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GENDER

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GENDER & CLIMATE CHANGE Gender as a Crosscutting Issue in Climate Change Adaptation Lucy Wanjiru & Khamarunga Banda Presented 1-3 June, 2009 Kingston Jamaica – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: GENDER


1
GENDER CLIMATE CHANGE
  • Gender as a Crosscutting Issue in Climate Change
    Adaptation
  • Lucy Wanjiru Khamarunga Banda
  • Presented
  • 1-3 June, 2009
  • Kingston Jamaica

2
Overview
  • Overview of UNDP
  • UNDP has a mandate to mainstream Gender Equality
    and Womens Empowerment in all programmes and
    projects.
  • The UNDP Gender Team works to uphold this
    mandate facilitating inclusive development,
    catalysing the achievement of the Millennium
    Development Goals.

3
Global Gender and Climate Alliance (GGCA)
  • Integrate a gender perspective into policy and
    decision making in order to ensure that the UN
    mandates on gender equality are fully
    implemented.
  • Ensure that financing mechanisms on mitigation
    and adaptation address the needs of poor women
    and men equitably.
  • Build capacity at all levels to design and
    implement gender-responsive climate change
    policies, strategies and programmes.
  • Develop, compile, and share practical tools,
    information, and methodologies to facilitate the
    integration of gender into policy and programming.

4
Gender defined
  • When you hear Gender what comes to mind???

5
Defining Gender
  • Gender mostly confused with sex
  • Sex is the biological characteristics pertaining
    to males and females.
  • Gender is a cultural, social construct that
    assigns status and roles to males and females.
  • The status and roles associated with gender
    create differences between males and females that
    can result in inequality.
  • Gender roles are learnt we learn to be a boy or
    girl
  • Women thoughts
  • Gender is also an analytical tool for
    understanding social processes and aiding
    sustainable development practices fro example
    use in CBA

6
Gender Approaches
  • Women-in-Development (WID) practical needs
  • Aims at integrating a women perspective into
    existing development processes in order to
    counteract the exclusion of women (special
    projects, increase their productive incomes
    ease household chores)
  • Gender and development (GAD) strategic needs)
    aims for empowerment
  • Approach on relationships between men and women
    addresses power relations aims at equity/equality
    and Sustainable development
  • Though in practices sometimes no fixed lines of
    demarcation

7
QUIZ
  • Introduction Global perspective
  • QUIZ

8
SETTING THE STAGE
9
  • What percentage of the worlds 1.3 billion people
    living in extreme poverty are women and girls?
  • a. 50 b. 60 c. 70d. 80


Sources UNFPA 2008. State of World Population
2008 and The Global Gender Gap Report 2008
10
Answer c. 60
11
  • What percentage of the worlds working hours are
    worked by women?
  • a. 33 b. 50 c. 66

Source OXFAM, 2007 Millennium Development Goals
Gender Quiz
12
Answer c. 66
13
  • What percentage of property worldwide is owned by
    women?
  • 1
  • 5
  • 10
  • 25

Source OXFAM, 2007 Millennium Development Goals
Gender Quiz
14
Answer a.1
15
  • What percentage of parliamentary seats worldwide
    are held by women?
  • a. 10 b. 17 c. 25 d. 50

Source Social Watch Gender Equity Index, 2008
16
Answer b. 17
17
  • What per cent of the 876 million illiterate
    adults are men?
  • 10
  • 75
  • 40
  • 25


Source OXFAM, 2007 Millennium Development Goals
Gender Quiz
18
Answer d. 25 are men and 75 are women
19
  • What percentage of women worldwide are homeless
    or live in inadequate dwellings, such as slums?
  • a. 20b. 25 c. 33 d. 50

Sources OXFAM, 2007 Millennium Development
Goals Gender Quiz
20
Answer d. 33
21
  • In a sample of 141 countries over the period
    1981 to 2002 it was found that, natural disasters
    (and their subsequent impact) on average
  • Kill more men than women
  • Kill the same amount of women and men
  • Kill more women than men


Source Neumayer and Plümper, 2007
22
  • Answer
  • c. natural disasters on average kill more women
    than men or kill women at an earlier age than men

23
  • Gender equality can promote
  • Poverty eradication
  • Sustainable development
  • Reduce the risk of disasters
  • Increase family income
  • All of the above


24
Answer e. All of the above
25
Gender
  • Gender is a social construct
  • If a social construct it can also be
    deconstructed
  • If gender is mainstreamed in the CBA projects
    this also offers a chance for deconstruction
    towards a more equitable society SD outcomes
  • Bird cannot fly well with one wing
  • Nothing for us without us

26
Positioning Gender in CBA
  • Climatic Impacts

Men Women/boys Girls in a development
process (culture, Values in production and
reproduction organizational process (who has
access, control of resources, decision making)
meet first seek first etc COMMUNITY
CBA
27
Why Gender in CBA?
  • Ability to mainstream gender in CBA -
    Differentiated Impacts
  • Women have less access to resources that would
    enhance their capacity to adapt to climate
    changeincluding land, credit, education etc.
    making them vulnerable
  • Vulnerability depends in large part on access to
    resources and assets (physical, financial, human,
    social, and natural) The more assets, the less
    vulnerability
  • Gender inequality intersects with climate risks
    and vulnerabilities - 2007 HDR
  • It is widely acknowledged that the negative
    effects of climate change are likely to hit the
    poor/poorest the most. 60 of the worlds
    poorest one billion people are women and girls.
    (UNFPA 2008. State of World Population 2008)

28
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29
Why Gender in CBA?
  • Different Roles
  • Women have a fundamental role as primary managers
    of the environment
  • Women meet 90 per cent of household water and
    fuel needs in Africa. In arid areas they spend up
    to 8 hrs a day in search of water.
  • They are active in production activities such as
    forests, fisheries, and in agriculture women
    produce up to 80 per cent in Africa, 60 per cent
    in Asia, 30 - 40 per cent in Latin America.
  • This is a sector that is highly exposed to the
    risks that come with drought and floods.

30
Why Gender in Development Projects
  • The human rights perspective
  • Women have as much right to participate in the
    production of knowledge in Africa, and right to
    be part of that knowledge
  • The power to know and power to have ones
    knowledge influence mainstream knowledge should
    be considered as part of human rights
  • Global development of technology and finance has
    been based on what is termed as a sexist
    definition
  • We cannot afford to waste human resource right
    to intellectual input in re-conceptualizing new
    future development models
  • Environmental rational
  • Women have knowledge, users and consumers of
    environmental products, active caretakers need
    cleaner efficient technologies
  • The economic rationale
  • The intellectual and labor input of men and women
    in important to realize meaningful" development
  • Women projects are on the average sustainable

31
Evidence . Gender mainstreaming improves CBA
Projects
  • Involving women in management of water projects
    increases efficiency
  • Womens Indigenous knowledge used in Conservation
    of forests - Green Belt movement
  • A recent report on micro finance in Peru
    indicated that in the current global financial
    crisis, women running micro-businesses are doing
    a better job at withstanding the negative effects
  • Improved Response to disaster risk response
    Honduras

32
Women bear greater responsibilities for crop and
food production preparation in developing world
  • Women are more susceptible to the impacts of
    climate change, as they must adapt to declining
    water supplies, climate variability, natural
    disasters, pest outbreaks, changing precipitation
    patterns and other impacts of climate change on
    crop production.

33
Gender realities in Africa
  • The whole Picture rural Africa
  • Women is in a subordinate position
  • Lives in household, community and society where
    gender inequality/ is more or less pervasive
  • Her labor is less considered, less valuable than
    that of her husband
  • Decisions about finance and investment are not
    made by her in new appliances, land use, her
    mobility and what crops to plant
  • Her voice on policies is less heard/ her ideas
    not well articulated e.g. government position on
    issues that affect her too
  • Her time
  • Has less education, less access to credit, land,
    and power

6/16/2015
33
34
Gendered realities in Africa!
  • She also has other responsibilities e.g. fetching
    water, grinding grain etc. and childcare
  • She is also cooking on smoky fires that may cause
    lung disease
  • 2.4 million still use traditional biomass (agric.
    Residue, cow-dung wood) cooking heating
  • 1.6 billion have no access to electricity UNDP
    claims the numbers are increasing in absolute
    terms and not decreasing
  • E.g. IEA reports show projected trends of
    increase of biomass from 646 million (2002) to
    996 million (2030)
  • The burden is on women!

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35
Gender the Missing link??
  • Absent from decision making processes
  • Institutional absence if present not vocal
  • Semantic absence
  • Financial absence
  • Information related absent
  • Gender low priority or dismissed

36
CBA PROJECT
37
Why Involvement of women and men
  • Efficiency
  • Equity
  • Sustainability
  • Ubuuntu linkage and women/man man/man humans/
    environment (essence of being humans living
    within a environment
  • (women have the will for accomplishment outpace
    themselves in most projects in Africa)

38
Tools and methodologies
  • Gender tools are not isolated entities.
  • They are not viewed as specific products but as
    part of a process.
  • They are flexible, and build on, and strengthen
    existing local knowledge, structures and
    institutions
  • Enhance socio-economic benefits, gender
    equality/equity, and improve livelihoods.
  • Sustainable continually promote learning and
    innovation

39
Monitoring and Evaluation
  • Gender lens
  • Does the project include specific, measurable
    actions and deliverables related to gender
    mainstreaming, gender equality and womens
    empowerment?
  • Has the project/programme assessed potential for
    contributing to gender equality and womens
    empowerment through planned activities?
  • Has sex-disaggregated baseline data been
    collected?
  • Has the project/programme assessed the potential
    for contributing to gender equality and womens
    empowerment through planned activities?
  • Have gender specialists or representatives from
    women's stakeholders groups participated in all
    steps of the programme or project cycle?
  • Have all possible steps been taken to ensure
    gender equity in the recruitment of project staff
    and consultants?

40
Adopting Gender Approach for holistic Sustainable
Development
  • How can we market/demystify gender issues in
    development to
  • a) development practitioners?
  • b) community members?

41
  • Thank you for listening!!!

6/16/2015
41
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