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The Anglo-Saxon Period (449-1066)

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Title: The Angle-Saxon Period 449-1066 Author: Kristi Weidlein Last modified by: CCSD Created Date: 9/2/2010 8:11:32 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Anglo-Saxon Period (449-1066)


1
The Anglo-Saxon Period (449-1066)
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 449-1485
  • By providing an overview of the major historical
    events of the Anglo-Saxon Period, the students
    are permitted to interpret the possible
    influences of historical contexts on literary
    works.

2
Western Civilization and Western Thought
  • Grew out of three ancient civilizations
  • Greeks individual truth
  • Romans the state
  • Hebrews God above all

3
Each culture prevailed at different times.
  • Medieval period Hebrew concept
  • (God above all)
  • Renaissance Greek concept
  • (Individual truth)
  • 18th/19th/20th Centuries Roman concept
  • (State above all)

4
England Before the Anglo-Saxons
  • Stonehenge

5
England Before the Anglo-Saxons
  • Built between 3000 and 1500 BC
  • Was it a temple?
  • Celtic speakers arrived in England in about 900
    BC

6
England Before the Anglo-SaxonsThe Celts 900 BC
  • There were 3 groups
  • - The first group called themselves the
    Britons, and they inhabited what is now Britain.

7
England Before the Anglo-SaxonsThe Celts 900 BC
  • There were 3 groups
  • - The first group called themselves the
    Britons, and they inhabited what is now Britain.
  • - The second group were the Picts, and they
    settled in present day Scotland.

8
England Before the Anglo-SaxonsThe Celts 900 BC
  • There were 3 groups
  • - The first group called themselves the
    Britons, and they inhabited what is now Britain.
  • - The second group were the Picts, and they
    settled in present day Scotland.
  • - The third group were the Gaels, and they
    settled in present day Ireland.

9
England Before the Anglo-SaxonsThe Celts 900 BC
  • Celtic groups spoke their own languages, and
    these languages and cultures live on in modern
    times. Celtic languages are still the official
    languages of such countries as Wales, Scotland,
    Ireland, and Brittany.

10
England Before the Anglo-SaxonsThe Celts 900 BC
  • Celtic groups spoke their own languages, and
    these languages and cultures live on in modern
    times. Celtic languages are still the official
    languages of such countries as Wales, Scotland,
    Ireland, and Brittany even to this day.
  • These were thriving cultures by most standards of
    the day. They lived in closely tied clans. They
    were skilled in agriculture and metalwork and
    traded with their neighbors throughout the
    British Isles.

11
England Before the Anglo-SaxonsThe Celts 900 BC
  • Their leaders were often Druids, who were
    priests however, the druids also served as
    judges and counselors.

12
England Before the Anglo-SaxonsThe Celts 900 BC
  • Their leaders were often Druids, who were
    priests however, the druids served also as
    judges and counselors
  • The Celtic clans had a long oral tradition of
    literature and learning which was preserved by
    The Druids. They preserved the peoples myths and
    legends by reciting long, heroic poems.

13
England Before the Anglo-SaxonsThe Celts 900 BC
  • Their leaders were often Druids, who were
    priests however, the druids served also as
    judges and counselors
  • The Celtic clans had a long oral tradition of
    literature and learning which was preserved by
    The Druids. They preserved the peoples myths and
    legends by reciting long, heroic poems.
  • Celtic tales Old King Cole and King Lear

14
England Before the Anglo-SaxonsThe Romans (55
BC 407 AD)
  • The next group to invade England was the Romans.

15
England Before the Anglo-SaxonsThe Romans (55
BC 407 AD)
  • The next group to invade England was the Romans.
  • They ruled for some 300 years.

16
England Before the Anglo-SaxonsThe Romans (55
BC 407 AD)
  • The next group to invade England was the Romans.
  • They ruled for some 300 years.
  • They established roads and towns that served the
    island for centuries.

17
England Before the Anglo-SaxonsThe Romans (55
BC 407 AD)
  • The next group to invade England was the Romans.
  • They ruled for some 300 years.
  • They established roads and towns that served the
    island for centuries.
  • They brought Christianity to the British Isles
    (England)

18
England Before the Anglo-SaxonsThe Romans (55
BC 407 AD)
  • Their rule ended because Italy and Rome were
    under attack from northern invaders. Basically,
    the troops were called home.

19
England Before the Anglo-SaxonsThe Romans (55
BC 407 AD)
  • Their rule ended because Italy and Rome was under
    attack from northern invaders. Basically, the
    troops were called home.
  • The last troops left in 407 AD, and the stage was
    set for the Anglos and the Saxons to invade.

20
The Anglo-Saxons (449 1066)
  • The invasion by the Anglo-Saxons of modern day
    England began in 449 AD, but actually takes place
    over several decades

21
The Anglo-Saxons (449 1066)
  • The invasion by the Anglo-Saxons of modern day
    England began in 449 AD, but actually takes place
    over several decades
  • There were three major groups the Angles, the
    Saxons, and the Jutes.

22
The Anglo-Saxons (449 1066)
  • The Britons- perhaps led by a commander named
    Arthur- fought a series of legendary battles in a
    effort to stop the invasion.

23
The Anglo-Saxons (449 1066)
  • The Britons- perhaps led by a commander named
    Arthur- fought a series of legendary battles in a
    effort to stop the invasion.
  • These efforts failed however and the Germanic
    Anglo-Saxon tribes organized themselves into a
    confederation of seven kingdoms call the
    Heptarchy.

24
The Anglo-Saxons (449 1066)
  • In the early history of the Heptarchy, the Angles
    were dominate.

25
The Anglo-Saxons (449 1066)
  • In the early history of the Heptarchy, the Angles
    were dominate.
  • Their settlement or kingdom became known as
    Angle-land or England, and its people came to be
    called English.

26
The Anglo-Saxons (449 1066)
  • In the early history of the Heptarchy, the Angles
    were dominate.
  • Their settlement or kingdom became known as
    Angle-land or England, and its people came to be
    called English.
  • Because there were several different groups that
    began the invasion of Briton in 449, modern
    scholars employ the term Anglo-Saxon to refer to
    the people and culture of this period in English
    history.

27
The Anglo-Saxons (449 1066)
  • Like all cultures, the Anglo-Saxons changed over
    time

28
The Anglo-Saxons (449 1066)
  • Like all cultures, the Anglo-Saxons changed over
    time
  • Early on, they were seafaring wanderers whose
    lives were bleak, violent, and short

29
The Anglo-Saxons (449 1066)
  • As they settled in their new land, however, the
    Anglo-Saxons became an agricultural people

30
The Anglo-Saxons (449 1066)
  • As they settled in their new land, however, the
    Anglo-Saxons became an agricultural people
  • Less violent, more secure, more civilized

31
The Anglo-Saxons (449 1066)
  • As they settled in their new land, however, the
    Anglo-Saxons became an agricultural people
  • Less violent, more secure, more civilized
  • One of the most important civilizing forces was
    the Christianity they began accepting late in the
    sixth century (500-599 AD)

32
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33
The Anglo-Saxons (449-1066)The Danish Invasions
  • In the 790s a new group of invaders - the Danes,
    also know as the Vikings, began to devastate the
    flourishing culture

34
The Anglo-Saxons (449-1066)The Danish Invasions
  • In the 790s a new group of invaders - the Danes,
    also know as the Vikings, began to devastate the
    flourishing culture
  • English king Alfred the Great was able to resist
    the first invasion. He was a strong proponent of
    learning and education. He oversaw the writing
    of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle which recorded early
    English life.

35
The Anglo-Saxons (449-1066)The Danish Invasions
  • In the 790s a new group of invaders - the Danes,
    also known as the Vikings, began to devastate the
    flourishing culture
  • English king Alfred the Great was able to resist
    the first invasion. He was a strong proponent of
    learning and education. He oversaw the writing
    of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle which recorded early
    English life.
  • He could not hold off subsequent invasions,
    however, and was forced to agree to a truce

36
The Anglo-Saxons (449-1066)The Norman Conquest
  • Meanwhile, conquering Vikings in France adopted
    the Franks' language, religion, laws, customs,
    political organization and methods of warfare, to
    become Franks in all but namethey were now known
    as Normans, men of Normandy.
  • By 1042, the Danes were out of power in England,
    and Edward the Confessor, the last Anglo-Saxon
    ruler, was on the throne.
  • Edward died in 1066, and that year found the
    Normans overpower the Anglo-Saxons. This was
    their last defeat.

37
The Anglo-Saxons (449-1066) Hierarchy
  • 1. King he was expected to be generous to his
    loyal subjects
  • 2. Earls/Thanes/Free Warriors claimed kinship
    to founder of tribes. They were expected to be
    LOYAL.
  • The Witan they were the Kings council the
    King made the final decisions

38
The Anglo-Saxons (449-1066) Hierarchy
  • 3. Freemen/Genlats independent landowners
  • 4. Churls boundmen who trace ancestry to former
    captives of tribe did the hard labor worked for
    Earls could move up to freemen with
    possessions special royal favor

39
The Anglo-Saxons (449-1066) Hierarchy
  • 5. Slaves/Thralls
  • Women were a subclass. They were viewed as
    only important for domestic duties.

40
The Anglo-Saxons (449-1066)
  • What did they eat?

41
The Anglo-Saxons (449-1066)
  • What did they eat?
  • Most Anglo-Saxons were largely vegetarian. Poor
    Saxons ate chicken, bacon, and pork sausages, but
    red meat (farmed and hunted) was only for the
    rich.
  • Pork also seems to have been popular, as well as
    beef and mutton.

42
The Anglo-Saxons (449-1066)
  • What did they eat?
  • Along with their meal they would often have mead.
    Mead is a drink made by fermenting honey.

43
Anglo-Saxons What did they admire in their
warriors
  1. Good sportsmanship
  2. Endurance
  3. Loyalty to king
  4. Athletic prowess
  5. Bravery
  6. Respect for each other
  7. Action and fighting

44
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45
The Anglo-Saxons Religion
  • They came to Britain with their own pagan
    beliefs.
  • They had a firm belief in fate (wyrd).
  • They worshiped ancient Germanic gods like Tui,
    god of war and the sky Woden, chief of the gods
    and Fria, Wodens wife and goddess of the home.
  • Sound familiar?

46
Tiu, Woden, and Fria today
  • Tuesday
  • Wednesday
  • Friday
  • Where do we get the rest of our weeks names?

47
Something to consider
  • According to Maslows Hierarchy of Needs, safety
    and shelter must be firmly established before
    more thoughtful ideas can take root. (A person
    cannot skip levels.) Therefore, religion was
    not important to the Anglo-Saxons until their
    primary needs were met.

48
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49
The Anglo-Saxons Religion
  • Christianity had been introduced by the Romans,
    and the Celts were converted.
  • Irish monks helped establish a strong Christian
    hold on the island.
  • Scots were converted easily, and many monasteries
    were built in Scotland.

50
The Anglo-Saxons Religion
  • Roman cleric Saint Augustine arrives in 597.
  • Saint Augustine was able to convert King
    Ethelbert of Kent this led to the kingdom being
    converted.

51
The Anglo-Saxons Religion
  • The Church promoted peace, and that helped unite
    the English people.
  • The Church also brought education and a written
    literature.
  • Monks often worked as scribes, recording and
    duplicating written work by hand.

52
The Anglo-Saxons (449-1066)
  • Venerable Bede (673-735) The Father of English
    History
  • He wrote A History of the English Church and
    People the clearest account of early
    Anglo-Saxon times.

53
It is better never to begin a good work than,
having begun it, to stop.
  • Bede, A History of the English Church and People
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