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Anatomy and Physiology

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Title: Anatomy and Physiology


1
Anatomy and Physiology
  • Study Guide

Chapter One
Jay Baileyjbailey_at_baileystudios.com
2
Chapter One Organization and generalplan of
the body
3
Anatomy is?
The study of the body structure
Chapter One Organization and generalplan of the
body
Physiology is?
The study of how the body functions
4
Pathophysiology is?
The study of disorders of functioning
Chapter One Organization and generalplan of the
body
5
Levels of Organization
The body is organized in structural and
functional levels of increasing complexity.
Name the four levels of organization.
Chapter One Organization and generalplan of the
body
Chemicals, Cells, Tissues, Organs, and Organ
Systems
6
Levels of Organization
Name the two major categories of chemicals.
Chapter One Organization and generalplan of the
body
Inorganic and Organic
7
Chemicals
Chemicals that are simple molecules of one or
two elements (other than carbon) are called?
Inorganic
Chapter One Organization and generalplan of the
body
Chemicals that are very complex (and contain
carbon and hydrogen) are called?
Organic
8
Cells
Cells are the largest living units of structure
and function. True or False
Chapter One Organization and generalplan of the
body
False Cells are the smallest living units of
structure and function.
9
Tissues
A tissue is a group of cells
How many groups of tissues are there?
Chapter One Organization and generalplan of the
body
Four
10
Tissues
What are the four groups of tissues?
Chapter One Organization and generalplan of the
body
Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, and Nerve
11
Tissues
Epithelial Tissues do what?
Cover or line body surfaces
Connective tissues do what?
Connect and support parts of the body
Chapter One Organization and generalplan of the
body
Muscle Tissues do what?
Contraction, and movement
Nerve tissues do what?
Generate and transmit electrochemical impulses
12
Organs
An organ is a group of tissues precisely arranged
so as to accomplish specific functions.
Name four examples of an organ.
Chapter One Organization and generalplan of the
body
Kidneys, Liver, Lungs, and Stomach
13
Organ systems
An organ system is a group of organs that all
contribute to a particular function.
Name three examples of an organ system.
Chapter One Organization and generalplan of the
body
Urinary, Digestive, Respiratory
14
Body Parts and Areas
Terms and Definitions
Axillary
Armpit
Brachial
Upper Arm
Chapter One Terminology and generalplan of the
body
Buccal (Oral)
Mouth
Cardiac
Heart
Cervical
Neck
Cranial
Head
15
Body Parts and Areas
Terms and Definitions
Cutaneous
Skin
Deltoid
Shoulder
Chapter One Terminology and generalplan of the
body
Femoral
Thigh
Frontal
Forehead
Gastric
Stomach
Gluteal
Buttocks
16
Body Parts and Areas
Terms and Definitions
Hepatic
Liver
Iliac
Hip
Chapter One Terminology and generalplan of the
body
Inguinal
Groin
Lumbar
Small of back
Mammary
Breast
Nasal
Nose
17
Body Parts and Areas
Terms and Definitions
Occipital
Back of head
Orbital
Eye
Chapter One Terminology and generalplan of the
body
Parietal
Crown of head
Patellar
Kneecap
Pectoral
Chest
Perineal
Pelvic Floor
18
Body Parts and Areas
Terms and Definitions
Plantar
Sole of foot
Popliteal
Back of knee
Chapter One Terminology and generalplan of the
body
Pulmonary
Lungs
Renal
Kidney
Sacral
Base of spine
Temporal
Side of head
19
Body Parts and Areas
Terms and Definitions
Umbilical
Navel
Volar (palmar)
Palm
Chapter One Terminology and generalplan of the
body
20
Terms of location and position
When describing relative locations, the body is
always assumed to be in the ________ position.
Chapter One Organization and generalplan of the
body
anatomic
21
Body Cavities and their Membranes
Name the two major cavities.
Chapter One Organization and generalplan of the
body
Dorsal (posterior)andVentral (anterior)
22
Body Cavities and their Membranes
Dorsal Cavity
The Dorsal cavity contains the central nervous
system and consist of what two cavities?
Chapter One Organization and generalplan of the
body
Cranial and Spinal
23
Body Cavities and their Membranes
Dorsal Cavity
The cranial cavity is formed by the _______ and
contains the _______ .
skull
brain
Chapter One Organization and generalplan of the
body
The spinal cavity is formed by the _____________
and contains the ____________ .
Backbone (spine)
Spinal cord
24
Body Cavities and their Membranes
Dorsal Cavity
Chapter One Organization and generalplan of the
body
The membranes that line these cavities and cover
the brain and spinal cord are called the
___________.
meninges
25
Body Cavities and their Membranes
Ventral Cavity
The ventral cavity consist of what two
compartments?
Chapter One Organization and generalplan of the
body
Thoracic and Abdominal (separated by the
diaphragm)
26
Body Cavities and their Membranes
Ventral Cavity
Organs in the thoracic cavity include the _______
and ______, and the membranes of the thoracic
cavity are serous membranes called the _______
membranes.
heart
lungs
Chapter One Organization and generalplan of the
body
pleural
27
Body Cavities and their Membranes
Ventral Cavity
Organs in the abdominal cavity includes the
______, ________ and __________.
liver
stomach
intestines
Chapter One Organization and generalplan of the
body
The membranes of the abdominal cavity are also
serous membranes called the ____________ and
___________.
peritoneum
mesentery
28
Body Cavities and their Membranes
Ventral Cavity
The pelvic cavity is inferior to the abdominal
cavity.
Chapter One Organization and generalplan of the
body
Within the pelvic cavity are the ________ bladder
and ____________ organs.
urinary
reproductive
29
Terms of Location and Position
Terms and Definitions
Superior
Above, higher
Inferior
Below, lower
Chapter One Terminology and generalplan of the
body
Anterior
Toward the front
Posterior
Toward the back
Ventral
Toward the front
Dorsal
Toward the back
30
Terms of Location and Position
Terms and Definitions
Medial
Toward the midline
Lateral
Away from the midline
Chapter One Terminology and generalplan of the
body
Internal
Within, or interior to
External
Outside, or exterior to
Superficial
Toward the surface
Deep
Within, or interior to
31
Terms of Location and Position
Terms and Definitions
Central
The main part
Peripheral
Extending from the main part
Chapter One Terminology and generalplan of the
body
Proximal
Closer to the origin
Distal
Farther from the origin
Parietal
Pertaining to the wall of a cavity
Visceral
Pertaining to the organs within a cavity
32
Planes and Sections
When internal anatomy is described, the body or
an organ is often cut or sectioned in a specific
way so as to make particular structures easily
visible.
Chapter One Organization and generalplan of the
body
There are five sections (planes), name them.
Frontal (or Coronal)SagittalTransverseCrossLon
gitudinal
33
Planes and Sections
Give definitions for the five listed sections
below
Frontal
Separates front back parts
Chapter One Terminology and generalplan of the
body
Sagittal
Separates right left parts
Transverse
Separates upper lower parts
Cross
A section perpendicular to the long axis
Longitudinal
A section along the long axis
34
Areas of the Abdomen
The abdomen is a large area of the lower trunk of
the body
Pick area before clicking, one at a time.
Lumbar
Umbilical
Hypochondriac
Epigastric
lliac
Hypogastric
35
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