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The Vietnam Era, 1954-1975

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The Vietnam Era, 1954-1975 American History (CHA3U1) Chapter 33 Introduction The period 1954 1975 would see unprecedented change in all areas of American society ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Vietnam Era, 1954-1975


1
The Vietnam Era, 1954-1975
  • American History (CHA3U1)
  • Chapter 33

2
Introduction
  • The period 1954 1975 would see unprecedented
    change in all areas of American society
  • Tremendous prosperity and power would both
    benefit and hurt American society

3
Sec. 1 Cold War Challenges (pgs. 924-29)
  • Crises in Cuba Castro took power 1959
  • The Bay of Pigs Invasion 1,400 Cuban exiles
    supported by the CIA invade Cuba in 1961 ? total
    failure
  • The Alliance for Progress - 20 billion pledged
    to 19 Latin American countries to aid development
    and curtail communism
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis October 1962 Pres.
    Kennedy forced Soviet Union to remove missiles
    from Cuba

4
Cuban Missile Crisis
5
Sec. 1 Cold War Challenges
  • The Peace Corps 1961 help stop poverty
    disease ? stop communism
  • Peace Corps Volunteers lived among local people
    and gave them practical help for their problems
    (e.g. sewage system, medical)
  • Nationalism in Africa new nations in Africa had
    boundaries created by European colonial powers
    that didnt take into account ethnic / tribal
    differences ? conflict (e.g. Congo)

6
Sec. 1 Cold War Challenges
  • Challenges From the Soviet Union Soviet leader
    Khrushchev thought he could intimidate Kennedy
  • The Berlin Wall Soviets built a wall to keep
    East Germans from escaping into West Berlin
  • Quarrels over Nuclear Testing Soviets resumed
    atmospheric nuclear testing in 1961 ? 1963 treaty
    ended such testing
  • Dominican Intervention 1965 20,000 US troops
    sent to put down Communist rebels

7
Krushchev and Berlin Wall
8
Sec. 1 Cold War Challenges
  • Israel and Korea friction with Soviets
  • Arab-Israeli War 1967 - American backed Israel
    quickly defeated Soviet backed Egypt, Syria
    Jordan
  • The Pueblo Incident January 1968 N. Korea
    seized US spy ship that was in international
    waters and kept them for 1 year

9
Sec. 2 War in Vietnam (pg. 930-34)
  • Trouble in Southeast Asia Soviets aided
    countries vying for national liberation
  • War in Laos Kennedy and Khrushchev agreed to
    cease-fire in 1961
  • Kennedy and Vietnam divided into Communist
    North and Non-communist South in 1954 after
    French defeated ? 1963 Kennedy had sent 16,000
    advisers

10
Sec. 2 War in Vietnam (pg. 930-34)
  • Johnsons Choices
  • 1. Admit defeat and pull out causing possible
    domino theory in SE Asia
  • 2. Limited support that would end in defeat
  • 3. Actively attack N. Vietnam with loss of
    American lives and high financial costs

11
North and South Vietnam
12
Sec. 2 War in Vietnam
  • Escalation
  • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution August 2, 1964 N.
    Viet torpedo boats supposedly fire on US ships ?
    Congress gives Pres. Johnson unaccountable power
    to wage war
  • A Different Kind of War guerrilla terrorist
    warfare fought by VC against stronger US
  • Search and Destroy heavy bombardment of
    suspected VC positions (e.g. napalm, agent orange)

13
Victims of Napalm
14
Sec. 2 War in Vietnam
  • Resistance to Peace N. Viet resisted peace
    attempts believing they could outlast US who had
    over 500,000 troops in Vietnam
  • N. Vietnamese Leader Ho Chi Minh

15
Sec. 2 War in Vietnam
  • Tet and Retreat end of 1967 Gen. Westmoreland
    said end was in sight
  • Vietcong Attack Turns the Tide Jan. 1968 VC
    attack all major S. Viet cities ? VC totally
    defeated but a propaganda victory
  • Peace Talks Begin Mar. 31/ 68 US bombing stops
    ? peace talks in Paris May 68 fail

16
Sec. 3 Protest and Reaction (pgs. 936-40)
  • Growing Opposition to War reasons for fighting
    began to be questioned
  • Senate Hearings on the War televised hearings
    carried the senators doubts about the war to
    millions of American homes
  • Hawks and Doves supporters and opposition to war

17
Sec. 3 Protest and Reaction
  • Student Protests antiwar protests centered on
    college campuses
  • Protests Against the Draft student deferment
    allowed rich to avoid war by staying in school
    while poor drafted some conscientious
    objectors, draft dodgers
  • Violence on Campus 1970 Kent State Jackson
    State University 4 2 students killed

18
Sec. 3 Protest and Reaction
  • New Beliefs and Values younger generation
    rejected parents conservative values ? long hair,
    communes, sex, drugs rock music (Woodstock
    1969)
  • A Conservative Backlash resented lack of
    respect for established order by spoiled rich
    college kids

19
Sec. 3 Protest and Reaction
  • 1968 The Turning Point majority of
  • Americans turned against war policy
  • The Race for President Pres. Johnson drops out
    of race and Robert Kennedy is assassinated by
    Arab nationalist
  • The Candidates Richard Nixon (Rep.), Hubert
    Humphrey (Dem.), George Wallace (I)
  • The Election of 1968 Nixon wins narrowly

20
R. Kennedy and R. Nixon
21
Sec. 4 Secrecy and Summitry (pgs. 941-45)
  • A New Policy focused on foreign policy
  • Nixon Proclaims Détente SALT (Strategic Arms
    Limitation Treaty) with Russians (1972)
  • Nixon and China visits China in 1972 after
    allowing trade travel and moving Seventh Fleet
    from protecting Taiwan

22
Sec. 4 Secrecy and Summitry
  • War in Vietnam Nixon promised to end war, but
    didnt want to lose or prolong ? protests
  • The Pentagon Papers leaked secret govt
    documents which showed four presidents lied about
    American involvement in Vietnam
  • Nixon Announces Vietnamization US troops
    replaced by S. Viet. ? cease fire agree. 1973
  • The End of the War 1974 N. Viet attacks S. Viet
    ? Saigon captured April 1975

23
Sec. 4 Secrecy and Summitry
  • War in the Middle East Egypt Syria attack
    Israel Oct 6, 1973 but USA helps Israel win
  • Arab countries retaliate by placing oil embargo
    on USA ? economic problems
  • Egypt and Israel resume diplomatic relations
    thanks to US Sec. of State Henry Kissinger

24
Conclusion
  • Vietnam War would be the first war the United
    States loses ? WHY? ? because they lost home
    front support
  • The legacy of Vietnam would lead to a mistrust of
    government and less American military involvement
    throughout the world
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