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College Bound: Policy Recommendations for Improving Long-Term Employment Outcomes by Advancing Higher Education for Students with Disabilities

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Title: College Bound: Policy Recommendations for Improving Long-Term Employment Outcomes by Advancing Higher Education for Students with Disabilities


1
College Bound Policy Recommendations for
Improving Long-Term Employment Outcomes by
Advancing Higher Education for Students with
Disabilities
A Public Policy ForumJuly 27, 2007Cornell
University Government Affairs Office Hall of
States, Room 333 444 North Capitol Street,
N.W. Washington, DC 20001
2
  • Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on
    Employment Policy for
  • Persons with Disabilities
  • Funded by the U.S. Department of Education
    National Institute on Disability and
    Rehabilitation Research (Grant Number H133B040013)

3
Cornell University Partners
  • Employment and Disability Institute,
  • ILR School, Ithaca, NY
  • Institute for Policy Research, Washington, D.C.
  • College of Human Ecology, Ithaca, New York
  • Dept. of Policy Analysis and Management
  • College of Human Ecology, Ithaca, New York

4
Collaborating Partners
  • American Association of People with
    DisabilitiesWashington, DC
  • Mathematica Policy Research, Inc.Princeton, NJ,
    Washington, DC, and Cambridge, MA
  • Rutgers University, School of Management and
    Labor Relations, Program for Disability
    ResearchNew Brunswick, NJ

5
Upcoming Policy Forums
  • Friday, September 7, 2007 (Hall of
    States)Social Security Demonstrations Reports
    on New Approaches
  • Friday, November 9, 2007 (Hall of States)
  • Disability System Changes in the UK in
    Return-to-Work A Report on the Current System
    and Recent Changes with Discussion on
    Implications for U.S. Systems

6
  • Facilitator
  • Andrew Imparato, President/CEO, American
    Association of People with Disabilities
  • Welcome Introductions
  • Susanne Bruyere, Director, Cornell University
    Employment and Disability Institute
  • Panel
  • Jane West, Ph.D., American Association of
    Colleges for Teacher Education
  • George Jesien, Ph.D., Association of University
    Centers on Disabilities
  • Robert Weathers, Ph.D., Mathematica Policy
    Research, Inc.
  • Reactions
  • Stacey Millbern, Student at Methodist University,
    Mitsubishi Electric America/AAPD Congressional
    Intern
  • Arisa Nakamori, Student at UC Davis, Mitsubishi
    Electric America/AAPD Congressional Intern

7
College Bound Policy Recommendations for
Improving Long-Term Employment Outcomes by
Advancing Higher Education for Students with
Disabilities
  • July 27, 2007
  • Washington, DC
  • Jane E. West Ph.D.
  • American Association of Colleges for Teacher
    Education
  • Jwest_at_aacte.org

8
The Good News
  • A college education is the great equalizer for
    employment
  • The number of students with disabilities
    attending college has steadily increased
  • The Senate Higher Education Act reauthorization
    bill includes some excellent new provisions

9
Provisions in the Senate Higher Education Act
Reauthorization Bill
  • Strengthening projects for students with
    disabilities retention, transition, distance
    learning
  • New authority for model programs for students
    with intellectual disabilities
  • Landmark provisions to allow students with
    intellectual disabilities -- Access to Pell
    Grants, SEOGs and Work-Study funds

10
The Not-So-Good News
  • The participation and retention rate of students
    with disabilities continues to lag
  • High profile debate on access and affordability
    of college students with disabilities not part
    of the discussion
  • Think Tank reports on every group except students
    with disabilities
  • Higher Education has not embraced educating
    students with disabilities as a mission

11
The Not-So-Good News Continued
  • House and Senate have spent many hours debating
    higher education bills in the last month
    service providers and special education teachers
    were part of the debate, but very little on
    access to higher education for students with
    disabilities
  • A minor advocacy presence

12
The Path Forward
  • Support students with disabilities in organizing
    a strong advocacy voice
  • High visibility national study
  • Develop a campaign and materials to make the case

13
  • We must be the change we wish to see in the
    world.
  • -Mahatma Gandhi

14
College Bound Policy Recommendations for
Improving Long-Term Employment Outcomes by
Advancing Higher Education for Students with
Disabilities
  • George Jesien, Ph.D
  • Executive Director
  • Association of University Centers on Disabilities
  • July 27, 2007

15
Points to be covered
  • Post-Secondary Education (PSE) is the critical
    next frontier we must address to improve the
    quality of life for people with disabilities
  • We have under-invested in making PSE a real
    possibility for students with disabilities
  • National Interest and working models are
    increasing in number and quality
  • We have resources that we can build on

16
Clear Link between Education Employment
  • The gap in employment rate between people with
    and without disabilities ranged from 24.2 in
    Utah to 45.3 in Kentucky, with a national
    average of 37.(American Community Survey, 2005)
  • People with disabilities with even less than four
    years of postsecondary education are employed at
    double the rate of those with just a high school
    diploma (Getzel, Stodden and Briel, 1999).
  • Employment rates for people with disabilities
    demonstrate a stronger positive correlation
    between level of education and rate of employment
    than appears in statistical trends for the
    general population (Stodden, 1998).
  • Graduates of post-secondary education
    institutions can expect to earn at least 250,000
    to 600,000 more over their lifetime than high
    school graduates (High Hopes, 1998).

17
Importance of PSEBureau of Labor Statistics
(2004)
18
Historical Federal Focus on Education for
Individuals with Disabilities
  • 1975 Access to Education K-12
  • 1986 Early Intervention
  • 1990 Transition Services
  • 1997 Access to the General Curriculum
  • 1999 Demonstration Grants in Higher Education

19
Federal Investment in Education
  • EI/Elem./Secondary
  • State SE improvement grants
  • IDEA state funds
  • Demonstration
  • Outreach/Replication
  • Personnel Preparation
  • Field Initiated Research
  • Institutes
  • Technical Assistance
  • Post Secondary
  • Demonstration Grants
  • Vocational Rehabilitation

20
Barriers to Post-Secondary Education
  • Low high school expectations inadequate
    preparation
  • Lack of availability of supports and services in
    Higher Education
  • Faculty Attitudes and Academic Culture
  • Knowledge and experience of higher education
    faculty teaching assistants in accommodating
    diverse needs
  • Access to Financial Support

21
What Parents SayUn of IOWA MARKETING STUDY FOR
STUDENTS WITH DD LD (2006)
  • Parents report an overwhelming enthusiasm for a
    post-secondary program on a university campus.
  • Proximity to home or within the respondents home
    state is a significant influencing factor in
    choosing a program.
  • Approximately two-thirds of the parents have
    considered some form of post-secondary education
    program, but only 20 of the sample report that
    they have enrolled their child.
  • Respondents show a preference for a program that
    is balanced equally between job training and life
    skills instruction.
  • The more inclusive the educational program, the
    higher the interest level of the parents. They
    preferred some participation in college courses,
    living on campus, and, as noted, a balance of
    career training and life skills instruction.

22
University Centers for Excellence in
Developmental Disabilities (UCEDDS)
23
Mandated Core Functions
  • Interdisciplinary preservice training
  • Continuing Education
  • Community services that provide TTA, or model
    services supports
  • Research basic, applied evaluation
  • Dissemination of information, research findings
    and policy analysis

24
Why UCEDDs
  • Part of the University System know culture and
    process
  • Have extensive experience with wide range of
    disabilities across the life span
  • Experience in training and technical assistance
  • Have close ties with families and community
    partners
  • Can serve as a network attune to national trends
    yet responsive to local state needs

25
Examples of Activities in UCEDD Network
  • AUCD National Post-Secondary Workgroup
  • California Consortium on Post Secondary Education
    Options for Young Adults with Intellectual
    Developmental Disabilities- UCLA
  • University of Iowa Post-Secondary Certificate
    Program Realizing Educational and Career Hopes
    (REACH)
  • State wide higher education forums planning
    meetings SC, TN, OH- UCEDDs DDCs
  • Higher Education for students from Culturally and
    Linguistically Different populations HI-UCEDD
  • Universal Course Design ME-UCEDD with 4 other
    Universities
  • Use of Assistive Technology in Higher Education
    MS PA UCEDDs
  • Faculty Administrator Modules OH - Nisonger
  • College Career Connection- Use of IDEA funding
    for college experiences dual enrollment- MA-ICI

26
(No Transcript)
27
8 Partnerships
  • 19 Public Schools
  • 10 Institutes of Higher Education
  • 112 Students

28
Bottom Line..
  • Higher education plays a critical role in
    improving the outcomes of students with
    disabilities and even more so for students with
    severe disabilities.
  • Keeping college in the mix of possibilities as
    students with severe disabilities explore which
    steps to take after high school says that we
    believe in their potential for success
  • Being part of campus life, taking classes and
    learning to navigate a world of high expectations
    leads to development of skills needed for
    successful adult life
  • Gaining knowledge and work skills to pursue
    meaningful and competitive work related to career
    goal

29
Policy Recommendations
  • Expand Demonstration Project Efforts
  • Expand financial support options for parents
    students
  • Provide training and TA to university faculty,
    graduate assistants and administration
  • Conduct research to expand knowledge of what is
    most successful
  • Fully exploit assistive and internet technologies
  • Engage Higher Education Leadership Deans,
    Presidents, etc.
  • Build on existing disability infrastructure
    UCEDDs, DD Councils, Disability Organizations

30
Upcoming Legislative Vehicles for Improving PSE
Options
  • Higher Education Act need to reauthorize
  • Workforce Investment Act
  • Vocational Rehabilitation
  • Developmental Disabilities Act - Possibly

31
Steve Harper Graduating from Shoreline Community
College (WA). Steve has CP.
Alicia Vitiello walks at the Hanover Park High
School (NJ). Alicia has Down syndrome
I dont think he has a disability, but he has
great joy
32
Thank You ?s Resources http//www.aucd.org/templ
ate/page.cfm?id509 http//www.aucd.org
33
Postsecondary Education OutcomesA Case Study of
the National Technical Institute for the Deaf
(NTID)
Robert Weathers Mathematica Policy Research,
Inc. July 27, 2007
This project is funded by the U.S. Department of
Education, National Institute on Disability and
Rehabilitation Research (No. H133B040013 ). The
contents of this presentation do not necessarily
represent the policy of the Department of
Education, and you should not assume endorsement
by the Federal Government (Edgar,75.620 (b)).
34
Overview of Presentation
  • Importance of Outcomes Measurement
  • NTID-SSA Postsecondary Education Studies
  • NTID Applicant Study
  • SSI Children Study
  • Implications

35
Importance of Outcomes Measurement
  • Increased emphasis on measuring postsecondary
    education outcomes
  • Stimulate investment in programs
  • Competing demands for federal budget

36
Measuring Outcomes
  • Most postsecondary education studies focus on
    short-term outcomes
  • Problem availability of data on long-term
    outcomes
  • Postsecondary education has lifetime benefits,
    long-term outcomes are important

37
NTID-SSA Outcomes Study
  • NTID is one of two federally funded postsecondary
    schools that serve the deaf population.
  • In 2004, NTID initiated a study to track long
    term outcomes of its applicants since it opened
    in 1968.
  • Under contract with SSA and subject to privacy
    protection laws, NTID data is linked to SSA
    administrative data on earnings and program
    participation for research purposes only.
  • SSA, NTID and Cornell University collaboration.

38
Study Question
  • How is graduation from NTID related to long-term
    employment, earnings, SSI participation, and SSDI
    participation?

39
NTID graduates have higher lifetime employment
rates
40
NTID graduates have higher lifetime earnings
41
NTID graduates have lower lifetime SSI
participation rates
42
NTID graduates have lower lifetime SSDI
participation rates
43
Summary
  • NTID graduates illustrate potential for
    postsecondary education to increase employment
    and reduce participation in disability programs
    over lifetime.
  • Short term postsecondary outcome measures can
    provide a misleading picture.
  • Long term measures illustrate lifetime benefits
    of postsecondary education.

44
SSI Children Study
45
SSI Program Trends
  • Children with disabilities qualify for SSI if
    they live in families with low income and few
    resources
  • Rapid growth in number of SSI children
  • Number has tripled over the last 15 years
  • Over 1 million SSI children in 2006
  • Children are likely to participate in the SSI
    program for a majority of their lifetime
  • Policymakers examining ways to promote
    independence from SSI program.

46
SSI Study Questions
  • Do SSI children with hearing impairments make up
    a large share of NTID applicants and how has the
    share changed over time?
  • Do SSI children graduate at the same rate as deaf
    students who did not participate in the SSI
    program as children?
  • Do SSI children who graduate from NTID have
    better labor market outcomes and spend less time
    on the SSI program?

47
SSI children are a large and growing share of
NTID population
  • Between 1983 and 1999, the number of
  • NTID applicants grew from 10 to 42
  • NTID graduates grew from 8 to 28

48
SSI children have lower graduation rates
NTID Graduation Rate NTID Graduation Rate
SSI Child 29.6 29.6

Not SSI Child 47.2 47.2

Difference -17.6 -17.6

Adjusted Difference -13.4 -13.4
49
SSI children who graduate have better earnings
and program outcomes
  • They experience greater lifetime earnings
  • By age 30 earnings are 68 higher than those who
    withdraw
  • They spend less time on the SSI program
  • They leave the SSI program almost 1.5 years
    sooner than those who do not graduate
  • Their risk of re-entry is cut in half compared to
    those who do not graduate

50
Conclusions
  • Post-secondary education can improve labor market
    outcomes and reduce SSI adult participation for
    SSI children.
  • Long term outcome measures show that potential
    effects persist over persons lifetime
  • Need more concerted effort to promote
    postsecondary education for people with
    disabilities
  • Make greater use of current programs
  • Examine new ways to expand postsecondary
    education opportunities

51
References
  • Weathers, Robert, Gerard Walter, Sara Schley,
    John Hennessey, Jeffrey Hemmeter and Richard V.
    Burkhauser. Forthcoming. How Post-Secondary
    Education Improves Adult Outcomes for
    Supplemental Security Income Children with Severe
    Hearing Impairments. Social Security Bulletin.
  • Rupp, Kalman and Charlie Scott. 1995. Length
    of Stay on the Supplemental Security Income
    Program, Social Security Bulletin, 58(1) 29-47.

52
Upcoming Policy Forums
  • Friday, September 7, 2007 (Hall of
    States)Social Security Demonstrations Reports
    on New Approaches
  • Friday, November 9, 2007 (Hall of States)
  • Disability System Changes in the UK in
    Return-to-Work A Report on the Current System
    and Recent Changes with Discussion on
    Implications for U.S. Systems
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