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Chapter 4: Gender Development, Gender Roles, and Gender Identity


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Title: Chapter 4: Gender Development, Gender Roles, and Gender Identity

Chapter 4 Gender Development, Gender Roles, and
Gender Identity
Chapter 4 Outline
  • Prenatal Development X and Y Make the Difference
  • Sexual Differentiation in the Womb
  • Atypical Sexual Differentiation Not Always Just
    X and Y
  • Gender Roles and Gender Traits
  • Girls Act Like Girls, Boys Act Like Boys
  • Are Gender Roles Innate?
  • Studying Gender

Chapter 4 Outline (Cont.)
  • Gender Role Theory
  • Evolutionary Theory Adapting to Our Environment
  • Social Learning Theory Learning from Our
  • Cognitive Development Theory Age-State Learning
  • Gender Schema Theory Our Cultural Maps

Chapter 4 Outline (Cont.)
  • Varieties of Gender
  • Masculinity The Hunter
  • Femininity The Nurturer
  • Androgyny Feminine and Masculine
  • Transgenderism Living as the Other Sex
  • Transsexualism When Gender and Biology Dont
  • Third Genders Other Cultures, Other Options
  • Asexualism The Genetics but Not the Sex

Chapter 4 Outline (Cont.)
  • Gender Role Socialization from Infancy through
    Old Age
  • Childhood Learning by Playing
  • Adolescence Practice Being Female or Male
  • Adulthood Careers and Families
  • The Senior Years
  • Different but Not Less Than

Gender and Sex
  • Gender refers to behavioral, psychological, and
    social characteristics of men and women
  • Sex refers to the biological aspects of being
    male or female
  • Both nature and nurture are important in forming
  • Case study Dr. John Money and Brenda/Bruce

Prenatal Development X and Y Make the Difference
  • Humans reproduce sexually and are made to be
    sexual beings
  • Each parent supplies a gamete, each with half of
    the genetic information (23 chromosomes),
    including a sex chromosome
  • Male sperm (X or Y)
  • Female egg/ovum (X)

Prenatal Development X and Y Make the Difference
  • Fertilization
  • Haploid egg Haploid sperm Diploid zygote
  • Sex is determined at conception
  • Development of female or male sexual
    characteristics, usually
  • Some developmental variations

Sexual Differentiation in the Womb
  • Gestation 9 months
  • 4-6 weeks gonads begin to develop and sexual
    differentiation starts 1-2 weeks later
  • Sex chromosomes control development of
  • internal sex organs
  • external sex organs
  • the embryos hormonal environment
  • the brains sexual differentiation

Internal Sex Organs
  • 5th 6th week primitive gonads form
  • 7th 8th week gonads become testes with Y
    chromosome and the SRY gene
  • 10th-11th week gonads become ovaries with
    absence of Y chromosome and SRY gene, and
    possibly the presence of ovarian hormones
  • Default setting is female

Internal Sex Organs (Cont.)
  • 10th-11th week primitive duct systems appear
  • Müllerian duct (female)
  • Wolffian duct (male)
  • Their further development is hormonally
    controlled by the gonads

Internal Sex Organs (Cont.)
  • Female embryos
  • Lack male hormones and Wolffian duct degenerates
  • Müllerian duct forms uterus, inner third of
  • Male embryos
  • Müllerian inhibiting factor regresses the
    Müllerian duct
  • Testosterone stimulates the Wolffian duct

  • Figure 4.1 Development of the male and female
    internal reproductive systems from the
    undifferentiated stage. We discuss these specific
    structures more in Chapters 5 and 6.

External Sex Organs
  • Homologous organs developed from the same
    prenatal tissue
  • 8th week tubercle differentiates
  • Female female hormones from mother and placenta
    promote development into female external
  • Male androgen secreted by the testes stimulate
    development into male external genitalia

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  • Figure 4.2 Development of the male and female
    external genitalia from the undifferentiated
    genital tubercle.

Hormonal Development and Influences
  • Ovaries produce
  • Estrogen female sexual characteristics
  • Progesterone menstrual cycle and pregnancy
  • Testes produce
  • Androgens development of male-typical

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Brain Differentiation
  • Hormones affect the development of the brain
  • The brain regulates secretion of hormones

Atypical Sexual Differentiation Not Always Just
X and Y
  • Atypical sexual differentiation can occur with
    irregularities in
  • Sex chromosomes
  • Sex hormones
  • Maternal hormone exposure

Sex Chromosome Disorders
  • Over 70 sex chromosome abnormalities
  • Extra or missing sex chromosomes
  • 3 most common
  • Klinefelters syndrome
  • Turners syndrome

Klinefelters Syndrome
  • XXY egg contained an extra X
  • 1/700 live male births
  • Develops male genitalia, but not fully
  • Tall, feminized body
  • Low testosterone levels low in sexual desires
  • Gynecomastia
  • Infertile
  • Testosterone therapy

Turners Syndrome
  • XO egg has no sex chromosome
  • 1/2500 live female births
  • Ovaries arent fully developed
  • Amenorrhea
  • Infertile
  • Short stature
  • Immature breast development
  • Mental retardation
  • Estrogen and progesterone therapy

XYY Syndrome / Triple X Syndrome
  • XYY or XXX sperm contains an extra sex
    chromosome, or egg has an extra X
  • May be normal male (XYY) or normal female (XXX)
  • May have slight mental retardation and/or
    fertility problems

Hormonal Irregularities
  • Hermaphrodite born with fully developed testes
    and ovaries extremely rare
  • Pseudohermaphrodite external genitals appear on
    some level similar to both sexes
  • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)
  • Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS)

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
  • XX exposed to a lot of androgen prenatally during
    sexual differentiation
  • 1/10,000 to 18,000 girls
  • Adrenal glands in the embryo may produce too much
    androgen, or the mother takes male hormones or a
    male hormone agonist
  • Internally and genetically a female
  • Corrective surgery, drugs

Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome
  • XY the body doesnt respond to testosterone
    that is produced by the testes
  • 1/20,000 boys
  • No internal reproductive structure except 2
    undescended testes
  • Shallow vagina
  • Breasts develop
  • Do not menstruate infertile
  • No surgery recommended without consent

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Gender Roles and Gender Traits
  • Gender stereotypes greatly influence our thoughts
    and interactions
  • Gender roles culturally defined behaviors,
    attitudes, emotions, traits, mannerisms,
    appearances, and occupations that are
    appropriate for females and males
  • Gender traits biologically determined
    differences between males and females

Masculinity and Femininity
  • Ideal cluster of traits that society attributes
    to each gender
  • Changes with society, and varies from culture to
  • Less gender role stereotyping in African
    Americans and Northern U.S.

Are Gender Roles Innate?
  • Behaviors are complex and typically interactions
    of nature and nurture
  • Cultures can vary widely in their definition of
    male and female, and transcend seeming traits
  • Tchambuli
  • Biological differences body size, strength,
    muscle to fat ratio, maturation, brain form and
    function, heartiness

Are Gender Roles Innate? (Cont.)
  • Maternal instinct and surrogate mothering
  • Play behavior in 3- to 6-year olds
  • Gender differences are easier to publish, but
    research has begun to look at gender similarities

Gender Role Theory
  • A variety of theorists and positions
  • Evolutionary biology gender differences are due
    to adapting to our environment
  • Social learning learn gender roles from society,
    our environment
  • Cognitive development universal stages for
    understanding and utilizing gender

Gender Role Theory (Cont.)
  • Gender schema cognitive structures organize
    gender, influenced by culture
  • Gender hierarchy men are the standard and their
    traits are valued more by society
  • Chodorows developmental psychoanalytic
    background boys separate from mom by devaluing
    females girls can love mom as a heterosexual and
    idealize fathers qualities

Gender Role Theory (Cont.)
  • Ortners culture/nature masculinity is
    associated with culture, femininity with nature
    culture encompasses nature
  • MacKinnons dominance men use gender to
    dominate it is not a biological or social issue

Varieties of Gender
  • Sex typing thought processes that split the
    world into female and male categories
  • Greatly influences our thoughts and behaviors
  • Masculinity and femininity are independent traits

Masculinity The Hunter
  • Rights of passage in many societies
  • Contradictions in the male role
  • Provide, but dont solely focus on career
  • Be sexually successful, but not degrading to
  • Be strong and stable, but be emotionally
  • Do not be dependent on a woman
  • Men have a less flexible role than women

Femininity The Nurturer
  • Typically viewed as the opposite of masculinity
  • Characterized by beauty, empathy, concern,
    softness, modesty
  • Contradictions in the female role
  • Job fulfillment, but stay at home with kids
  • Not just for looks, but use makeup/be thin
  • Opportunities are available, on mens terms

Androgyny Feminine and Masculine
  • Rate high in femininity and masculinity
  • Flexibility in behaviors
  • This concept may be reinforcing gender roles

Transgenderism Living as the Other Sex
  • 10-15 of the population
  • Live the other genders role, full/part-time
  • Happy as their biological sex, but psychosocially
    pleasured dressing as the other sex
  • Relaxing and peaceful to cross-dress
  • Billy Tipton

  • Billy Tipton was a well-known jazz musician who
    was discovered to be a female when he died in

Transsexualism When Gender and Biology Dont
  • Feel their gender identity does not match their
    biological sex (Gender Dysphoria)
  • Trapped in the wrong body
  • More males than females experience this
  • Sex reassignment surgery involves a long process
    psychological counseling, live as the other sex,
    hormones, multiple surgeries
  • M2F realistic results, orgasm
  • F2M experimental stages

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Gender Identity Disorder Jessica
Third Genders Other Cultures, Other Options
  • Some cultures have a third gender category
  • Native American berdache
  • Oman xan ýth
  • Indian hijra
  • Thai kathoey
  • Hawaiian aikane
  • Tahitian mahu

Asexualism The Genetics but Not the Sex
  • Born without any sexual organs (no biological
  • Has a genetic gender (XX or XY)
  • Typically assigned gender as a child and given

Gender Role Socialization From Babyhood Through
Old Age
  • Childhood
  • Adolescence
  • Adulthood
  • Senior Years

Childhood Learning by Playing
  • Children are greatly defined by their gender
  • Name, clothing, decorations, toys
  • Treatment by parents, teachers, others
  • Model behavior of same gender individuals
  • Rewarded for stereotypical behavior, punished for
    nonstereotypical behavior (especially boys)
  • Homosocial play beginning 2½ to 3 years old

Perceiving Gender Roles Ages 0-2
Perceiving Gender Roles Ages 2-5
Adolescence Practice Being Female or Male
  • Trying roles to determine what it is to be a man
    or woman
  • Difficult time for transgendered, homosexual,
    bisexual youth

Perceiving Gender Roles Ages 5-11
Adulthood Careers and Families
  • Breadwinner is a prized part of being male
  • Women pursue careers out of desire and necessity,
    yet hold primary responsibility for home life
    more than men with the same occupation

Women and Family Life
  • Primary satisfaction/identity should be as wife
    and mother
  • Modern thought also insists on a career outside
    of the home
  • Often feel guilt for not adequately meeting both

Which Is the Real Me? One Woman With Many Hats
Men and Family Life
  • Fathers spend less time with their infants than
  • Stay-at-home dads are becoming more common, but
    social pressure suggests they should be in the
    work force and labels them as unemployed

The Senior Years
  • Female with typical wife/mother role may
    experience empty nest syndrome
  • Adjustment required at retirement if a large part
    of identity was related to work
  • More relaxed gender roles

Different, But Not Less Than Toward Gender
  • Society has the ability to alter the gender roles
    to be less judging and rigid
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