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The Human Body

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... Surface Microscopic anatomy Cytology Histology Embryology Developmental anatomy Others Physiology Neurophysiology Pathophysiology Cardiovascular physiology ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Human Body


1
The Human Body
  • Chapter 1

2
Human Anatomy and Physiology
  • Anatomy The study of body structures and their
    relationships
  • Static within a species
  • Physiology The study of the functions of body
    structures
  • Dynamic within a species

3
Subdivision Examples
  • Anatomy
  • Physiology
  • Gross anatomy
  • Regional
  • Systemic
  • Surface
  • Microscopic anatomy
  • Cytology
  • Histology
  • Embryology
  • Developmental anatomy
  • Others
  • Neurophysiology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Cardiovascular physiology
  • Renal Physiology
  • Others

4
Life is an Emergent Property
  • Atoms
  • Molecules
  • Organelles
  • Cells
  • Tissues
  • Organs
  • Organ systems
  • Listed in fig 1.3
  • Organismal level

5
Organ Systems
ORGAN SYSTEM COMPONENTS FUNCTIONS
Integumentary Skin, hair, nails Protection
Skeletal Bones Support/movement
Nervous Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sense organs Control and communication
Muscular Muscles Movement
Endocrine Hormones and associated glands Homeostasis
Cardiovascular Heart, blood vessels, blood Transport of substances
Lymphatic Lymph vessels and lymph nodes Transport, immunity
Respiratory Nose, trachea, lungs Transport of gases
Digestive Mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines Energy acquisition and food processing
Urinary Kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra Water balance
Reproduction Gonads Propagation
6
Lifes Essentials
  • Maintain boundaries
  • Move
  • Respond to environment
  • Digestion
  • Excretion
  • Metabolism
  • Reproduce
  • Grow

7
Survival Essentials
  • Nutrients
  • Fuel for the cells
  • Building materials
  • Oxygen
  • Release energy from nutrients
  • Water
  • Facilitates reactions and excretions/secretions
  • Normal body temperature
  • Regulate metabolic reactions
  • Atmospheric pressure
  • Corresponds with gas exchange w/i cells
  • Adequate amounts, not just presence maintains a
    healthy state

8
Homeostasis
  • Dynamic state of equilibrium
  • 3 components
  • Receptor (afferent)
  • Control center (set point)
  • Effector (efferent)
  • Imbalance causes illness disease
  • Increase with age
  • Disruptions in feedback

9
Feedback
  • Negative
  • Most homeostatic mechanisms
  • Turn off or slow original stimuli
  • Stabilizes
  • Body temperature, heart and breathing rate,
    blood glucose
  • Positive
  • Increases the original stimuli
  • Oxytocin (labor) and blood clotting

10
Anatomical Language
11
Anatomical Position
  • Standing tall with upper limbs at sides and face,
    palms and toes forward
  • Reference position when describing body part
    locations
  • Left and right is specimens
  • Variations for bipeds and quadrupeds

12
Anatomical Regions to Know
13
Anatomical Directions to Know
  • Superior/ inferior
  • Cranial/caudal
  • Ventral/ dorsal
  • Anterior/ posterior
  • Medial/ lateral
  • Intermediate/ proximal/ distal
  • Superficial/ deep
  • External/ internal
  • Supine/ prone
  • Ipsilateral/ contralateral

Study tip pick two structures on self and
describe as many ways as possible
14
Body Planes are Like Breads
  • Frontal (coronal) section divides anterior and
    posterior
  • e.g. loaf of bread
  • Sagittal section divides the body longitudinally
    into left and right
  • Midsagittal equal parts
  • Parasagittal off midline
  • e.g. hotdog bun
  • Transverse (cross) section divides superior and
    inferior
  • e.g. hamburger bun or bagel
  • Oblique section diagonal cuts

15
Body Cavities
  • Dorsal
  • Cranial brain
  • Vertebral spinal cord
  • Ventral
  • Thoracic
  • Left right pleura
  • Mediastinum (pericardial)
  • Abdominopelvic
  • No real separation
  • Protection differences
  • Diaphragm divides

16
Serous Membranes
  • Double-layer membrane separated by serous fluid
  • Reduces friction lubricates
  • Line walls and organs of ventral body cavities
  • Parietal serosa lines walls
  • Visceral serosa lines organs (viscera)
  • Named for associated organs
  • Never exposed to external environment

17
Other Body Cavities
  • Open to environment (generally)

18
Abdominopelvic Subdivisions
  • Regions (9)
  • Quadrants (4)
  • Epigastric
  • Umbilical
  • Hypogastric
  • Hypochondriac
  • Lumbar
  • Inguinal
  • Anatomists use references location and
    orientation of internal organs
  • Clinicians use references to describe pain,
    tenderness, and injuries
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