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Chapter 28

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Title: Chapter 28


1
Chapter 28 The Stormy 60s
EU The 1960s begin with promise, but due to
the war in Vietnam, the civil rights movement,
and the counterculture America sees a dramatic
shift in beliefs and values.
  • Movements of the 60s
  • Sexual revolution
  • Civil rights
  • Youth counterculture
  • Feminism
  • Vietnam protests

2
  • JFK His Domestic Policies The Kingdom of
    Camelot
  • Peace Corps 2 years of voluntary service in
    developing countries (designed to fight
    communism)
  • Goals Medicare, for education, mass
    transportation, in min wage, in SS, the
    Space Race (24billion), Civil Rights Bill
  • The Space Race
  • May 5, 1961 Alan Shepard first Amer. in space
  • 1962 John Glenn - first man to orbit moon
  • July 20, 1969 Buzz Aldrin Neil Armstrong
    moon landing
  • Economic Policies wages, overall tax
  • cut. (Increase spending Production)
  • Problems Might alienate Congress

3
  • JFK Foreign Policy
  • June 1961 met with Khrushchev in Vienna
    threatened to cut off Berlin to the West
    Kennedy sent 40,000 troops to Europe.
  • August 1961 The Berlin Wall was built (down in
    1989)
  • Trade Expansion Act 1962 Kennedy trade
    negotiations, tariffs cut by 50, Globalization
    (1967)

During the existence of the wall there were some
5,000 flights to West Berlin, 192 people were
shot while trying to cross and another 200 were
seriously injured
The first death in the Berlin Wall was that of
Peter Fechter was a young man of 18, a bricklayer
from East Berlin, who agonized for an hour hooked
to the wire of the Berlin Wall after being shot.
4
  • JFKs New Defense Strategy
  • Eisenhower increased nuclear weapons, decreased
    conventional weapons. Kennedy ended massive
    retaliation and increased defense spending to
    its highest level.
  • The Green Berets special forces trained in
    guerilla warfare. JFK thought Vietnam would be a
    good test for his unit.
  • 1962 Peace conference to discuss the Communist
    threat in Laos.
  • Flexible Response weigh your options with
    each situation and devise a plan especially for
    that situation. Increased reliance on military
    and less on diplomacy.

5
  • Our First Glimpse Into Vietnam
  • 1954 after a nationalist uprising, France pulled
    out of Vietnam the country would be divided _at_
    the 17th parallel.
  • Ho Chi Minh North Vietnam (USSR Backed)
  • Ngo Dinh Diem South (US Backed, under
    Eisenhower)
  • Opponents to Diem formed the NLF North
    Liberation Front or Vietcong they were
    gathering support from peasants who had been
    harmed by Diems strategic hamlet program.
  • 1961 Kennedy orders increase in advisers (15,000
    Troops)
  • May 1963 Buddhist monks were setting themselves
    on fire (Televised)
  • 1963 US backed a successful coup November 1,
    Diem is assassinated.
  • Kennedy believed in Modernization Theory
    follow US behavior and things would improve in
    undeveloped nations.

6
JFK Cuba 1959 Fidel Castro took over Cuba
Eisenhower planned to use Cuban exiles to invade
Cuba and oust Castro. April 17, 1961 the troops
(1400) landed and were captured immediately.
Kennedy takes full responsibility and Castro
forms closer relationship with USSR. CIA asked
for air strikes, Kennedy said NO!
Bay of Pigs Invasion Failure!
7
  • JFK Cuba
  • October 1962 American spy planes took pictures of
    Soviet missiles in Cuba pointed at US. To
    shield Cuba and get US to back off regarding
    Berlin.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis Air Force suggests a
    surgical bombing on missile sites. Kennedy
    ordered a quarantine around Cuba.
  • October 22, 1962 Kennedy warns Krushchev that any
    missiles from Cuba would be taken out on USSR.
    Oct 28, USSR backed down and agreed to remove
    missiles. US agreed to end quarantine, to not
    invade Cuba, and to take our missiles out of
    Turkey (unofficial).
  • EFFECTS
  • Krushchev humiliated ousted
  • USSR military build-up
  • US military build up
  • Democrats won seats in 1962 election
  • 1963 Nuclear test ban treaty
  • Washington-Moscow Hotline
  • Era of Détente

8
The Cuban Missile Crisis
9
  • The Assassination of JFK
  • November 22, 1963 Dallas. Lee Harvey Oswald,
    shot by Jack Ruby
  • Warren Commission investigation into
    assassination

10
  • President Lyndon Baines Johnson, TX Senator
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964 passed as a memorial
    to JFK
  • Banned discrimination in public places
  • Strengthened power of Fed govt to end
    segregation in schools
  • Title VII barred job discrimination based on
    race, sex, national origin.
  • Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
  • 1965 Executive Order for affirmative action

11
  • The Election of 1964
  • Johnson Democrat, claims Goldwater is trigger
    happy
  • Sen Barry Goldwater (AZ) Republican very
    conservative. Beginning of grassroots
    conservative movement. Against income tax, SS,
    TVA, Civil Rights, nuclear test ban
  • The Daisy Commercial!
  • Johnson 61, Goldwater 39 of popular vote

12
  • Digging Deeper Into Vietnam
  • August 2, 1964 USS Maddox was fired upon by N.
    Vietnamese troops (one shot)
  • August 4, 1964 a second attack in Tonkin Gulf
    (never happened)
  • Tonkin Gulf Resolution - Congress gave Johnson a
    blank check for wartime powers. Johnson orders
    a limited retaliation air raids on North
    Vietnam.
  • March 8, 1965 begin invasion with ground troops
    and bombing of N. Vietnam. By 1968 536,000 US
    troops in Vietnam. Operation Rolling Thunder
    (30 billion annually)
  • Target Ho Chi Minh Trail N. Vietnam,
    Cambodia, Laos, S. Vietnam.
  • 800 tons of bombs a day for 3 ½ years
  • Agent Orange
  • Result increased Nationalism in North and
    desire to win.
  • July 1967 50 of American population
    disapproved of war.
  • 1966 US Kicked out of France, France leaves NATO

13
Digging Deeper Into Vietnam
USS Maddox
Operation Rolling Thunder February 1965
October 1968
Mekong Delta, July 1969
14
  • The 6-Day War Middle East
  • June 5,1967 Egypt, Jordan and Syria attacked by
    Israel in pre-emptive strike.
  • Israel wins West Bank, Golan Heights (annexed
    1981), Gaza Strip (Palestinian self-rule 1994),
    Sinai Peninsula (gave back 1982). 1 million Arabs
    under Israeli rule. 350,000 fled to Jordan

USS Independence sent to support Israel
15
  • The Hawks V The Doves
  • January 30, 1968 The TET Offensive N.
    Vietnam attacked 36 cities and US embassy
    simultaneously. Military loss, but political
    victory. Johnson orders 200,000 more troops.
  • Before TET 56 of Americans Hawks, 28 Doves
  • After TET 42 Doves, 41 Hawks
  • Defense Secretary McNamara we were wrong

16
  • The Election of 1968 Brings The End of LBJ
  • People felt they had been lied to by government
  • Longest, costliest, most unpopular war
  • 100,000 casualties (58,196 killed), more bombs
    than WWII
  • Teach-ins, draft dodging, burn draft cards,
    marches.
  • Johnson orders CIA to start spying on US citizens
  • Cointelpro FBI counterintelligence program.
  • The Candidates of 1968
  • Eugene McCarthy (MN) Catholic, Anti-War 41
    primary votes
  • Johnson 49.6 primary votes
  • Hubert Humphrey (VP)
  • May 31, Johnson announces a troop freeze, and he
    will not seek re-election. Peace negotiations
    began May 10, 1968 in Paris.
  • Bobby Kennedy gaining speed in primaries. June
    5, 1968 assassinated by Arab for his pro-Israeli
    views.

17
The Loss of Robert Bobby Kennedy
18
  • The Election of 1968
  • Democratic Convention Chicago. Heavy police
    force, barbed-wire. Humphrey won nomination and
    promised more troops and fight until the enemy
    gives up or negotiates.
  • Republicans nominate Richard Nixon Pro-war,
    but moderate Republican anti-crime. VP
    Candidate Spiro Agnew
  • American Independent Party George Wallace (Gov
    of AL) won 4 deep south states,
    anti-integration.
  • Youth International Party nominated a PIG
    Pigasus
  • This election represents
  • when the Democrats of FDR
  • switched sides and became
  • the Republicans who would
  • support Nixon. They now
  • feared the left.

19
  • The Counterculture of the 1960s
  • Beatniks disillusioned with leadership,
    materialism, conformity
  • 1967 Summer of Love
  • Timothy Leary Turn on, tune in, drop out.
  • 1969 Woodstock

The Who Then Now (Super Bowl 2010)
20
Feminist Victories and Defeats
  • Feminism as a protest movement won important
    victories in the 1970s
  • 1961 Kennedy Presidential Commission on Status
    of Women 1963 reported on discrimination. Rep
    Howard Smith (VA) added sex to Civil Rights Act
    of 1964 so it wouldnt pass it did!
  • 1972 Congress passed Title IX of Education
    Amendments
  • Prohibited sex discrimination in any federally
    assisted educational activity (including sports)
    By 1970 42 of college students are women
  • 1972 Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) won
    congressional approval
  • Equality of rights under the law shall not be
    denied or abridged by the United States or by any
    State on account of sex.
  • 28 states ratified the amendment, making approval
    seem likely
  • NOW Purpose of gaining full equality for
    American women
  • 2nd Wave Feminism revived feminism for womens
    rights and opportunities in 60s and 70s

21
Feminist Victories and Defeats
  • ERA defeat was feminists most bitter defeat
  • Needed 38 states to be ratified
  • Conservative Phyllis Schlafly led campaign
    against ERA
  • ERA supporters were just bitter women seeking a
    constitutional cure for their personal problems
  • ERA would lead to vast expansion of federal
    power, drafting of women into military,
    taxpayer-funded abortions, and same-sex marriages
  • 1979 Congress extended deadline for
    ratification
  • 1982 ERA died, 3 states short of 38 needed

22
Phyllis Schlafly
23
The Seventies in Black and White
  • Bakke Case Reverse discrimination
  • Racial quotas were unconstitutional but race
    could be taken into account as one factor in
    college admissions
  • Most explosive racial controversy of 1970s was
    over integration busing
  • Milliken v. Bradley integration did not have to
    take place across school district lines
  • Reinforced division between poorer, minority
    inner city schools and nearly all white suburbs

24
Chapter 28The Stalemated Seventies
  • Analyze the ways in which the Vietnam War
    heightened social, political, and economic
    tensions in the United States. Focus on the
    period 1964-1975

25
Nixon Vietnamizes the War Peace with Honor
  • Vietnamization
  • Nixons policy of withdrawing US troops from
    Vietnam (536,000 in 1968 - lt30,000 in 1972)
  • South Vietnamese troops (with US money, weapons,
    training) would take over fighting their own war
  • July 1969 Nixon Doctrine
  • Stated that Asian nations facing communist
    subversion thru border conflicts could count on
    US financial support, but NOT military aid.

26
Nixon Vietnamizes the War
  • Vietnamization and the doves
  • November 16, 1969 Mobilization Day 500,000
    protestors in Washington, DC
  • Nixon attacks the protestors
  • Appeals to silent majority who supported the
    war
  • Nixon called the antiwar protestors bums
  • N. Vietnamese Demands
  • Unified Vietnam
  • Communist Control

27
Nixon Vietnamizes the War
  • January 1970 the state of the war
  • Draft age 18, average age of soldier 19
  • Troops disproportionately nonwhite and poor
  • College students and those with needed skills
    exempted from draft
  • Armed forces in Vietnam were mostly the least
    privileged in U.S. society
  • Troops fought booby traps and jungles
  • Unable to distinguish friend from foe
  • Troop morale
  • Drug abuse, mutiny, sabotage, fragging their
    own officers
  • Public opinion went even lower after revelations
    that US troops had massacred women and children
    (350) at My Lai in 1968
  • US never tried to understand the Vietnamese
    character, traditions, culture history

28
The My Lai Massacre

Lieutenant William Calley paroled by Nixon.
Apologized in 2009.
29
Cambodianizing theVietnam War
  • North Vietnamese and Viet Cong used Cambodia as
    base for troops, weapons, supplies
  • Parts of Ho Chi Minh trail went through Cambodia
  • March 1969 Nixon orders secret Air Raids in
    Cambodia.
  • April 30, 1970 Troops invade Cambodia
  • Late 1971 US troops leave, Communists fight back
  • Khmer Rouge Pol Pot takes over in Cambodia,
    killing 1.7 of his own citizens, 11 million
    injured.
  • May 1972 Nixon orders mining of NV ports

30
Cambodianizing theVietnam War
  • Reaction to the invasion
  • Students erupt in protest
  • May 1970 Kent State Massacre
  • National Guard fired into a crowd of student
    protesters
  • 4 killed, 7 wounded
  • Jackson State College, Mississippi
  • Police fired at a student dormitory, killing 2
  • 450 Colleges closed due to protests
  • June 29, 1970 Nixon withdrew US troops from
    Cambodia (after only 2 months)

31
Cambodianizing the Vietnam War
  • Effects of the Cambodia invasion
  • Deepened divide between hawks and doves
  • Pacifying the youth
  • Period of draftability shortened from 8 years to
    1 year
  • 1971 26th amendment passed, lowering voting age
    to 18
  • Pentagon Papers
  • June 1971 top-secret government study that
    documented mistakes and lies of Kennedy and
    Johnson regarding Vietnam
  • Especially exposed the lie that started the war
    the Gulf of Tonkin incident
  • Leaked by Daniel Ellsberg
  • Senate overwhelmingly repealed the Gulf of Tonkin
    Resolution and tried to restrain Nixon (Summer
    1970)

32
Nixons Détente with Beijing(Peking) and Moscow
  • Henry Kissinger Talented diplomatic negotiator
    leading architect of détente w/Soviet Union
    during Nixon Ford administrations (Natl Sec.
    Advisor Sec. of State) Favored secret deals
    Back Channels
  • February 1972 Nixon traveled to China
  • Shanghai Communiqué
  • Both nations agreed to normalize relations
  • Support entry to UN and official recognition -
    1978
  • May 1972 Nixon traveled to Moscow
  • USSR willing to make deals with US
  • Fearful of US-backed China and needed US food
  • Nixon began period of détente (relaxed tensions)
    with both communist powers
  • USSR China fighting over border dispute

33
Nixons Détente with Beijing(Peking) and Moscow
  • 1972 Nixon made 3 important agreements with
    China and USSR
  • The Great Grain Deal
  • 3-year agreement to sell USSR 750 million worth
    of grain
  • Anti-ballistic missile (ABM) treaty
  • Limited each side to 2 clusters of defensive
    missiles
  • Strategic Arms Limitations Talks (SALTI)
  • Freezing of number of nuclear missiles for 5
    years
  • Limit of antiballistic missiles to 200

34
A New Team on theSupreme Bench
  • The Warren Court
  • Warren (Gov of CA) made chief justice in 1953 by
    Eisenhower
  • Made series of decisions that drastically
    increased rights of individual freedom
  • Escobedo v. Illinois (1964)
  • Required police to inform an arrested person of
    right to remain silent
  • Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
  • Extended Escobedo decision to include right to a
    lawyer being present during questioning by police

35
A New Team on theSupreme Bench
  • Engel v. Vitale (1962) and School District of
    Abington Township v. Schempp (1963)
  • Court used First Amendment to prohibit required
    prayers (Engel) and Bible reading (Schempp) in
    public schools

36
A New Team on theSupreme Bench
  • Conservatives had criticized the Court since 1954
    (Brown decision)
  • Critics thought they ignored the Constitution in
    favor of social values
  • Nixon undertook to change Courts philosophical
    makeup
  • Strict interpretation of Constitution
  • Stop meddling in social and political questions
  • Southern strategy tried to nominate 2 judges
    from South opposed busing
  • End of 1971 Nixon had appointed 4 (of 9)
    conservative members, including new chief justice
    Warren Burger
  • The Burger Court
  • Reluctant to undo the liberal rulings of Warren
    Court
  • Issued most controversial decision of modern
    times, legalizing abortion

37
A New Team on theSupreme Bench
  • Roe v. Wade
  • State laws restricted abortion except to protect
    life of mother
  • 1973 court agreed that women had right to
    abortion (right to privacy in her own body)
  • Fetus had to be viable (able to live outside of
    the womb) before it could receive protection of
    the state

Everybody should have a birthday!
38
Bombing North Vietnam to the Peace Table
  • Nixons peace in Vietnam
  • Spring 1972 N. Vietnam invades demilitarized
    zone
  • Nixon ordered furious 2-week bombing campaign of
    North Vietnam
  • Blocked harbors with mines
  • China and USSR did not react
  • N. Vietnam backed off
  • Kissinger sent to Paris for Peace Negotiations
  • N.V. troops in S.V.
  • Saigon govt stay in place until new elections
    (Gen Nguyen Von Thieu)
  • POWs returned
  • US troops withdrawn

39
The Nixon Landslide of 1972
  • Foreign policy dominated the campaign of 1972
  • 4 years since Nixon had promised to end the war
  • Democrats nominated George McGovern
  • Promised to pull all US troops out in 90 days
  • Appealed to antiwar people, racial minorities,
    feminists, leftists, youth
  • Alienated Democratic base working-class
  • VP Candidate T. Eagleton was mentally unstable
    and was replaced.

40
The Nixon Landslide of 1972
  • Nixons campaign
  • He had wound down the Democratic war
  • Troop levels went from 540,000 to 30,000
  • 12 days before the election
  • Kissinger announced that a peace agreement would
    come within a few days Peace is at hand
  • Nixon won the election in a landslide
  • McGovern had counted on large numbers of young
    people
  • Fewer than 1/2 even registered to vote

41
The Nixon Landslide of 1972
Dont blame me, Im from Massachusetts
42
Bombing North Vietnam to the Peace Table
  • January 23, 1973 North Vietnamese negotiators
    agreed to cease-fire
  • North Vietnamese allowed to keep 145,000 troops
    in South Vietnam occupied 30 of the country
  • Nixon called the cease-fire peace with honor
  • Reality it was an American retreat
  • Congress decreased in 1975, NV invaded April
    29, 1975 and took over SV, united country
    officially recognized in 1995.

43
Watergate Woes
  • June 17, 1972 5 men arrested in Watergate
    apartment-office complex
  • Trying to bug the Democratic headquarters
  • Revealed they were working for Committee for the
    Re-election of the President (CREEP)
  • Other dirty tricks Nixon carried out against
    enemies
  • Forging documents to discredit Democrats
  • Used IRS to harass people on enemies list
  • Using FBI and CIA to prevent investigations

44
Great Tape Controversy
  • 1973 1974 Senate committee conducted
    televised hearings about Watergate
  • Nixon denied any prior knowledge of the break-in
    or any involvement in legal proceedings against
    the burglars
  • John Dean accused president and others in White
    House of trying to cover up Watergate and silence
    the burglars
  • Another aid revealed existence of secret taping
    system in White House (that could verify Deans
    testimony)
  • Nixon refused to produce the tapes
  • Bernstein Woodward of Washington D.C. break
    the story Deep Throat informant FBI W. Mark
    Felt (2005)

45
Great Tape Controversy
  • Vice President Spiro Agnew
  • October 1973 forced to resign for taking bribes
  • Congress used 25th amendment (president nominated
    a successor and both houses confirmed him)
  • Replaced Agnew with Gerald Ford, congressman from
    Michigan

46
Great Tape Controversy
  • October 20, 1973 Saturday Night Massacre
  • Nixon fired his own special prosecutor appointed
    to investigate Watergate
  • He also fired his attorney general and deputy
    attorney general because they refused to go along
    with the firing

47
The Secret Bombing of Cambodia and the War Powers
Act
  • Secret bombing of Cambodia
  • July 1973 America learned that US had bombed
    North Vietnamese in Cambodia 3,500 times since
    March 1969
  • While the bombing was happening, US officials had
    repeatedly guaranteed Cambodias neutrality
  • Nixon continued large-scale bombing of Cambodia,
    even after January 1973 ceasefire with North
    Vietnam
  • Repeatedly vetoed Congresss efforts to stop him
  • Years of bombing destroyed Cambodia

48
The Secret Bombing of Cambodia and the War Powers
Act
  • Cambodia after the US bombing
  • Pol Pot ruled Cambodia from 1976 1979
  • Brutal Communist dictator who killed 2 million
    people
  • Rule ended with Vietnamese invasion in 1978

49
The Secret Bombing of Cambodia and the War Powers
Act
  • November 1973 War Powers Act
  • Passed over Nixons veto
  • Required president to report to Congress within
    48 hours after committing troops to a foreign
    conflict or substantially enlarging US combat
    units in a foreign country
  • Effects of Vietnam
  • New Isolationism
  • US cautious about foreign affairs after bloody
    misadventure in Vietnam

50
The Unmaking of a President
  • Spring 1974 House Judiciary demanded Watergate
    tapes
  • Nixon finally agreed to publication of relevant
    parts of the tapes, with many parts missing
  • July 24, 1974 Supreme Court unanimously ruled
    that executive privilege gave president no
    right to withhold evidence relating to possible
    criminal activity

51
The Unmaking of a President
  • Nixon made 3 tapes public of conversations with
    an aide on June 23, 1972 (was forced to)
  • One contained Nixon ordering the aide to use the
    CIA to impede an inquiry by the FBI
  • Convicted Nixon of being active part of the
    cover-up
  • House Judiciary Drew up articles of impeachment
  • Obstruction of justice, abuse of power as
    president, contempt of Congress
  • Nixon resigns
  • Republican leaders in Congress informed Nixon
    that impeachment was inevitable
  • August 8, 1974 Nixon announced his resignation
    on TV
  • Admitted some judgments that were wrong
  • But claimed he had always acted in what I
    believed at that time to be the best interests of
    the nation

52
Our long national nightmare is over. Our
Constitution works our great Republic is a
government of laws and not of men.Gerald R.
Ford
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