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Chapter 29 The Vietnam War Era

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Title: Chapter 29 The Vietnam War Era


1
Chapter 29 The Vietnam War Era
  • How did the United States confront communism in
    East Asia after the Korean War?

2
Standards
Element SSUSH20.d Describe the Vietnam War, the
Tet offensive, and growing opposition to the
war.   Element SSUSH24.c Analyze the
anti-Vietnam War movement.
3
Origins of the Vietnam WarSection 1
  • Why did the U.S. become involved in Vietnam?
  • Vocabulary
  • -Ho Chi Minh SEATO
  • -domino theory Vietcong
  • -Dien Bien Phu
  • -Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

4
Questions to Ponder
  • What background events led up to the war between
    North and South Vietnam?
  • What were the Vietnam policies of President
    Kennedy and Robert McNamara, the Secretary of
    Defense?
  • How did President Johnson change the course of
    the war?

5
Sec 1 Origins of the Vietnam War
Origins of the Vietnam War
America and the War in Indochina   Main Idea
Hoping to stop the spread of communism, the
United States provided aid to France during its
battle against communists in Vietnam. America
Opposes Communism in Vietnam Main Idea After
Vietnam was divided the United States provided
support to South Vietnam. Kennedys election
increased the aggressiveness of this aid.
Johnson Leads the Nation Into War Main Idea
After an American destroyer was fired upon by the
North Vietnamese, President Johnson received
Congressional approval to send U.S. troops to
Vietnam without an actual declaration of
war. Transparency
6
Note Taking Reading Skill Summarize
Reading Skill Summarize
NOTE TAKING
7
Vietnam
8
History of Viet Nam
  • China subjugated Vietnam for 1000 years
  • In 939 China was defeated
  • French colonized in 1884
  • Seized by Japanese in WW II
  • French returned after war
  • U.S. contributed 2.6 billion to help France
    defeat Ho Chi Minh
  • French were defeated at Dien Bien Phu in 1954

9
American Involvement
  • 1954, Vietnam divided into North and South
  • Ho Chi Minh, a communist, controlled the North
  • Ngo Dinh Diem controlled the South
  • Domino theory
  • Kennedy increased U.S. advisors
  • Diem assassinated in Nov. 2, 1963.
  • Kennedy assassinated in Nov. 22,1963

10
Buddhist Priest Protests Diem
11
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12
Leaders of the North and South
  • Ho Chi Minh
  • Ngo Dinh Diem

13
Lyndon Johnson Leads Nation into War
  • Robert McNamara Secretary of Defense
  • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution August, 1964 gave
    Johnson control over U.S. actions in Vietnam
  • Johnson escalated American troops to over ½
    million by 1968
  • Tet Offensive, Jan. 30, 1968. Viet Cong
    defeated, but turning point in American support
    for war

14
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15
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16
U.S. Involvement GrowsSection 2
  • What were the causes and effects of Americas
    growing involvement in the Vietnam War?
  • Vocabulary
  • -William Westmoreland hawk
  • -napalm dove

17
The Brutality of the War
18
Sec 2 U.S. Involvement Grows
U.S. Involvement Grows
Americanizing the War Main Idea The U.S.
increased the number of troops in Vietnam and
used intense bombing, but the North Vietnamese
continued to fight using tactics the Americans
were not used to, creating a long and costly war.
Patriotism, Heroism, and Sinking Morale Main
Idea The North Vietnamese often forced smaller
jungle battles at night to increase their odds of
winning, eventually causing the American troops
strong morale to weaken. Doubt Grows on the Home
Front Main Idea Slow progress in Vietnam led to
doubt in the United States, strains on the
economy, and an antiwar movement.
19
Note Taking Reading Skill Identify Supporting
Details
Reading Skill Identify Supporting Details
NOTE TAKING
20
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21
Leaders and Weapons
  • Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara
  • General William Westmoreland
  • Both wanted to increase American troops
  • 6 million tons of bombs
  • Napalm jellied gasoline
  • Agent Orange
  • Helicopter war
  • Enemy used guerrilla tactics Ho Chi Minh Trail
    to move supplies

22
Battlefield Conditions
  • South Vietnamese were indifferent
  • Jungle fighting in elephant grass and rice
    paddies
  • Leeches, fever, jungle rot, malaria, liver fluke
  • Viet Cong used tunnels, punji stakes, snares
  • Many civilian deaths from both sides
  • Agent orange, saturation bombing, napalm

23
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24
Doubt Grows on the Home Front
  • War weakens the economy
  • -Great Society program was expensive
  • Rising prices and inflation
  • Antiwar movement emerged
  • Hawks supported Johnsons war policy
  • Doves opposed his policy
  • Senator J. William Fulbright believed that it was
    a civil war, not a Cold War conflict

25
The War Divides AmericaSection 3
  • How did the American war effort in Vietnam lead
    to rising protests and social divisions back
    home?
  • Vocabulary
  • -draftee Tet Offensive
  • -Credibility gap Eugene McCarthy
  • -Robert Kennedy
  • -Students for a Democratic Society

26
Sec 3 The War Divides America
The War Divides America
Antiwar Protests Increase   Main Idea The use
of the draft increased the opposition to the war,
first on college campuses, but soon in other
areas of the country as well. Tet Offensive Is
the Turning Point Main Idea The communist
forces surprise attack called the Tet Offensive
lessened the confidence of American leaders,
despite the fact that the U.S troops had
prevented the communist forces from achieving
their goals. Violence Rocks 1968 Presidential
Race Main Idea 1968 was marked by the
assassinations of Martin Luther King, Jr. and
presidential candidate Robert Kennedy, violent
protests at the Democratic Convention in Chicago,
and Richard Nixons election as President.
27
Antiwar Protests Increase
  • Draft becomes unpopular deferments were given
    to college students and men in certain
    occupations
  • Activism spreads on college campuses
  • -Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)
  • Students clash with authorities
  • Credibility gap Americans began to distrust the
    Johnson administration

28
New Left
  • Free Speech Movement
  • University of California at Berkeley
  • Teach-in Movement
  • University of Michigan
  • Conscientious objectors
  • Deferment
  • Columbia University in New York City
  • Weathermen - violence

29
Student Protest
30
Note Taking Reading Skill Recognize Sequence
Reading Skill Recognize Sequence
NOTE TAKING
31
Transparency Political Cartoons Conflict on the
Home Front
Political Cartoons Conflict on the Home Front
TRANSPARENCY
32
Tet Offensive
  • Attack by North Vietnamese Army on positions all
    over South Vietnam
  • American and South Vietnamese forces repelled the
    offensive, but it showed that the war would not
    be easily won
  • Many Americans turned against the war
  • Johnson decided to not seek reelection in 1968

33
Election of 1968
  • Democratic candidate - Hubert Humphrey Robert
    Kennedy was running, but was assassinated in a
    hotel on June 5, 1968
  • Republican candidate Richard Nixon
  • Protesters disrupt the Chicago Democratic
    Convention Chicago used police to beat activists
  • Nixon wins the election, promising peace with
    honor in Vietnam

34
Progress Monitoring Transparency Section 2
PM TRANSPARENCY
Progress Monitoring Transparency
35
Comparing Viewpoints Can the United States Win
the War in Vietnam?
COMPARING VIEWPOINTS
Can the United States Win the War in Vietnam?
36
Transparency Rising U.S. Involvement in Vietnam
Rising U.S. Involvement in Vietnam
TRANSPARENCY
37
Analyze Political Cartoons The Opposing Forces
Political Cartoons The Opposing Forces
ANALYZE
38
Progress Monitoring Transparency Section 1
PM TRANSPARENCY
Progress Monitoring Transparency
39
Transparency Political Cartoons The Bombing
Campaign
Political Cartoons The Bombing Campaign
ANALYZE
40
Progress Monitoring Transparency Section 3
PM TRANSPARENCY
Progress Monitoring Transparency
41
The Wars End and ImpactSection 4
  • How did the Vietnam War end and what were its
    lasting effects?
  • Vocabulary
  • -Vietnamization Pentagon Papers
  • -Kent State University My Lai
  • -Paris Peace Accords War Powers Act

42
Sec 4 The Wars End and Impact
The Wars End and Impact
Nixon Starts the Pullout Main Idea Formal peace
talks between North and South Vietnam stalled,
but Nixon started a gradual pullout of American
troops from Vietnam. Troubles on the Home Front
Intensify Main Idea News of further violence in
Vietnam increased the protests in the United
States, and the anti war movement led to counter
protests in support of Nixon. The War Finally
Ends Main Idea In 1972, a peace settlement was
finally agreed to and the last American troops
came home from Vietnam, but fighting within the
country continued. The Vietnam War Has a
Lasting Impact Main Idea The years of fighting
had an impact on the Vietnam region itself,
veterans, domestic and foreign policy, and the
publics trust in the U.S. government.
43
Note Taking Reading Skill Compare and Contrast
Reading Skill Compare and Contrast
NOTE TAKING
44
Nixon Starts the Pullout
  • Peace talks stall
  • Vietnamization U.S. forces withdraw as ARVN
    troops assumed more combat duties
  • Bombing of the Ho Chi Minh Trail in Cambodia
  • Americans attacked Cambodia
  • Stirred antiwar activitists

45
Chart U.S. Military Personnel in Vietnam
U.S. Military Personnel in Vietnam
CHART
46
Transparency Protesting the Vietnam War
Protesting the Vietnam War
TRANSPARENCY
47
Kent State
  • Protest over Cambodian incursion
  • National Guard fired on crowd, killing four
    students
  • Demonstrations on other campuses
  • Thousands demonstrated in support of Nixon

48
My Lai Massacre
  • Lt. William Calley, Jr.
  • Villagers slain by Americans
  • Hugh Thompson, helicopter pilot stopped killing

49
Pentagon Papers
  • 1971 publication of Pentagon Papers, which were
    classified government history of American
    involvement in Vietnam
  • Revealed that the government did not fully inform
    the American people and occasionally lied to
    Congress

50
American Troops Leave Vietnam
  • October 1972, U.S. and North Vietnam came to
    terms.
  • South Vietnam refused to sign
  • Americans bombed North Vietnam and in January,
    1973 Paris Peace Accords were signed
  • 550 POWs returned, including John McCain
  • 1975, Saigon fell to the North Vietnamese

51
The End of the War
52
Map French Indochina
French Indochina
MAP
53
(No Transcript)
54
(No Transcript)
55
Transparency The Vietnam Veterans Memorial
The Vietnam Veterans Memorial
TRANSPARENCY
56
Note Taking Reading Skill Recognize Effects
Reading Skill Recognize Effects
NOTE TAKING
57
Progress Monitoring Transparency Section 4
PM TRANSPARENCY
Progress Monitoring Transparency
58
Nixon and the Cold WarSection 5
  • How did Richard Nixon change Cold War diplomacy
    during his presidency?
  • Vocabulary
  • -Henry Kissinger realpolitik
  • -Zhou Enlai détente
  • -Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty

59
Sec 5 Nixon and the Cold War
Nixon and the Cold War
Nixon Redefines American Foreign Policy Main
Idea While in office, Richard Nixon changed the
way the United States looked at the world and
developed new, less abstract, ideological
approaches to the Cold War. Playing the China
Card Main Idea Nixon reached out to communist
China and successfully developed diplomatic
relations with the country that had previously
been unrecognized by the United States. Détente
With the Soviet Union Main Idea Nixon visited
the Soviet Union, where the two countries made
steps toward agreements that would help reduce
tensions between them.
60
Nixon Redefines American Foreign Policy
  • Henry Kissinger was Nixons advisor
  • Realpolitik real politics means political
    goals should be defined by national interests not
    ideologies
  • Nixon recognized Communist China and traveled to
    China to met Premier Zhou Enlai and Mao Zedong
  • Increased trade

61
Détente with the Soviet Union
  • Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev invited Nixon to
    Moscow
  • Signed the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty, SALT
    I it froze the deployment of ICBMs and placed
    limits on antiballistic missiles
  • Nixons strategy was to be more flexible toward
    communism and be more pragmatic toward foreign
    policy

62
Note Taking Reading Skill Categorize
Reading Skill Categorize
NOTE TAKING
63
Progress Monitoring Transparency Section 5
PM TRANSPARENCY
Progress Monitoring Transparency
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