Anatomy, Physiology and Pathophysiology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Anatomy, Physiology and Pathophysiology PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 686e65-NzBmY



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Anatomy, Physiology and Pathophysiology

Description:

Chapter 5 Anatomy, Physiology and Pathophysiology – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:149
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 64
Provided by: JerryR157
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Anatomy, Physiology and Pathophysiology


1
Chapter 5
  • Anatomy, Physiology and Pathophysiology

2
National EMS Education Standard Competencies
  • Anatomy and Physiology
  • Integrates complex knowledge of the anatomy and
    physiology of the airway, respiratory, and
    circulatory systems to the practice of EMS
  • Pathophysiology
  • Applies comprehensive knowledge of the
    pathophysiology of respiration and perfusion to
    patient assessment and management

3
Introduction
  • Anatomy refers to structure and components of
    human body
  • Gross anatomy visible to naked eye
  • Microscopic anatomy visible through microscope
  • Physiology examines body functions
  • Pathophysiology studies body functions in an
    abnormal state

4
Topographic Anatomy
  • Planes and Lines
  • Terms of Direction
  • Terms of Movement
  • Positions and Postures

5
The Integumentary System (Skin) Anatomy
  • Germinal layer of epidermis produces new skin
    cells
  • Dermis contains sweat glands, sebaceous glands,
    hair follicles, blood vessels, specialized nerve
    endings
  • Mucous Membranes

6
The Integumentary System (Skin) Physiology
  • Functions
  • Protect the body in the environment
  • Regulate body temperature
  • Transmit information from environment to brain

7
The Skeletal System Anatomy
  • Skeleton gives us our recognizable human form,
    protects vital internal organs.
  • Bones
  • Tendonsconnect muscles to bones
  • Ligamentsconnect bone to bone
  • Cartilagecushions between bones
  • Lubricated by joint fluid (synovial fluid)

8
Overview of Bones (2 of 2)
  • Components of a long bone (humerus)

9
The Skeletal System Physiology
  • Bones protect internal organs.
  • Together with muscles, bones enable movement.
  • Bone stores minerals.
  • Particularly calcium
  • Bone plays role in forming blood cells and
    platelets.

10
The Skeleton
  • Axial
  • Appendicular
  • Joints

11
The Musculoskeletal System Anatomy
  • Three types of muscle
  • Cardiac
  • Found only in the heart
  • Specially adapted
  • Skeletal
  • Smooth
  • Involuntary
  • In blood vessels, intestines

12
The Musculoskeletal System Physiology
  • Contraction and relaxation make movement
    possible.
  • A by-product of movement is heat.
  • Muscles protect structures under them.
  • For example, intestines are protected by rectus
    abdominus muscles.

13
The Musculoskeletal System Anatomy (4 of 4)
14
The Respiratory System Anatomy
  • Nose
  • Mouth
  • Throat
  • Larynx
  • Trachea
  • Bronchi
  • Bronchioles
  • Lungs
  • Diaphragm
  • Muscles of chest wall
  • Accessory muscles of breathing

15
The Respiratory System Physiology
  • Respiration
  • Exchanges gases
  • Ventilation
  • Process of moving air in and out of lungs
  • Breathing control
  • Medulla
  • Pons
  • Chemoreceptors
  • Carboxic drive
  • Hypoxic drive

16
Acid-Base Regulation
  • pH ranges from 0 (most acidic) to 14 (most
    basic).
  • Normal pH of the human body is 7.35 to 7.45.
  • Buffer systems are defenses against acid-base
    changes in the body.

17
Acid-Base Regulation
  • Hydrogen ions combine with bicarbonate ions to
    form carbonic acid
  • Carbonic acid breaks down into carbon dioxide and
    water
  • As hydrogen ions are liberated in the body, they
    combine with bicarbonate ions (action of the
    buffer system) to resist pH changes in blood
  • H binds to HCO3- to form H2CO3

18
Acid-Base Regulation
  • The body attempts to maintain a ratio of
    HCO3H2CO3 of 201
  • As carbonic acid is manufactured by the buffer
    system it breaks down into carbon dioxide and
    water
  • H2CO3 produces CO2 and H2O

19
Acid-Base Regulation
  • The respiratory system is responsible for
    maintaining appropriate levels of carbon dioxide
    in blood
  • As Carbon dioxide is generated, chemoreceptors
    send messages to the control centers of the brain
  • Control centers respond by elevating the
    respiratory rate

20
Acid-Base Regulation
  • The kidneys are responsible for secreting excess
    hydrogen ions or excess bicarbonate ions in urine
    in order to maintain appropriate acid-base
    balance
  • If blood is acidic, the kidneys secrete hydrogen
    ions
  • If blood is alkaline, the kidneys secrete
    bicarbonate ions
  • Urine production is a relatively slow process

21
Acid-Base Abnormalities
  • Metabolic
  • Acidosis occurs when the body liberates more
    hydrogen ions than the kidneys excrete
  • Alkalosis occurs when the body absorbs more
    bicarbonate than is eliminated by the kidneys
  • Respiratory
  • Acidosis occurs when the body fails to eliminate
    carbon dioxide
  • Alkalosis occurs when the body releases too much
    carbon dioxide

22
Interpreting Blood Gases
  • Acidosis pH lt 7.35
  • Respiratory
  • pCO2 gt 45 If compensated, HCO3- gt 26 mg/dl
  • Metabolic
  • HCO3- is lt 22 mg/dl, pCO2 is normal
  • Alkalosis pH gt 7.45
  • Metabolic
  • pCO2 lt 35 and HCO3- is low
  • Respiratory
  • HCO3- gt 26 mg/dl, pCO2 is normal

23
Ventilation (1 of 2)
  • Tidal volumeair moved in a single breath
  • Inspiratory reserve volumedeepest breath you can
    take after normal breath
  • Expiratory reserve volumemaximum amount of air
    you can forcibly breathe out after normal breath

24
Ventilation (2 of 2)
  • Vital capacityamount of air moved with maximum
    inspiration and expiration

25
Characteristics of Normal Breathing
  • Normal rate and depth (tidal volume)
  • Regular rhythm (pattern of inhalation and
    exhalation)
  • Good audible breath sounds on both sides of chest
  • Regular rise and fall movement on both sides of
    chest
  • Movement of abdomen

26
Compromised Breathing Patterns in Adults
  • Labored breathing
  • Minute alveolar ventilation lt 4200 ml
  • Muscle retractions (clavicles, ribs)
  • Pale or cyanotic (blue) skin
  • Cool, damp (clammy) skin
  • Tripod position

27
The Circulatory System Anatomy
  • Heart
  • Location
  • Chambers, valves, accessory structures
  • Heartwall and Pericardium
  • Blood vessels
  • Types
  • Circulatory pathways
  • Blood

28
Heart Sounds
  • Created by contraction and relaxation of heart
    and flow of blood
  • Heard during auscultation with stethoscope
  • Normal heart sound lub-DUB
  • S1 and S2 are normal sounds, S3 and S4 are often
    not
  • Also abnormal murmurs, bruits, clicks, snaps

29
The Electrical Conduction System
  • Electrical stimulus controls mechanical pumping
    action.
  • Conduction system components
  • Sinoatrial (SA) node
  • Atrioventricular (AV) node
  • Bundle of His
  • Right and left bundle branches
  • Purkinje fibers

30
Regulation of Heart Function
  • Autonomic nervous system, endocrine hormones, and
    heart tissue, control
  • Rate of contraction (chronotropic state)
  • Rate of electrical conduction (dromotropic state)
  • Strength of contraction (inotropic state)
  • Baroreceptors respond to changes in pressure.
  • Chemoreceptors sense changes in chemical
    composition of blood.

31
The Cardiac Cycle
  • Process that creates the pumping of the heart
  • Systole
  • Diastole
  • Pulse pressure
  • Afterload
  • Stroke volume
  • Cardiac output stroke volume heart rate

32
Blood Composition
  • Plasma
  • Red blood cells
  • Hemoglobin
  • Surface Antigens
  • White blood cells (leukocytes)
  • Fight infection
  • Granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils,
    basophils)
  • Agranulocytes (monocytes, lymphocytes)
  • Platelets

33
The Circulatory System Physiology (1 of 2)
  • Pulse is created by blood pumping out of left
    ventricle into major arteries.
  • Blood pressure is pressure blood exerts against
    artery walls.
  • Sphygmomanometer measures high/low points.
  • Systemic vascular resistance is how dilated or
    constricted the blood vessels are.

34
The Circulatory System Physiology
  • Average adult has about 5 L of blood
  • Infants 300 mL, children 2 to 3 L
  • Central and peripheral pulses
  • BP CO X SVR

35
The Lymphatic System
  • Absorb fat from digestive tract, maintain fluid
    balance, and fight infection
  • Transports lymph
  • Lymph nodes interspersed along course of lymph
    vessels
  • Lymph vessels absorb excess fluid and return it
    to the central venous circulation

36
Cellular Transport Mechanisms
  • Cell membrane is selectively permeable.
  • Allows differences in concentrations inside and
    outside cell

37
Cellular Transport Mechanisms
  • Diffusion
  • Movement of solutes from an area of high
    concentration to an area of low concentration to
    produce an even distribution of particles in the
    space available
  • Depends on
  • Permeability of membrane
  • Concentration gradient

38
Cellular Transport Mechanisms
  • Osmosis
  • Movement of a solvent from an area of low solute
    concentration to one of high concentration
  • Osmotic pressure
  • Facilitated diffusion
  • Active transport

39
Body Fluid Balance
  • Body fluid is divided into
  • Intracellular fluid (ICF)
  • Extracellular fluid
  • Intravascular fluid (plasma)
  • Interstitial fluid
  • Fluid balance maintains homeostasis
  • Regulated by
  • Antidiuretic hormone from pituitary gland
  • Thirst
  • Fluid imbalance can be life-threatening

40
The Nervous System Anatomy and Physiology
  • Components
  • Central nervous system
  • Peripheral nervous system

41
The Central Nervous System
  • Brain
  • Spinal Cord
  • Meninges

42
The Peripheral Nervous System
  • Divisions
  • Somatic nervous system
  • Autonomic nervous system has two parts
  • Sympathetic nervous system
  • Parasympathetic nervous system
  • Sensory and Motor Nerves
  • Cranial and Spinal Nerves

43
The Endocrine System Anatomy and Physiology (1
of 2)
  • Made up of glands located throughout body
  • Glands
  • Remove, concentrate, or alter materials from
    blood
  • Secrete them back into body
  • Glands secrete proteins called hormones.
  • Regulate mood, growth and development,
    metabolism, sexual development, much else

44
The Endocrine System Anatomy and Physiology (2
of 2)
45
The Pituitary Gland and the Hypothalamus
  • Pituitary gland is called master gland.
  • Its secretions control those of other endocrine
    glands.
  • Secretes growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating
    hormone, adrenocorticotropin hormone,
    gonadotropic hormones, ADH, oxytocin
  • Hypothalamus is main link between endocrine
    system and nervous system.

46
The Thyroid Gland
  • Large gland at base of neck
  • Manufactures and secretes hormones that have role
    in growth, development, metabolism
  • Secretes calcitonin
  • Helps maintain normal calcium levels in blood
  • Parathyroid glands
  • Located in thyroid
  • Secrete parathyroid hormone

47
The Pancreas
  • Organ of both the endocrine system and digestive
    system
  • Produces insulin and glucagon
  • Insulin causes uptake and metabolism of sugar,
    fatty acids, amino acids.
  • Glucagon stimulates breakdown of glycogen to
    glucose.
  • Also stimulates liver and kidneys to produce
    glucose

48
The Adrenal Glands
  • Located on top of each kidney
  • Secrete
  • Sex hormones
  • Hormones vital in maintaining water and salt
    balance
  • Adrenaline (mediates fight-of-flight response)
  • Epinephrine and norepinephrine

49
The Reproductive Glands and Hormones
  • Gonads are ovaries in women and testes in men.
  • Major female hormones
  • Estrogen
  • Progesterone
  • Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
  • Ovaries produce estrogen and progesterone.
  • Developing fetus manufactures hCG
  • Testosterone is produced by testes.
  • And to smaller extent by adrenal glands and
    ovaries

50
The Digestive System Anatomy
51
The Digestive System Physiology (1 of 2)
  • In succession, different secretions (primarily
    enzymes) are added to food by
  • Salivary glands
  • Stomach
  • Liver
  • Pancreas
  • Small intestine

52
The Digestive System Physiology
  • Converts food into basic sugars, fatty acids,
    amino acids
  • These products cross wall of intestine and travel
    through portal vein to liver
  • Liver further processes and stores or transports
    to heart
  • Circulatory system then nourishes all cells

53
The Urinary System Anatomy and Physiology (1 of
2)
  • Controls discharge of waste filtered from blood
    by kidneys
  • Functions
  • Controls fluid balance in body
  • Filters and eliminates wastes
  • Controls pH balance

54
The Urinary System Anatomy and Physiology (2 of
2)
  • Components
  • Kidneys
  • Ureters
  • Urinary bladder
  • Urethra
  • This example shows the male urinary system.

55
The Genital System Anatomy and Physiology
  • Controls reproductive processes by which life is
    created
  • Male genitalia lie outside pelvic cavity.
  • Except for prostate gland and seminal vesicles
  • Female genitalia lie inside pelvic cavity.
  • Except for clitoris and labia

56
The Male Reproductive System and Organs
  • Testicles, epididymis, vasa deferentia, penis
  • Functions
  • Reproduction
  • Production of sex hormones
  • Penis is also part of urinary system

57
The Female Reproductive System and Organs
  • Ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, vagina
  • Functions
  • Reproduction
  • Production of sex hormones

58
Life Support Chain (1 of 2)
  • Bodys cells require
  • Oxygen
  • Brought by respiratory and circulatory systems
  • Nutrients
  • Food broken down by digestive system into glucose
  • Brought by circulatory system
  • Removal of wastes
  • Removed by circulatory system

59
Life Support Chain (2 of 2)
  • Aerobic metabolism uses oxygen.
  • Only possibility for some cells (eg, heart,
    brain)
  • Anaerobic metabolism does not use oxygen.
  • Most cells can operate without oxygen for 1 to 3
    minutes.
  • Lactic acid is a by-product.
  • Converted back to useful energy source once
    oxygen becomes available

60
Pathophysiology (1 of 4)
  • Study of functional changes that occur when body
    reacts to disease
  • Airway patency
  • Can be impaired by blocked airway
  • Muscles of breathing can be impaired.
  • Decreased level of consciousness can impair
    ventilation.

61
Pathophysiology (2 of 4)
  • Respiratory compromise
  • Can be caused by decrease of oxygen in air
  • Fluid in alveoli can prevent gas exchange.
  • Cells will move to anaerobic metabolism.
  • Body can adapt to mild, gradual compromise.
  • Severe or prolonged compromise can cause death.

62
Pathophysiology (3 of 4)
  • Shock
  • Condition in which perfusion is inadequate to
    organs and tissue
  • Hypovolemic shock results from lack of blood
    volume (as from trauma).
  • Cardiogenic shock results from heart
    inefficiencies.
  • Distributive shock results from issues regarding
    dilation and constriction of blood vessels.

63
Pathophysiology (4 of 4)
  • Alteration of cellular metabolism
  • In strenuous exercise, demand for glucose exceeds
    supply.
  • Body burns fats and turns them into glucose.
  • This process is inefficient, but body can sustain
    for a while.
  • If there are breathing or perfusion problems,
    however, process can cause damage or death.
About PowerShow.com