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CONTINUING EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES: LESSONS FOR TAIWAN AND TAICHUNG

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continuing education in the united states: lessons for taiwan and taichung dr. ruey-fin cheryl bain (bain-bain) is my interpreter, dayeh university, phd from ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CONTINUING EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES: LESSONS FOR TAIWAN AND TAICHUNG


1
CONTINUING EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES
LESSONS FOR TAIWAN AND TAICHUNG
  • DR. RUEY-FIN CHERYL BAIN (BAIN-BAIN) IS MY
    INTERPRETER, DAYEH UNIVERSITY, PhD FROM OHIO
    STATE UNIVERSITY
  • MY BACKGROUND AND EXPERIENCE (TAIWAN CONNECTION)
  • CONTINUING EDUCATION LIFELONG LEARNING ADULT
    EDUCATION
  • ADULT EDUCATION (AE) IN THE U.S. BEGAN WITH THE
    EARLY SETTLERS FROM EUROPE WITH AN EMPHASIS ON
    TRADES, CRAFTS AND AG
  • WASHINGTON, JEFFERSON AND FRANKLIN WERE EARLY
    ADVOCATES
  • IN AG, HAS CONTRIBUTED TO THE FEEDING OF THE
    NATION AND WORLD

2
RECENT HISTORY
  • Major growth
  • Industry expands opportunities with changing
    demographics, workplace requirements, personal
    needs and continuing dissatisfaction with
    graduates of formal education system
  • Agencies never before involved in education have
    established programs
  • Grown so large that it is an education system in
    and of itself
  • Still lacks accepted definition
  • Programs are diverse and disparate, but all serve
    adults
  • Perpetually seeking identity marginal, limits R
    D

3
Basic Education
  • All activities taking place in schools
    principally for education and training of the
    young to assume adult roles and responsibilities
  • Education and crisis are often used as tandem
    words
  • Not a crisis related to its mission, but to the
    manner it is done
  • Lots of criticism from all fronts
  • Adult education has avoided these criticisms
    largely due to its ambiguity of functions and
    forms translates into limited investment and
    lack of accountability

4
The Scope
  • The National Center for Educational Research
    (NCES) conducts a survey of adult education every
    three years
  • Data show over 21 million people participate each
    year
  • NCES data are controversial because of their
    basic definition of adult education (AE) persons
    gt 17, not enrolled in secondary or tertiary ed
    but participating in some form of organized
    learning programs are expected to have
    institutional and formal characteristics
    learning is often separated from training (job
    related)
  • Another definition includes self-directed
    learning outside normal AE
  • NCES data swell to nearly 95 of the adult
    population
  • Data on participation can vary widely

5
AE
  • Most people never cease learning
  • AE caters to the needs of adults, mostly through
    informal means, and only to some extent through
    formal programs
  • Social/government responsibility for the informal
    programs are often ignored if not totally
    abdicated
  • AE enterprise in the US is vast and growing
  • I define AE as including formal and informal
    learners whether pursing their objectives as
    members of groups or as individuals
  • Current data cannot describe the full population
    of adult learners

6
Formal programs
  • Available date invite speculation and
    extrapolation
  • We know that those that more education continue
    to seek more and those who seek tend to be white,
    middle- and upper-class, women, and
    underrepresentation of minority and working-class
  • Classes are often offered by two and four-year
    colleges and taught in school buildings, with
    standard classroom format
  • Learners paid for their classes
  • Courses met or exceeded their expectations.
  • Woman already had about 2 years of college ed,
    were full-time employed in a manufacturing
    industry, takes 2 courses per year and did not
    take courses for certification (Laws require some
    professionals to take courses)

7
Motivation
  • Want to improve economic circumstances pay, seek
    equity in pay, and also entry to higher position
  • 42 had incomes over 25,000 as opposed to 31 in
    the general population
  • The higher a familys income the more likely they
    are to participate
  • Not uniformly true across the US NE low South
    is high (Industry growth in the South and older
    adults in the Sun Belt
  • AE viewed as being for career advancement
  • Participation is viewed as indicative of
    motivation for individual growth

8
  • Certification is not the primary motivator for
    most
  • They seek a familiar instructional style
    (classrooms teachers)
  • Americans tend to form a Learning Society
  • Seem willing to pay for their own education
    (sound investment view)
  • Participants are of a rather young age (appeal to
    recent grads lt 40) with changing demographics
    and lots of older people, modal age may change as
    these people look to occupy free time age may
    become bimodal
  • Nearly 35 million different courses 60
    job-related 74 already employed general ed
    10 personal issues 27

9
  • Many AE activities cannot be accounted such as
    those offered by religious groups, local
    community groups, local clubs and the broad
    activities of community education
  • One study showed 79 of all adults engaged in AE
    defined as 7 or more hours of learning activities
    Internet had greatly expanded these
    opportunities

10
Planned and Non-planned Axis
  • Planned programs (described by NCES) have
    discreet curricula offered to a relatively known
    group of participants formal program
  • Self-directed learning finds participants
    identifying their own learning objectives and
    seek diverse resources to satisfy them
    non-formal or informal programs

11
Nature of the Enterprise
  • AE is a most diverse educational form
  • Avocational interests were pursued in earliest
    forms combined learning with social interaction
    recreation and self-fulfillment
  • Many AE programs are offered in the US through
    schools, Extension services, and
    community/religious groups and cover costs
    through tuition
  • Professional organizations would be a second
    historical group
  • Keep members current and establish a professional
    esprit de corps
  • Third type is related to work place needs and
    employers know schools do not provide all the
    knowledge and skills needed for a job

12
  • Some employers established their own schools by
    1913 there were enough factory schools that 34
    firms started the National Association of
    Corporate Schools (now American Management
    Association)
  • Government and the military also have lengthy
    histories in AE
  • Advances in technology and management patterns
    necessitate the current explosion of human
    resource managers/departments to update
    employees labor market mobility has also fed the
    fire many businesses were started to deliver
    needed training. It is estimated that the money
    spent by corporate US such efforts exceeds the
    budget for higher education

13
  • Employers provide 25 of the courses and finance
    1/3 of all costs and have, over the past decade,
    entered aggressively
  • Functionally illiterate people have gotten a lot
    of attention from national and state initiatives,
    but they are poorly represented among
    participants with only 3 of programs aimed at
    the group
  • Public announcements have not issue have not
    resulted in action
  • AE participants are the better educated and not
    those who could benefit the most

14
  • Employers also provide other kinds of education
    related to personal, health/wellness and family
    issues and often viewed as employee benefits and
    forge and strengthen ties to the firm
  • They also provide support for formal graduate
    education with tuition assistance and paid leaves
    of absence
  • Some are also channeled through labor unions (NYC
    Teamsters Union)
  • Some corporations have become accredited and have
    their own degree-granting programs (e.g., Wang
    Arthur Little Accounting)

15
  • The aging population has created a massive
    audience for AE
  • Universities have responded OSUs over 60
    program, e-learning, distance education
    courses/degree programs take all your courses in
    your pajamas
  • Little attention has ever been given to this
    massive audience for AE
  • Publishers and media producers are starting to
    respond (U of Phoenix)
  • Much is not based on what is known about the
    basics of AE, however with principles of
    teaching/learning extracted from children/youth
  • Evaluation of these enterprises is, for the most
    part, lacking

16
Implications and Trends
  • In the US, sine WWII, the AE enterprise has
    mushroomed
  • AE is vast and diverse
  • Growth has occurred outside the normal
    educational system
  • Those who sponsor hope to benefit, such as
    corporations/government agencies
  • Education is not the primary focus of such
    groups, though, and AE becomes a secondary
    activity, universities give AE only marginal
    attention and generate little research,
    development or training scholarship and new
    learning about AE is then lacking, and the first
    area cut when financial exigency occurs
  • Study of adulthood needs to become as important
    as childhood

17
  • our understanding of processes of adult
    development and learning are to embryonic,
    speculative, and tentative to allow for the
    drawing of practical conclusions in respect to
    the design of instruction and curricula.
    Evaluation research cannot show when one
    instructional approach is superior to another.
  • Since AE is marginal, it tend to not attract a
    sufficiently broad and qualified cadre of
    professionals. Very few Research Centers for AE
    exist, and those that do struggle to survive.
  • Corporate firms often tap dubious firms offering
    expertise of questionable origin.

18
  • Private entrepreneurs and small businesses are
    typically totally ignored
  • Dozens exist on each city block in Taichung and
    worldwide yet, they get few opportunities for
    growth
  • Taichung! Why not collaborate with your
    wonderful institutions of higher education to
    become a national and world leader in providing
    continuing education for entrepreneurs. I know
    Dr. Shinshin Chen, Chaoyang University of
    Technology would be glad to assist with community
    AE development activities.
  • Could help people grow
  • Attract industry with prepared work force

19
  • Provide universities with a living laboratory for
    service learning for students and practical
    application for faculty while improving the
    community a loving town/gown working environment
    win/win situation
  • Experienced adults in the community can become
    mentors for the youth a vital volunteer corps
    enriching university instruction and the
    community
  • Students can volunteer in the community and
    government offices for real-world experiences and
    obtain pragmatic education to help them better
    find a career with an appropriate degree less
    graduates unemployed and better change of
    Taichung keeping the brightest in their city

20
  • Projections are that the future worker will have
    to re-tool up to 7 times in their work life AE
    provides a means for a city to keep its people
    current be lifelong learners
  • Universities make it easy for people to
    enter/exit the system and provide practical,
    relevant courses (use advisory councils)
  • Higher education must now be spelled hire
    education
  • Governments can encourage universities to adjust
    to a more vocational mentality without forsaking
    liberal education and better serve the people in
    a new conception of delivering higher education
  • Many college degrees do not fit the jobs of Taiwan

21
Practice and study are two sides of the same coin
  • Taiwan universities are too numerous and compete
    to recruit the same students lowering standards
    to fill seats?
  • Universities must create new relationships just
    as governments must do more with less and a more
    effective collaboration must develop between
    universities government industries
  • Governments can rightly lay claim to assisting
    with the next stage of growth and the quality of
    life in the city
  • In the US, No other people ever demanded so much
    of schools and education as have the American.
    None other was ever so well served by its schools
    and educators

22
Read the Taipei Times Editorial
  • National government has tried to encourage higher
    education
  • City governments, too, have a role to play in
    preparing productive citizens for the future.
    You, no matter your department, have a role to
    play
  • I know you want to provide quality service for
    those in Taichung
  • You can work together to prepare a competitive
    work force
  • Establish new alliances because no one of us is
    as smart as all of us
  • Encourage learning and AE in all possible ways
    and make Taichung a Garden of Eden for those
    desiring lifelong education

23
  • Taiwanese people value education for their
    children as highly as any nation on earth. Help
    apply that value to lifelong learning and make
    Taiwan also a learning society.
  • THANK YOU!
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