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A Brief History of the Jewish State


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Title: A Brief History of the Jewish State

A Brief History of the Jewish State
From property of the sovereign...
to a sovereign state
Jews in the Middle Ages designated as servi
camera (rulers property)
IDF soldiers in Jerusalem
Jews in pre-19th Century Europe
Prior to 19th century, European Jews consistently
subject to massacres and expulsion
  • Massacres (tens of thousands killed/tortured)
  • Crusades (1096-1229)
  • Black Death (1348-1351)
  • Chmielnicki massacre in Ukraine (1648)
  • Expulsions
  • France (1254, 1306, 1322, 1394)
  • England (1290)
  • Spain (1492)
  • Portugal (1496)
  • Germany/Bohemia (throughout Middle Ages until

Deggendorf massacre (1337) Entire Jewish
community killed in one day
Jews in 19th Century EuropeEmancipation
  • After French Revolution, Jews gradually
    liberated, ultimately leading to full equal
    rights (at least in theory) in France (1831),
    Germany (1848-1860s), Austria (1867) and Italy
  • Jewish presence in major cities grows much faster
    than the rest of the population
  • Jewish intellectuals increasingly focus on
    secular culture, rather than religious doctrine
  • In Western Europe, Jews steadily assimilate into
    broader society and embrace national identity of
    states they inhabit
  • Benjamin Disraeli, born to a Jewish family (later
    baptized) and outspoken philo-semite, becomes
    British PM (1868 and again in 1874)

Hayyim (a.k.a. Heinrich) Heine (1797-1856) Widely
considered greatest German poet of 19th century
Jews in 19th Century EuropeRussian Anti-Semitism
  • Massive pogroms break out in Ukraine, often with
    government support (1881-1884)
  • Legislation greatly restricts Jewish education,
    labor force participation, residence rights and
    voting rights
  • Tsar Alexander III labels Jews as
    Christ-killers and oppressors of Christian
  • Tsarist secret police forges and publishes
    Protocols of the Elders of Zion (1903),
    describing purported Jewish conspiracy to
    dominate world
  • Persecution results in mass emigration of poor
    Russian Jews to Western Europe, fueling
    anti-Semitism there

Konstantin Pobedonostsev (1827-1907) Advisor to
Alexander III and Head of Russian Orthodox Church
The characteristics of the Jewish race are
parasitic for their sustenance they require the
presence of another race as host although they
remain aloof and self-contained. Take them from
the living organism, put them on a rock, and they
die. They cannot cultivate the soil.
Jews in 19th Century EuropeGerman Anti-Semitism
  • After Napoleon, rise of German nationalism leads
    to popularization of Volk concept, glorifying
    authentic Germans and their natural roots
  • Depicts Jews as alien and cosmopolitan
    threats to traditional Volk
  • Emergence of racial component to anti-Semitism,
    framing Jewish threat as part of Social
    Darwinist struggle
  • Anti-Semitic parties gain political strength,
    especially in Vienna under leadership of Karl

Richard Wagner (1813-1883)
I regard the Jewish race as the born enemy of
pure humanity and everything that is noble in it
it is certain we Germans will go under before
them, and perhaps I am the last German who knows
how to stand up as an art-loving man against the
Judaism that is already getting control of
everything. Wagner (1881)
Jews in 19th Century EuropeFrench Anti-Semitism
  • Napoleon gathers assembly of Jewish notables
    (1806), fueling anti-Semitic conspiracy theories
  • French pseudo-scientists promote racist theories
    of Semitic inferiority vs. Aryans
  • Multiple financial scandals involving Jews
    provide fodder for anti-Jewish press
  • Assumptionist order of Catholic clergy, in effort
    to promote Christian revival, claims Jews
    conspiring with Protestants and Freemasons
    against France
  • Édouard Drumont publishes La France Juive (1886),
    1,200 pages of rabid anti-Semitism that is
    immensely popular

La France Juive (1886)
It seems to me interesting and useful to
describe the successive phases of this Jewish
conquest, to indicate how, little by little, as a
result of Jewish activities, old France has been
dissolved, broken up, how its unselfish, happy,
loving people has been replaced by a hateful
people, hungry for gold and soon to be dying of
hunger. Drumont (1886)
Dreyfus Affair (1894-1906)
  • Alfred Dreyfus, only Jew in French army general
    staff, is accused of passing secrets to Germans
  • Despite scant evidence and his denial of the
    charges, Dreyfus convicted in secret trial in
    which hes not allowed to view the evidence
    against him
  • Dreyfus then stripped of his rank in a public
    ceremony designed to humiliate him
  • Outside, crowds chant Death to the Jews!
  • Ceremony is covered by young Hungarian reporter,
    Theodore Herzl
  • Dreyfus sentenced to life imprisonment and
    solitary confinement on Devils Island, near
    French Guiana

Alfred Dreyfus (1859-1935)
Dreyfus Affair (1894-1906)
  • Two years later, new chief of French military
    intelligence, Lt Col Picquart, uncovers evidence
    that real culprit was Major Esterhazy
  • Army suppresses Picquarts evidence and transfers
    him to Tunisia
  • Military court acquits Esterhazy in 2 days
    despite compelling evidence against him
  • Word of cover-up leaks to press and becomes
    national issue due to Jaccuse, an open letter by
    novelist Émile Zola (1898)
  • Army later convicts Dreyfus of additional charges
    based on documents forged by French
    counter-intelligence officer, Lt Col Henry (1899)

Dreyfus Affair (1894-1906)
  • Dreyfus Affair bitterly divides French society
  • Army, Catholic church and many rightists claim
    Dreyfus acting as part of Jewish conspiracy
    against France
  • Socialists, moderates and Radical Party claim
    Dreyfus was framed
  • Dreyfus eventually pardoned (1899) and fully
    exonerated (1906), with his rank restored
  • Anti-Semitic themes from anti-Dreyfusard camp
    later espoused by Nazis
  • Dreyfusards victory causes counter-reaction
    among segments of population, sowing the seeds
    for French collaboration with Nazis in WWII

Édouard Drumont and anti-Semitic newspaper he
founded. Headline is Traitor condemned 10 yrs
of Detention and Degradation Down with the Jews!
Theodore Herzl
  • Born to secular family in Hungary, with little
    Jewish education
  • Moves to Paris, becomes playwright, journalist
    and writer
  • Originally believes Jewish question should be
    solved by assimilation or conversion
  • Relentless anti-Semitism in enlightened
    countries, typified by Dreyfus Affair and rise of
    Karl Lueger in Vienna, convinces Herzl that Jews
    need sanctuary of their own
  • Herzl publishes Der Judenstaat (The State of the
    Jews) (1896)

Theodor Herzl (1860-1904)
In vain do we exert ourselves to increase the
glory of our fatherlands by achievements in art
and in science and their wealth by our
contributions to commerceWe are denounced as
strangersIf only they would leave us in
peaceBut I do not think they will. Herzl
Theodore Herzl
  • Wealthy Jews, Orthodox and Reform rabbis in
    Western Europe generally ignore Herzl or see his
    plan as threat to their standing in society
  • Primary base of support is poor Eastern European
    Jews, who know theyll never be able to call
    Russia or Poland home
  • One such supporter is Chaim Weizmann, key
    activist in Herzls movement
  • Herzl and Weizmann work tirelessly to convince
    national leaders of their idea
  • Originally, location of Jewish State does not
    matter to Herzl, but over time, under pressure
    from his supporters, he rejects idea of national
    home anywhere but Palestine
  • Herzl dies at age 44, old enough to see Zionist
    movement emerge but too young to see it prevail

Chaim Weizmann (1874-1952)
Ottoman Empire on Eve of WWI
By 1914, Palestine had been under Ottoman control
for 400 years
At the time, fewer than 100,000 Jews resided in
Palestine, along with 500,000 Arabs
Balfour Declaration (1917)
  • Weizmann emigrates to England and persistently
    lobbies British leaders, such as Lloyd George,
    Arthur Balfour, Winston Churchill and Herbert
    Samuel, to support Zionism
  • British receptive due to general tolerance
    towards Jews and desire to gain Jewish and U.S.
    support in WWI
  • In 1917, Foreign Secretary Balfour issues
    cabinet-approved declaration formalizing U.K.
    support for Jewish national home in Palestine
  • Jews fortunate that Herzls efforts began 20 yrs
    before other nationalist movements in Middle
    East Arabs not diplomatically organized in 1917
  • One year later, Balfour Declaration likely would
    not have been possible

Arthur James Balfour (1848-1930)
His Majesty's government view with favour the
establishment in Palestine of a national home for
the Jewish people, and will use their best
endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this
object, it being clearly understood that nothing
shall be done which may prejudice the civil and
religious rights of existing non-Jewish
communities in Palestine, or the rights and
political status enjoyed by Jews in any other
country. Balfour Declaration (1917)
British Mandate for Palestine
  • Following WWI, at negotiations in San Remo, Italy
    (1920), UK awarded Mandate for Palestine
  • San Remo resolution incorporates Balfour
  • League of Nations formally adopts San Remo
    resolution and confirms British Mandate (1922)
  • In the process, Britain carves out area east of
    Jordan river (Transjordan) from Mandate
    provisions dealing with Jewish national home
  • Mandate provisions, including Jews rights to
    build settlements, subsequently incorporated into
    UN Charter (Article 80) (1945)

Jewish Settlement in Palestine
  • Russian pogroms (1881) lead to First Aliyah
    (25,000-30,000 Jews)
  • Wealthy Jews, particularly Edmund de Rothschild
    and Montefiore, subsidize dozens of new
    agricultural settlements
  • Jewish National Fund created to purchase land in
    Palestine for Jewish settlement (1901)
  • More Russian pogroms (1904) lead to Second
    Aliyah (40,000 Jews)
  • Tel Aviv officially founded, as is Degania, the
    1st kibbutz (1909)
  • During British Mandate, Jews consistently
    increase their landholdings in Palestine via
    legal purchases, primarily from absentee,
    non-Palestinian Arab landlords

Revival of Hebrew
  • For centuries, Hebrew used primarily for
    religious purposes
  • Hebrew literature emerges during Haskalah
    (Jewish movement that paralleled Enlightenment
    movement), but still relies on biblical Hebrew
    words and style
  • During 1880s, Mendele Mocher Sfarim (1846-1917)
    revolutionizes literary Hebrew by relying on
    Rabbinic (rather than biblical) Hebrew and
    incorporating influences from Yiddish and other
    European languages
  • Eliezer Ben-Yehuda (1858-1922) immigrates to
    Jerusalem (1881) and actively promotes use and
    development of Hebrew as modern, spoken language
  • Immigrants from First Aliyah (1881) and
    especially, Second Aliyah (1904), many of whom
    could already read and speak Hebrew, are
    receptive to Ben-Yehudas efforts and widely
    adopt Hebrew as their spoken tongue
  • British Mandate recognizes Hebrew as Jews
    official language in Palestine (Nov 1922)

Haviv, the first Hebrew school in
Israel (established 1886 in Rishon LeZion)
The rebirth of Hebrew as a mother tongue after
two millennia is an event unique in
sociolinguistic history. Prof. Lewis Glinert,
Dartmouth College
Eliezer Ben-Yehuda
  • Born Eliezer Yitzhak Perelman, in Lithuania
    learns biblical Hebrew and goes to yeshiva to
    become rabbi
  • Becomes more interested in secular studies
    leaves yeshiva for Russian school and gains
    exposure to Hebrew literature and Zionism
  • Grows interested in national revivals in Balkans
    and Italy decides that revival of Hebrew as
    modern, spoken language could unite Jews and lead
    to Jewish State in Palestine
  • Moves to Paris (1878), where he takes advanced
    Hebrew classes but terminates studies after
    contracting tuberculosis
  • Moves to Jerusalem (1881), where he tirelessly
    promotes Hebrew as the national language of the

Eliezer Ben-Yehuda (1858-1922)
In every new event, every step, even the
smallest in the path of progress, it is necessary
that there be one pioneer who will lead the way
without leaving any possibility of turning back.
Ben-Yehuda, in his newspaper, Hatzvi (1908)
Eliezer Ben-Yehuda
  • Ben-Yehudas efforts include
  • Encouraging exclusive use of Hebrew in the home
    raises his first son as first all-Hebrew speaking
    child in modern times
  • Teaching, exclusively in Hebrew, in local schools
    and encouraging other teachers to do the same
  • Publishing a newspaper, Hatzvi, in Hebrew
  • Founding Hebrew Language Council (1890),
    forerunner to Hebrew Language Academy, the
    supreme authority on all matters related to
    Hebrew language
  • Writing first modern Hebrew dictionary (published
    posthumously), including many words coined by
    Ben-Yehuda that gain wide acceptance
  • Dies of tuberculosis (1922) 30,000 attend his
  • Legacy as driving force behind Hebrew revival

Ben-Yehuda at his desk in Jerusalem
Before Ben-Yehuda, Jews could speak Hebrew
after him, they did. Cecil Roth, in his book,
Was Hebrew Ever a Dead Language
Arab Hostility in pre-WWII Palestine
  • Under influence of future Palestinian Arab leader
    Haj Amin al-Husseini, Arabs riot (1920, 1921 and
    1924), killing and wounding hundreds of Jews
  • al-Husseini instigates major riots (1929) by
    spreading false stories of Jews killing Arabs and
    plotting to take over their holy sites
  • 1929 riots kill 135 Jews, including 67 in Hebron
    (Hebron Massacre), and destroy synagogues
  • In 1936, again with encouragement of al-Husseini,
    Arabs attack Jews and the British, ultimately
    leading to major rebellion lasting until 1939
    (Arab Revolt), which the British violently

Survivor ofHebron Massacre (1929)
Haj Amin al-Husseini
  • After death of Kamil al-Husayni, Mufti of
    Jerusalem (1921), British High Commissioner Sir
    Herbert Samuel pardons his half-brother, Haj Amin
    al-Husseini, from his participation in recent
    Arab riots
  • Under recommendation of extreme anti-Zionist
    British staff member Ernest Richmond, Samuel then
    appoints al-Husseini as Mufti of Jerusalem in
    gesture to Arabs, even though he received
    fewest votes out of 3 candidates
  • Virulently anti-Semitic al-Husseini becomes most
    prominent leader of Palestinian Arabs until 1948
  • Radicalizes Palestinian Arabs, silences (and
    kills) moderate Palestinians and promotes
    anti-Zionism in rest of Arab world
  • Periodically incites Arab massacres of Jews
  • Meets with Hitler and actively collaborates with
    him to recruit Muslim support for Nazis

Haj Amin al-Husseini (c.1897-1974)
Haj Amin al-Husseini
al-Husseini meetingwith Hitler (1941)
al-Husseini greetingBosnian Waffen-SS
volunteers (1943)
Kill the Jews wherever you find them. This
pleases God, history and religion. al-Husseini
British Immigration Policy
  • Britain periodically restricts Jewish immigration
    and land purchases to appease local Arabs
    especially after Arab riots in 1921 and 1929
  • Restrictions later overturned (by Churchill in
    1922, MacDonald in 1931), but Jewish immigration
    still limited based on absorptive capacity of
    the land
  • During 1936 Arab revolt, Peel Commission (1937)
    recommends limiting Jewish immigration and land
  • 1939 White Paper limits Jewish immigration to
    75,000 over 5 years, then to cease altogether

Rise of Hitler leadsto surge in Jewsseeking to
but Britain imposes severe restrictionson
Jewish immigration to Palestine(1929-1941)
Zeev Jabotinsky
  • Born Vladimir Jabotinsky, to secular Jewish
    family in Odessa (1880)
  • Becomes Zionist after Kishinev Pogrom (1903) and
    creates self-defense group for Jews in Russia
  • During WWI, together with Russo-Japanese war hero
    Joseph Trumpeldor, creates Jewish Legion to fight
    for British against Ottomans
  • After WWI, forms Jewish defense group which later
    becomes the Haganah defense force and deploys
    it against 1920 Arab riots
  • Founds Betar (1923), Jewish nationalist youth
    group trained in combat, which becomes highly
    popular in Eastern Europe and produces numerous
    future leaders of Israel

Zeev Jabotinsky (1880-1940)
Zeev Jabotinsky
  • Grows dissatisfied with Zionist moderates and
    their acquiescence to Britains severing of
    Transjordan from Palestinian Mandate
  • Founds Union of Zionist-Revisionists (1925) to
    maximize Jewish immigration and push for
    immediate statehood on both banks of Jordan River
  • After he leaves Palestine for lecture tour in
    1929, British never allow Jabotinsky to return

Parita ship unloading immigrants at Tel Aviv beach
As long as the Arabs feel that there is the
least hope of getting rid of us, they will refuse
to give up this hope in return for either kind
words or for bread and butter, because they are
not a rabble, but a living people. And when a
living people yields in matters of such a vital
character it is only when there is no longer any
hope of getting rid of us, because they can make
no breach in the iron wall. Jabotinsky (1923)
Zeev Jabotinsky
  • With Hitlers rise to power, Jabotinsky raises
    alarm for European Jewry and urges evacuation
    of all Eastern European Jews to Palestine (1936)
  • Works tirelessly on behalf of Jewish immigration
    to Palestine (legal and illegal)
  • Drafts will asking that his remains be moved to
    Israel only at the instructions of a Jewish
    government that shall be established
  • Becomes commander of Irgun (1937), underground
    militia that retaliates against Arab attacks and
    later fights the British
  • Dies in New York (1940) remains transferred to
    Mount Herzl in 1964
  • Legacy as forceful and prescient Zionist leader

Irgun logoAll of British Mandate and a rifle
above the wordsonly thus
I continue to warn you incessantly that a
catastrophe is coming closer, I became gray and
old in these days, my heart bleeds, that you dear
brothers and sisters, do not see the volcano
which will soon begin to spit its all consuming
lava. Jabotinsky at a speech to Jews of Warsaw
(Oct 1938)
Strains within Zionism pre-1947
  • During British Mandate, Jewish leaders have
    conflicting views regarding Zionist strategy and
  • Weizmann advocates patience and building solid
    social, educational and economic institutions in
    Palestine before creating Jewish State
  • David Ben-Gurion concentrates on founding
    socialist state settled by secular, agricultural
  • Albert Einstein and others argue against
    statehood goal should be peaceful co-existence
    with Arabs
  • Zeev Jabotinski focuses on maximizing
    immigration (without regard to type of immigrant)
    and rapidly achieving statehood

Weizmann Einstein(1921)
Peel Commission (1937)
  • During 1936-1939 Arab Revolt, British delegation
    headed by Earl Peel recommends partition, end to
    Mandate (except for Jerusalem-Jaffa corridor)
  • Jewish State to include coastal strip, Galilee,
    Jezreel Valley
  • Arab State to include hill regions, Negev, Judea
  • Commission recommends restricting Jewish
    immigration (12,000/yr) and land purchases, as
    well as population transfer
  • Arabs reject proposal and subsequently intensify
    revolt Jews are divided
  • British initially accept proposal, but later
    dismiss it as impractical (1938)

Jewish Support for Britain
  • After shelving Peel report, British issue 1939
    White Paper severely restricting Jewish
    immigration and land purchases and recommending
    formation of independent Palestine with small
    Jewish minority
  • Jews denounce this repudiation of Balfour
    Declaration, but temporarily put aside resistance
    against Britain (other than illegal immigration)
    to help defeat Nazis
  • Weizmann pushes British to form Jewish military
    force to assist in WWII, but army repeatedly
    refuses until Churchill forces the issue and
    forms Jewish Brigade with 25,000 members (1944)

Jewish Brigade guardingGerman POWs in
Italy (1945)
I like the idea of the Jews trying to get at the
murderers of their fellow countrymen in Central
Europe. It is with the Germans that they have
their quarrelI cannot conceive why this martyred
race scattered about the world and suffering as
no other race has done at this juncture should be
denied the satisfaction of having a flag.
Churchill (1944)
Jewish Resistance to Britain
  • As WWII ends, Jewish resistance to Britain
    increases, led by 3 organizations Haganah, Irgun
    and Stern Gang
  • Haganah focused on promoting illegal immigration,
    military training, sabotage
  • Irgun attacks British installations but generally
    seeks to avoid civilian casualties
  • Stern Gang, offshoot of Irgun, takes more radical
    action, including assassinations
  • Movements briefly unite (1945-46), but split
    again after King David Hotel bombing
  • After British raid Jewish Agency and arrest
    2,500 Jews, Irgun bombs British admin military
    HQ at King David Hotel
  • Warning calls given, but hotel not evacuated 91
    killed, including 17 Jews

King David Hotelafter bombing (July 1946)
UN Partition Plan (1947)
  • UK tires of Mandate announces it will turn over
    Palestine issue to UN (Feb 1947)
  • Palestine issue put before UN committee (May
    1947), which recommends partition into Jewish and
    Arab states and international zone in Jerusalem
  • General Assembly votes in favor (Nov 1947)33 to
    13, with 10 abstentions
  • Strong support from Truman (despite objections
    from State and Defense Departments) and Soviets
    (seeking to establish socialist state and reduce
    UK influence in Middle East)
  • Jewish Agency and majority of Jews support the
    partition Palestinians and Muslim states oppose

Nov 1947- May 1948 War
  • Local Arabs and foreign Arab volunteers begin
    attacking Jewish communities after partition vote
  • Arabs blockade isolated Jewish communities,
    including Jerusalem (100,000 Jews)
  • Initially, Haganah reacts defensively, focuses on
    protecting Jews and supplying isolated areas
  • In April 1948, Ben-Gurion orders Haganah to move
    to the offense to link up Jewish enclaves,
    leading to decisive victory by middle of May
  • During the war, over 200,000 Palestinian Arabs
    flee from their homes

Personally I hope the Jews do not force us into
this war because it will be a war of elimination
and it will be a dangerous massacre which history
will record similarly to the Mongol massacre or
the wars of the Crusades. Azzam Pasha,
secretary-general of the Arab league (1947)
Declaration of Independence (1948)
By virtue of our national and intrinsic right,
and on the strength of the resolution of the
United Nations General Assembly, we hereby
declare the establishment of a Jewish state in
Palestine, which shall be known as the State of
Israel. David Ben-Gurion (May 14, 1948)
War of Independence (1948)
  • Hours after declaring independence, Israel
    attacked by Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon Iraq
  • Arabs have tremendous weapons superiority
  • British actively assist Jordanian forces
  • Jordan captures Old City of Jerusalem
  • Irgun and Stern Gang unite with Haganah, renamed
    Israel Defense Forces
  • After initial setbacks, IDF halts invasion and
    launches successful counter-offensive
  • Fighting ends Dec 1948 Arabs sign armistice
    agreements in Feb-Jul 1949
  • At end of war, Israel is 5,000km2 larger than
    land allotted to it under UN Partition Plan

The best we can tell you is that we have a 50-50
chance. Chief of Operations Yigal Yadin to
1949 Armistice Lines
Altalena Affair (1948)
  • Irgun buys Altalena to smuggle weapons and 900
    fighters from France
  • While ship is en route, Irgun is absorbed into
    IDF (June 1948)
  • Head of Irgun, Menachem Begin, requests that
    weapons be allocated to Irgun battalions within
    IDF Ben-Gurion rejects request and demands that
    all weapons be handed to IDF
  • Ben-Gurion orders IDF to take ship by force IDF
    shells Altalena, setting it on fire
  • Fighting kills 16 Irgun and 3 IDF soldiers
  • Begin orders forces not to retaliate Irgun fully
    integrates into IDF (Sept 1948)

Altalena in flames after being shelled (June 1948)
There will never be a civil war. Menachem
Begin, after the Altalena affair
David Ben-Gurion
  • Born David Gruen, to Zionist family in Russian
    Poland becomes active member of Zionist youth
  • Emigrates to Palestine (1906), where he is
    elected to central committee of Social-Democratic
    Jewish Workers Party (Poalei Zion)
  • Advocates Jewish nationalism grounded in a
    collectivist society
  • Helps establish first Jewish self-defense group
    in Palestine (Hashomer)
  • Expelled by Ottomans (1915) joins Jewish Legion
    to support British in WWI
  • Returns to Palestine (1918), where he becomes
    head of Histadrut, Israels dominant trade union
  • Becomes leader of newly-formed Mapai party
    (Zionist labor party) (1930)

David Ben-Gurion (1886-1973)
David Ben-Gurion
  • Becomes chairman of Jewish Agency (de facto
    government of Palestines Jews pre-1948)
  • Under his leadership, Labor becomes strongest
    movement within World Zionist Organization
  • Focuses on Jewish immigration, establishing
    settlements and building defense forces
  • Generally supports cooperating with British, but
    moves to resistance after White Paper issued
  • Oversees Israels military operations during
    1947-1948 War and War of Independence
  • Largely responsible for creating Israels state
    institutions and guiding its path to statehood

Ben-Gurion declaringIsraels independence (May
All our aspirations are built upon the
assumption proven throughout all our activity
in the Land that there is enough room in the
country for ourselves and the Arabs.
Ben-Gurion (1937)
Palestinian Refugees
  • From 1947 Partition Resolution until end of War
    of Independence, 550,000-650,000 Arabs flee
    Israel (70 of them to West Bank Gaza)
  • Most leave either to escape the fighting or due
    to encouragement of Arab leaders, who
  • Ask them to make way for invading armies
  • Accuse Arabs who stay behind of treachery
  • Fabricate/exaggerate reports of Jewish
    atrocities, particularly after Deir Yassin
  • Arab leaders promise refugees they will be able
    to return to their homes after swift victory
  • Small minority of Arabs leave due to expulsion by
    IDF or threat of force by IDF

Palestinian refugees (1948)
Arab Encouragement of Exodus
We will smash the country with our guns and
obliterate every place the Jews seek shelter in.
The Arabs should conduct their wives and children
to safe areas until the fighting has died down
Iraqi PM Nuri Said
Since 1948 we have been demanding the return of
the refugees to their homes. But we ourselves are
the ones who encouraged them to leave Syrian
PM Haled Al-Azm (1973)
Various factors influenced Haifa Arabs
decision to seek safety in flight. There is but
little doubt that the most potent of the factors
were the announcements made over the air by the
Higher Arab Executive, urging the Arabs to
quit....It was clearly intimated that those Arabs
who remained in Haifa and accepted Jewish
protection would be regarded as renegades The
Economist magazine (October 1948)
Deir Yassin
  • During 1947-1948 war, Jerusalems Jews under
    siege food shortage critical by Apr 1948
  • On April 9, poorly-trained forces of Irgun and
    Stern Gang attack Deir Yassin (small Arab
    village) goal is to conquer it and open supply
    route to Jerusalem
  • Local villagers, helped by foreign Arab soldiers,
    fiercely resist the assault
  • 107 villagers killed some by indiscriminate
    fire, others killed after the fighting ended
  • Arab leaders deliberately exaggerate scale of the
    massacre and fabricate reports of rape in order
    to inflame foreign Arab opinion
  • These reports unintentionally sow panic among
    Palestinians, causing many to flee

Deir Yassin after the attack (April 1948)
This was our biggest mistake. We did not realize
how our people would react. As soon as they heard
that women had been raped at Deir Yassin,
Palestinians fled in terror. They ran away from
all our villages. Hazam Nusseibeh (1998), news
editor of Palestine Broadcasting Service at the
time of the attack
Palestinian Refugees Aftermath
  • After War of Independence, Israel expresses
    willingness to repatriate portion of refugees as
    part of peace agreement that would include
    resettling portion of refugees in Arab countries
  • Arabs reject resettlement and peace agreement
  • U.N. sets up U.N. Nations Relief and Works
    Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East
    (UNRWA) (1949) to provide aid to refugees
  • UNRWA extends definition of Palestinian refugee
    to include descendants, unlike all other refugees
  • Today, number of refugees exceeds 5 million
  • Jordan is only Arab country to date to provide
    citizenship to refugees

The Arab States do not want to solve the refugee
problem. They want to keep it as an open sore, as
an affront to the UN and as a weapon against
Israel. Arab leaders don't give a damn whether
the refugees live or die. Sir Alexander
Galloway, former UNRWA official (1952)
Jewish Refugees
  • 1947 Partition Resolution leads to pogroms across
    Arab countries
  • From 1948 until early 1970s, over 800,000 Jews
    flee from Arab countries due to combination of
    expulsion, violence and repression
  • Over 70 of Jewish refugees absorbed by Israel,
    where they are given citizenship
  • Initially housed in tent camps and transit camps
  • Refugees pose enormous burden on nascent Jewish
    state, but are gradually absorbed into society
    (without any UN support)

Israeli Transit Camp (1950)
The lives of one million Jews in Muslim
countries would be jeopardized by partition,
which might create anti-Semitism in those
countries even more difficult to root out than
the anti-Semitism which the Allies tried to
eradicate in Germany. Egyptian delegate to UN
Israeli Airlifts of Jewish Refugees
Operations Ezra Nehemiah
Operation Magic Carpet
Israel airlifts 130,000 Jews from Iraq (1950-52)
Israel airlifts 49,000 Jews from Yemen (1949-50)
Every Jew has the right to come to this country
as an oleh. Israels Law of Return (1950)
Dead Sea Scrolls
  • Bedouin shepherd discovers 7 scrolls in cave at
    Qumran, near Dead Sea (1947) sells them to
    antique dealers, who later sell them to Jewish
    archaeologists Sukenik (1948) and Yadin (1954)
  • Additional scrolls discovered (1949-1956),
    bringing total to 972
  • Scrolls kept in E. Jerusalem museum, controlled
    by Jordan until Israel unites Jerusalem in
    Six-Day War (1967) Israel currently owns most
  • Scrolls date from late Second Temple era ( 200
    BC 100 AD) and consist of earliest copies of
    Old Testament books, non-Biblical works and
    contemporary documents
  • Scrolls widely considered to have been written by
    Essenes, an ascetic Jewish sect who hid the
    scrolls during revolt against Romans (70 AD)
  • Scrolls are invaluable source of info regarding
    Jewish life during Second Temple era

Qumran cave 4, in which 90 of Dead Sea Scrolls
Isaiah Scroll containing complete Book of Isaiah
Fedayeen Attacks (1951-1956)
  • Palestinian terrorists known as fedayeen
    (self-sacrificers) periodically infiltrate
    Israel from Syria, West Bank, Gaza and Egypt to
    attack soldiers and civilians (starting in 1951)
  • Egypt, under leadership of Gamal Abdel Nasser
    (colonel who led 1952 military coup), begins to
    train and support fedayeen (1954)
  • Over 400 Israelis are killed and 900 wounded in
    fedayeen raids (1951-1956)
  • Ben-Gurion creates Unit 101, led by Ariel
    Sharon, to launch cross-border raids in
    retaliation against fedayeen attacks (1953)

Egypt has decided to dispatch her heroes, the
disciples of Pharaoh and the sons of Islam and
they will cleanse the land of Palestine....There
will be no peace on Israel's border because we
demand vengeance, and vengeance is Israel's
death. Nasser (1955)
Suez War (1956)
  • In defiance of 1949 armistice agreement and UN
    resolutions, Egypt closes Suez Canal to Israeli
    shipping and blockades Straits of Tiran
  • Nasser begins to import Soviet arms, leading US
    to withdraw funding for building Aswan Dam
  • In response, Nasser nationalizes Suez Canal,
    which was owned by UK and France (Jul 1956)
  • Egypt signs agreement with Syria and Jordan,
    giving it command over all 3 armies (Oct 1956)
  • In response to Egypts blockades, sponsorship of
    fedayeen attacks and belligerent declarations,
    Israel attacks Egypt (Oct 29, 1956)
  • Israel has secret backing of UK and France, who
    sought to topple Nasser and regain canal

Gamel Abdel Nasser (1918-1970)
The Arab people will not be embarrassed to
declare We shall not be satisfied except by the
final obliteration of Israel from the map of the
Middle East. Egyptian Foreign Minister (1954)
Suez War (1956)
  • Israel captures Gaza and virtually all of Sinai
    in 8 days
  • UK and France bomb Egypt and land paratroops near
    canal zone, but withdraw quickly due to massive
    US pressure
  • US previously asked UK and France not to attack
    Egypt after canal nationalization
  • US wants diplomatic cover to criticize USSRs
    suppression of Hungarian uprising
  • Israel refuses to withdraw, prompting major
    crisis with US, but ultimately relents (Mar 1957)
    in exchange for US commitment to maintain
    freedom of Suez Canal navigation and stationing
    of UN peacekeepers in Sinai
  • Suez War leads to increase in prestige of Nasser
    and USSR in Middle East

Eichmann Trial (1960-1962)
  • Senior Nazi in charge of managing logistics of
    Holocaust, especially deportation of Jews to
    death camps
  • Avoids Nuremberg Trials and escapes to Argentina
    as Ricardo Klement (1950)
  • Mossad tipped off to his whereabouts and sends
    team to Argentina (1959) team captures Eichmann
    and covertly flies him to Israel (1960)
  • In highly emotional trial, Eichmann convicted on
    all counts and becomes only person Israel ever
    sentenced to death (1961)
  • Hanged ashes scattered at sea (1962)

Eichmann on trial inbulletproof chamber (1961)
the so-called Final Solution would never have
assumed the infernal forms of the flayed skin and
tortured flesh of millions of Jews without the
fanatical zeal and the unquenchable blood thirst
of the appellant and his associates. excerpt
from verdict by Israels Supreme Court (1962)
Palestinian Attacks (pre-1967)
  • Yasser Arafat co-founds Fatah (conquest) in
    Kuwait (1959) in order to liberate Palestine
  • Backed by Syria and operating from Jordan,
    Lebanon and Gaza, Fatah launches dozens of
    attacks per year against Israeli civilians
    (starting in 1964)
  • Separately, Palestine Liberation Organization
    founded in East Jerusalem (1964), with support of
    Nasser, to represent Palestinian national cause
  • Fatah grows to become dominant faction within PLO

Yasser Arafat (1929-2004)
Palestine National Charter (1964) The Balfour
Declaration, the Palestine Mandate System, and
all that has been based on them are considered
null and void. The claims of historic and
spiritual ties between Jews and Palestine are not
in agreement with the facts of history or with
the true basis of sound statehood. Article
18 Zionism is a colonialist movement in its
inception, aggressive and expansionist in its
goal, racist in its configurations, and fascist
in its means and aims. Article 19
PLO logo
Eli Cohen
  • Born in Egypt to Syrian Jews moves to Israel
  • Recruited by military intelligence and
    transferred to Mossad for training (1960) given
    new identity as Kamel Amin Thaabet, a Syrian
    living in Argentina
  • Moves to Buenos Aires (1961) and then to Damascus
    (1962) befriends Syrias political and military
  • Given private, senior-level tour of Golan
    Heights, where he memorizes Syrian military
  • Provides invaluable intelligence to Israel on
    Syrian military plans and preparations to divert
    Jordan River headwaters
  • Syria hires Soviet experts to discover
    intelligence leak Soviets detect Cohens radio
    transmission to Israel
  • Syria captures Cohen, tries him in show trial,
    tortures and hangs him (1965) body never
    returned to Israel

Eli Cohen (1924-1965) Israels greatest spy
Prelude to Six-Day War (1967)
  • Syria shells Israel from Golan Heights
    (1965-1967) in retaliatory raid, Israel downs 6
    Syrian fighter jets (Apr 1967)
  • Based on false info provided by USSR about
    Israels plans, Syria readies for war and asks
    Egypt for support
  • Nasser amasses forces and orders UN to leave
    Sinai (May 16) UN complies
  • Egypt closes Straits of Tiran to Israeli and
    Israel-bound ships, an act of war (May 18)
  • Israeli forces stay mobilized for weeks, at great
  • US, France impose arms embargo on Mideast, mostly
    affecting Israel Soviets heavily arm Arabs

Relative strength ofArab and Israeli militaries
(Jun 1967)
Arab Declarations Preceding War
I, as a military man, believe that the time has
come to enter into a battle of annihilation
Syrian DM al-Assad (May 20)
Our basic objective will be the destruction of
Israel. The Arab people want to fight Nasser
(May 27)
The armies of Egypt, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon
are poised on the borders of Israel...to face the
challenge, while standing behind us are the
armies of Iraq, Algeria, Kuwait, Sudan and the
whole Arab nation. This act will astound the
world. Today they will know that the Arabs are
arranged for battle, the critical hour has
arrived. We have reached the stage of serious
action and not declarations Nasser (May 30)
The existence of Israel is an error which must
be rectified. This is our opportunity to wipe out
the ignominy which has been with us since 1948.
Our goal is clear -- to wipe Israel off the map
Iraqi President Abdur Rahman Aref (June 1)
Six-Day War Egyptian Front
  • Israeli FM Abba Eban spends nearly two weeks
    visiting US and EU to defuse crisis
  • Eban fails despite US and EU pressure for
    Israeli restraint, Israeli cabinet decides to
    attack (Jun 4)
  • At 745am on Jun 5, virtually entire Israeli air
    force strikes Egypts airbases, destroying most
    of Egypts air force on the ground in 2.5 hrs
  • Simultaneously, Israel launches complex ground
    attack against fortified Egyptian positions in
    Sinai and Gaza
  • Egyptian army begins retreat (Jun 6) Israel
    continues offensive and routs remaining forces,
    capturing Gaza and Sinai (Jun 8)

Egyptian warplanes destroyed on tarmac (1967)
Six-Day War Jordanian Front
  • Egypt tells Jordan that it destroyed 75 of
    Israels warplanes and urges Jordan to attack
    Israel (Jun 5)
  • Jordanian artillery and air force attack central
    Israel Israel does not respond (Jun 5)
  • Israeli PM Eshkol sends message to Jordans King
    Hussein indicating that, if you dont intervene,
    you will suffer no consequences (Jun 5)
    instead, Jordan escalates attacks and invades
  • Israel counterattacks by end of Jun 5, Israel
    wipes out Jordanian air force and isolates
    Jerusalem from Jordanian forces in West Bank
  • Israel captures all of Jerusalem, including the
    Old City, after two days of fierce fighting (Jun
  • In parallel, Israel defeats Jordanian army in
    West Bank, capturing all of it by Jun 7

Israeli paratroopers after recapturing Western
Wall (1967)
Six-Day War Syrian Front
  • Syrian jets raid northern Israel IAF response
    destroys 59 Syrian planes, mostly on the ground
    (Jun 5)
  • Syria launches ground offensive Israel defends
    itself but does not counterattack due to shortage
    of available forces (Jun 6-8)
  • Syria accepts UN cease-fire, but re-launches
    attacks 5 hrs later (Jun 8)
  • Israel strikes back and shifts forces from
    Egyptian and Jordanian fronts to Syrian front
  • IDF nears key Syrian city of Quneitra in effort
    to provoke Soviet intervention, Syria falsely
    announces Israel has captured the city (Jun 10)
  • Move backfires, leading Syrian forces to flee en
    masse Israel captures Golan Heights and Six-Day
    War ends (Jun 10)

View of Israel fromSyrian tank on Golan
Heights (1967)
Six-Day War Aftermath
  • By wars end, Israel has more than tripled in
  • During war, 300,000 Arabs flee from West Bank to
    Jordan Israel ultimately allows 60,000 to return
  • Israeli govt unanimously votes to return Sinai
    to Egypt and Golan to Syria for peace agreements
    and to negotiate with Jordan (Jun 19)
  • Israel annexes Eastern Jerusalem (Jun 27)
  • Israel gives control over Temple Mount to
    Jordanian Waqf (Islamic trust) Jews allowed to
    visit, but not pray, at Temple Mount
  • Leaders of 13 Arab countries meet in Sudan and
    resolve that there will be no peace, no
    recognition and no negotiation with Israel (Sep
  • Egyptian missile boat sinks Israeli destroyer
    Eilat, killing 47 (Oct 21) Israel destroys
    Egyptian refineries in retaliation (Oct 25)

Israel after Six-Day War (1967)
U.N. Resolution 242
  • Arabs, USSR and their allies call for Israeli
    withdrawal to 1949 armistice lines, but after
    months of negotiations USSR relents and votes for
    Resolution 242, drafted primarily by UK and US
    (Nov 22)
  • English text of resolution (determinative version
    voted on by Security Council) calls for just and
    lasting peace including
  • Withdrawal of Israel armed forces from
    territories occupied in the recent conflict
    (i.e., not the territories or all the
  • Right for every state to live in peace within
    secure and recognized boundaries free from
    threats or acts of force

Lord Caradon (Permanent UK representative to UN
and chief drafter of Resolution 242) We didn't
say there should be a withdrawal to the '67 line
we did not put the the in, we did not say all
the territories deliberately. We all knew that
the boundaries of '67 were not drawn as permanent
frontiers, they were a cease-fire line of a
couple of decades earlier. 1978
Arthur Goldberg (Permanent US representative to
UN and drafter of Resolution 242) The
resolution does not explicitly require that
Israel withdraw to the lines that it occupied on
June 5The notable omissions in language used to
refer to withdrawal are the words the, all,
and the June 5, 1967, lines. 1988
War of Attrition (1968-1970)
  • After Six-Day War ends, Egypt sporadically
    launches artillery attacks against Israeli
    positions near Suez Canal
  • Nasser formally announces War of Attrition and
    increases intensity of attacks (Mar 1969)
  • USSR re-arms Egypt and provides it with fighter
    pilots and other military personnel
  • IDF responds with strikes deep in Egypt
  • Fear of crisis escalation leads Nixon to
    intervene and broker ceasefire that restores
    status quo (Aug 1970)
  • Hostilities end after Nasser dies and Anwar Sadat
    assumes power (Sep 1970)
  • Over 1,500 Israelis (incl. 120 civilians) and
    10,000 Egyptians killed

Israeli soldier monitoringSuez Canal
Munich Massacre (1972)
  • At 1972 Olympics, 8 armed members of PLOs Black
    September faction break into apartment of Israeli
    athletes in Olympic Village (Sep 5)
  • 2 Israelis killed while resisting 9 taken
  • Athletes resistance enables 3 Israelis to escape
    and 7 to hide unharmed
  • Palestinians demand Israel release over 230
    prisoners Israel refuses
  • West Germans allow helicopters to transport
    terrorists and hostages to NATO air base, where
    they plan an ambush
  • Ambush is badly mishandled, leading to shootout
    in which all 9 hostages and one police officer
    are killed
  • 5 terrorists killed, 3 captured

PLO terrorist on balcony of Israeli team quarters
I regret nothing. You can only dream that I
would apologize. PLO attack planner Abu Daoud
Munich Massacre Aftermath
  • Olympic Games are briefly suspended, but are then
    allowed to continue
  • Israel bombs 10 PLO bases in Syria and Lebanon,
    killing 200 fighters (Sep 8)
  • Palestinians hijack Lufthansa jet and demand
    release of 3 captured Munich terrorists(Oct 29)
    West Germany complies with demand
  • Israel launches covert operation to kill
    terrorists involved with Munich Massacre dozens
    are assassinated in Europe and Middle East over
    next 20 years

Helicopter carrying Israeli hostages Bombed by
terrorists during failed West German ambush at
NATO air base
Prelude to Yom Kippur War (1973)
  • Sadat repeatedly threatens to attack Israel, but
    does nothing (1971-1972)
  • Egypt prepares to cross Suez Canal Israel
    partially mobilizes reserves, at high cost, but
    Egypt does not attack (May 1973)
  • In reconnaissance mission, IAF attacked by Syrian
    jets IAF downs 12 Syrian aircraft while losing 1
    (Sep 1973)
  • Israeli intelligence aware of massive Egyptian
    and Syrian military deployments, but is convinced
    they wont attack so soon after their Six-Day War
  • Attitude reinforced by multiple false alarms and
    deliberate Egyptian deception campaign
  • Israel receives indisputable intelligence on eve
    of war that Egyptian attack is imminent PM Golda
    Meir rejects pre-emptive strike so as to preserve
    US support, which would prove critical during the

Anwar Sadat (1918-1981)
Yom Kippur War Egyptian Front
  • On Yom Kippur, Egypt launches massive air and
    ground attack against Israel (Oct 6) Egyptian
    troops cross Suez Canal and penetrate 10km into
    Sinai by Oct 7
  • IDF suffers major losses Egypts new
    anti-aircraft batteries and anti-tank weapons
    effectively defeat IDF counter-attacks (Oct 6-8)
  • Stalemate ensues until Egypt decides to attack
    beyond range of its anti-aircraft batteries in
    order to relieve pressure on Syria (Oct 14)
  • Attack fails bolstered by US weapons airlift,
    Israel counter-attacks, causing massive losses,
    and crosses Suez Canal
  • IDF encircles Egypts Third Army (Oct 23) and is
    101km from Cairo as cease-fire negotiated between
    US and USSR gradually takes effect (Oct 22

Egyptian forces crossing Suez Canal (Oct 7, 1973)
Yom Kippur War Syrian Front
  • Simultaneously with Egypts attack, Syria
    launches massive air and artillery strikes
    against Israel and initiates ground invasion (Oct
  • Proximity of Golan Heights to Israeli cities
    leads IDF to prioritize reserve mobilization for
    Syrian front
  • IDF suffers major losses but manages to limit
    Syrias territorial gains
  • Arrival of reserves enables IDF to push Syrian
    forces back behind pre-war ceasefire line (Oct
  • PM Golda Meir decides to press counter-offensive
    into Syria rather than re-allocate forces to
    Egyptian front, in spite of continued IDF
    difficulties in Sinai (Oct 11) IDF captures
    territory beyond pre-war ceasefire line and stops
    40km from Damascus
  • After being re-supplied by USSR, Syrian President
    al-Assad considers new offensive but decides to
    accept ceasefire (Oct 23)

Hafez al-Assad (1930-2000)
Yom Kippur War Aftermath
  • Ceasefire leads to armistice agreements in which
    Israel and Egypt withdraw from captured territory
    and UN observer force stationed in demilitarized
    zones in Sinai and Golan Heights (Jan and May
  • Israeli intelligence failure and casualty count
    (2,500 killed) leads to protests and appointment
    of Agranat Commission to investigate failures
  • Commission recommends dismissal of IDF Chief of
    Staff, Head of Military Intelligence and Head of
    Southern Command
  • PM Golda Meir and Defense Minister Moshe Dayan
    absolved of responsibility but ultimately accede
    to public calls for their resignation (Apr 1974)
  • Israel seen as wars victor, but Egypts early
    success pierces Israels perception of
    invincibility and improves Arab morale,
    ultimately giving impetus to Israel-Egypt
    negotiations resulting in 1979 peace accord

Captured by Israel
Captured by Egypt
Ceasefire lines at end of Yom Kippur War (1973)
Moshe Dayan
  • Born on Kibbutz Degania Alef to Ukrainian
  • Joins Haganah at age 14 to defend Jewish
    settlements from Arab attacks imprisoned for 2
    years after UK outlaws Haganah (1939-1941)
  • Joins British Army unit assigned to reconnoiter
    Vichy Lebanon prior to Allied invasion on
    mission, Dayan loses left eye when his binoculars
    are shot (1941)
  • During War of Independence, commands Jordan
    Valley sector and Jerusalem front (1947-1948)
    highly involved in armistice negotiations
    w/Jordan (1949)
  • Elected IDF Chief of Staff (1953)
  • Advocates deep retaliatory raids in enemy
    territory in response to Arab terrorism
  • Revamps IDF to make it more aggressive and daring

Moshe Dayan (1915-1981)
Moshe Dayan
  • Personally leads IDF in Suez War (1956)
  • Retires from IDF and enters politics elected to
    Knesset as member of Labor party (1959)
  • Appointed Defense Minister in run-up to Six-Day
    War (1967) personally oversees capture of
    eastern Jerusalem from Jordan
  • As Defense Minister during Yom Kippur War, Dayan
    nearly suffers nervous breakdown
  • At news conference, Dayan nearly mentions
    downfall of the Third Temple i.e., Israel
    but PM Meir prevents him from speaking
  • Resigns (1974) after public blames him for IDFs
    unpreparedness for Yom Kippur attack
  • Appointed by PM Begin as Foreign Minister (1977)
    leads peace negotiations with Egypt

Dayan entering the Lions Gate of Jerusalem after
Six-Day War (1967)
Moshe Dayan
  • Resigns as Foreign Minister (1979) due to
    disagreements with Begin regarding approach to
    West Bank and Gaza
  • Forms Telem party (1981), advocating unilateral
    withdrawal from territories captured in 1967
    party wins just 2 seats in elections
  • Dies of colon cancer (Oct 1981)
  • Remembered as bold but controversial leader with
    an unpredictable and mercurial approach to
    military and political affairs

Dayan as Foreign Minister arriving in the
US (1978)
We are a generation that settles the land and
without the steel helmet and the canon's maw, we
will not be able to plant a tree and build a
home. Let us not be deterred from seeing the
loathing that is inflaming and filling the lives
of the hundreds of thousands of Arabs who live
around us. Let us not avert our eyes lest our
arms weaken. from Dayans eulogy of kibbutz
resident Roi Rutenberg, who was ambushed and
murdered by Egyptian soldiers near Gaza (Apr 19,
Zvika Greengold
  • Born and raised on Kibbutz Lohamey HaGetaot
    (Kibbutz of the Ghetto Fighters)
  • While on leave, hears about surprise
    Egyptian/Syrian attack (1973) hitchhikes to
    Golan Heights, where he is put in charge of 2
    repaired tanks
  • Over next few days, Zvika fights in numerous
    battles without rest, destroying 20-40 Syrian
  • Continues fighting after being wounded and burned
  • Changes tanks half a dozen times after his
    tanks are knocked out
  • Often fights alone, successfully deceiving
    Syrians that he is part of much larger unit
    (Zvika Force)
  • Awarded Israels highest medal for heroism
  • After business career, is elected mayor of Ofakim

Zvi (Zvika) Greengold (born 1952)
Golda Meir
  • Born Golda Mabovich, in Kiev moves to Milwaukee
    (1906) and joins Labor Zionist group in high
  • Immigrates to Palestine (1921) and rises in the
    ranks of Histadrut, the largest trade union
  • Becomes head of Jewish Agencys Political Dept
    (1946) raises large sums of money from US Jews
    to purchase arms for Israel
  • Travels to Jordan dressed as Arab to ask King
    Abdullah not to attack Israel (May 1948) he
  • Becomes Foreign Minister (1956-1966) builds ties
    with African and Latin American countries
  • Becomes Prime Minister upon death of PM Eshkol
    (1969) accepts US proposal to end War of
    Attrition with Egypt (1970)
  • Orders Mossad to assassinate perpetrators of
    Munich Massacre (1972)

Golda Meir (1898-1978)
Peace will come when the Arabs will love their
children more than they hate us. (1957)
Golda Meir
  • Hours before onset of Yom Kippur War, Meir given
    conflicting advice from senior defense officials
  • DM Dayan believes war unlikely recommends
    limited reserves call-up and no pre-emptive
  • Chief of Staff Elazar recommends full
    mobilization and pre-emptive strike on Syria
  • Meir decides on larger-scale reserves call-up and
    no pre-emptive strike, so as not to antagonize US
  • Ultimately, IDFs belated mobilization and
    massive US weapons airlift prove critical to
    Israels victory
  • Still, public blames Meir for IDFs
    unpreparedness for Yom Kippur War, and she
    resigns (1974)
  • Dies of lymphatic cancer (1978)
  • Remembered as strong-willed leader and highly
    effective spokesperson on behalf of Jewish State

Golda Meir (1898-1978)
I am also grateful that I live in a country
whose people have learned how to go on living in
a sea of hatred without hating those who want to
destroy them and without abandoning their own
vision of peace. (1975)
Entebbe Rescue (1976)
  • Air France jet hijacked by 2 Palestinian and 2
    German terrorists and flown to Entebbe Airport in
    Uganda, where they are joined by 4 other
    terrorists and dozens of local soldiers provided
    by Ugandan tyrant, Idi Amin (June 27, 1976)
  • Terrorists release non-Jewish passengers Jews
    remain captive and planes crew, in support of
    hostages, refuses to leave
  • Terrorists threaten to execute hostages Jul 1
    unless Israel releases 53 prisoners
  • Israel offers to negotiate if deadline pushed to
    Jul 4 terrorists agree
  • Meantime, Israel prepares rescue raid
  • Israeli firm had built Entebbe Airport provides
    blueprints to IDF
  • Released hostages also provide helpful intel

Terminal at Entebbe in which 106 hostages were
Entebbe Rescue (1976)
  • Israel sends aircraft carrying 200 elite troops
    on 7.5 hour flight to Entebbe (Jul 3)
  • Planes land undetected (Jul 4) troops led by Lt.
    Col. Yonatan Netanyahu approach terminal
    disguised as Idi Amins convoy, including a
    replica of Amins black Mercedes
  • Other troops secure perimeter and destroy 30
    Ugandan MiG fighter jets on the ground
  • In operation lasting lt1 hour, troops kill all 8
    terrorists and over 30 Ugandan soldiers
  • IDF evacuates 102 hostages 3 hostages killed in
    firefight and 1 who was in hospital later killed
    by Ugandan army
  • Lt. Col Netanyahu killed while evacuating
    hostages sole IDF commando killed in raid

Yonatan Netanyahu(1946-1976)
As I don't intend to tell my grandchildren about
the Jewish State in the 20th century as a mere
brief and transient episode in thousands of years
of wandering, I intend to hold on here with all
my might. Yoni Netanyahu, in letter to brother
Benjamin (Dec 1973)
Rescue of Vietnamese Boat People (1977-1979)
  • Victory of North Vietnamese communists leads to
    exodus of Vietnamese seeking to escape
    persecution (1975) many flee via rickety boats
  • Israeli cargo ship passes by boat with 66
    Vietnamese lacking food water (Jun 1977) its
    SOS signals had been ignored by East German,
    Norwegian, Japanese and Panamanian boats
  • Israeli Captain Meir Tadmor provides them food
    water and transports them to Hong Kong Taiwan,
    both of whom deny docking rights since the
    refugees lack citizenship
  • In his first official act as PM, Begin provides
    refugees w/Israeli citizenship Taiwan then
    allows boat to dock and refugees fly to Israel
  • From 1977-1979, Israel welcomes over 300
    Vietnamese refugees

Vietnamese refugee in Israel
We never have forgotten the boat with 900 Jews
the St. Louis, having left Germany in the last
weeks before the Second World War... traveling
from harbor to harbor, from country to country,
crying out for refuge. They were
refused...Therefore it was natural to give those
people a haven in the land of Israel. PM Begin
to Pres. Carter (Jul 19, 1977)
Camp David Accords (1978)
  • US President Carter tries to forge peace treaty
    between Israel and Arab world
  • Skeptical of Carters approach, Begin and Sadat
    launch secret bilateral negotiations
  • Sadat becomes
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