    men dictated all actions and decisions
  • Domesticity a division between work and home,
    encouraged by the Industrial Revolution
  • men went out in the world to earn a living, home
    became the woman's domain
  • a wife created a "haven in a heartless world" for
    her husband and children

Changes in Economy and Life
  • The Industrial Revolution changed the economy
  • More separated from home
  • Home became a refuge
  • Different roles for men and women
  • Status of women remained similar to what it had
    been during the colonial era
  • Could not go to college, vote or hold most
    professional jobs
  • Had no control over their children or property
  • Needed husbands permission to make a will, sign
    a contract, or file a lawsuit
  • BUT they were able to work out of the home

Organizing the Movement
  • Many northern women were involved in the
    abolitionist movement
  • Their involvement in suffrage reform increased
    after the World Anti-Slavery Convention of 1840
  • Women were excluded from speaking at the
    convention and were forced to listen from behind
    a curtain
  • Two female reformers, Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth
    Cady Stanton, decided it was time to stand up for
    womens rights
  • They planned to hold their own convention when
    they returned home

Admission ticket to the Convention
The Seneca Falls Womens Rights Convention, 1848
Convention and Declaration
  • The women wrote a document modeled after the
    Declaration of Independence
  • It went over a list of complaints and ended with
    a demand for rights...
  • The movement was ridiculed and the demand for
    suffrage remained until 1920 but women did gain
    more rights when it came to property and rights
    and wages

. . . The history of mankind is a history of
repeated injuries and usurpations on the part of
man toward woman, having in direct object the
establishment of an absolute tyranny over her. .
. . He has never permitted her to exercise her
inalienable right to the elective franchise. He
has compelled her to submit to laws, in the
formation of which she has no voice. .
. Elizabeth Cady Stanton, The Declaration of
The first signatures on the Declaration of
Legacy of the Movement
  • Seneca Falls helped create an organized campaign
    for womens rights
  • Reformers made slow progress
  • New York gave women control over property and
  • Massachusetts and Indiana passed more liberal
    divorce laws
  • Some women began their own businesses
  • However, womens suffrage took decades
  • 19th Amendment passed in 1920
  • Only one woman present at the convention lived to

Womens Rights
  • Goals Women to have equal rights, suffrage,
    education, job opportunities
  • Characteristics Seneca Falls Convention
    Declaration of Sentiments
  • Leaders Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott,
    Susan B. Anthony

Abolitionist Movement
  • By the 1830s people began asking how can
    America, the land of the free, still allow
  • Some people opposed it even before the American
  • Quakers
  • The Atlantic Slave trade was outlawed in 1808 BUT
    the Industrial Revolution and the invention of
    the cotton gin made both the North and the South
    dependent on slavery
  • Abolitionists were people who wanted to end
    slavery regardless of this economic dependence
  • Both whites and African Americans were

Famous Abolitionists
  • Although the North profited from plantation
    systems and slavery, some white Northerners
    joined the Abolitionist Movement
  • William Lloyd Garrison began to publish an
    abolitionist newspaper, The Liberator
  • Even more rare were Southern abolitionists
  • Grimke Sisters (Sarah and Angelina) Grew up on a
    plantation but believed slavery was morally wrong
  • Moved north and joined the movement
  • Spoke out against slavery publically even at a
    time when women were not supposed to speak in

Famous Abolitionists
  • Some escaped slaves also joined the movement and
    spoke from their past experiences
  • Frederick Douglass became a lecturer for the
    Mass. Anti-Slavery Society
  • People who heard him considered him to be too
    educated and well-spoken to have ever been a
  • We wrote an autobiography that was an instant
  • Started his own newspaper North Star
  • Waged a strong campaign against slavery
  • Sojourner Truth fled her owners and lived with
    Quakers who set her free
  • Drew huge crowds throughout the North as she
    spoke for abolition
  • Both were able to change the way Northerners
    viewed slavery
  • Slavery continued for another 30 years

Famous Abolitionists
  • Some abolitionists wanted to do more than just
    campaign for laws
  • Some brave abolitionists helped slaves escape to
  • Harriet Tubman- one of the most famous conductors
    on the Underground Railroad
  • an above ground series of escape routes from the
    South to the North
  • Travel by foot, wagon, boats, and trains
  • Traveled by night and hid all day in stations
  • Tubman was also an escaped slave
  • Made 19 dangerous journeys to free enslaved
  • Slave owners offered 40,000 for her capture, but
    she was never captured, nor did she lose a

Abolitionist Movement
  • Goals to end slavery regardless of the economic
  • Characteristics people risked their lives so
    that others could be free. Both black white
    abolitionists from north south. Germans were
    typically anti-slavery
  • Leaders Frederick Douglass, Sojourner Truth,
    Harriet Tubman, the Grimke Sisters (Sarah and
    Angelina), William Lloyd Garrison

2nd Great Awakening
  • Goals to revive strong religious feelings to
    get people back to a relationship w/ God
  • Characteristics emphasized ability of each
    person to achieve salvation, centered on reform
    repairing moral injustices. Mormon religion
  • Leaders Peter Cartwright, Joseph Smith, Charles


Propaganda Then and Now
  • Your goal is to examine pieces of propaganda from
    both eras to determine the message being sent.
    For each piece you need to answer the following
  • Is this piece an example of temperance propaganda
    or current day propaganda? How do you know?
  • What is the main idea of the piece?
  • How does the artist use the people and objects to
    create the main idea?
  • How does the artist use emotion to accomplish
    their goal? What emotions does this piece make
    you feel?

  • Piece 1
  • 1. Is this piece an example of temperance
    propaganda or current day propaganda? How do you
  • 2. What is the main idea of the piece?
  • 3. How does the artist use the people and objects
    to create the main idea?
  • 4. How does the artist use emotion to accomplish
    their goal? What emotions does this piece make
    you feel?

Temperance Banner Lithograph by Kellogg
Comstock, c. 1848-1850
  • Among the many evils of alcohol, reformers
    fulminated especially against its corrupting
    effects on family life.
  • Here a young man is torn between a drink-bearing
    temptress a maiden who exemplifies the virtues
    of womanly purity.