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47 Hot Topics for Global History


Title: 47 Hot Topics for Global History Author: CHURCHVILLE CHILI CENTRAL SCH Last modified by: jhauck Created Date: 6/10/2002 6:02:58 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 47 Hot Topics for Global History

47 Hot Topics for Global History
  • (Info to Know to Beat the Exam)

Goals of this Packet
  • TODAY well go over some brief notes on 47 hot
  • TOMORROW YOU read back over the notes and also
    the multiple choice questions
  • WHY? The Regents people are lazier than
    you.they repeat the questions..
  • Find more like this at http//www.regentsprep.org

1. Vocabulary
  • traditional society-culture in which the man
    works, woman takes care of family, usually in
  • cultural diffusion- spreading of goods and ideas
    from one culture to another
  • isolation-country stays out of contact with
    outside world (Japan China did this)
  • self-determination-country wants to control its
    own future

2. Religions
  • Religion Islam
  • Area of the World Middle East
  • Key Beliefs Five Pillars of Wisdom Jihad-hol
    y war
  • Holy Book Koran

2. Religions
  • Religion Judaism
  • Area of the World Middle East (Israel)
  • Key Beliefs monotheistic Old
    Testament prophets
  • Holy Book Torah (first 5 books of Old Testament)

2. Religions
  • Religion Christianity
  • Area of the World All over--especially western
  • Key Beliefs monotheistic Golden Rule (Do
    unto others) Jesus/God
  • Holy Book Bible

2. Religions
  • Religion Buddhism
  • Area of the World Started in India, mostly in
  • Key Beliefs Noble Eightfold Path reincarnati
    on nirvana
  • Holy Book No sacred book

2. Religions
  • Religion Hinduism
  • Area of the World India
  • Key Beliefs caste system reincarnation
    karma/dharma moksha
  • Holy Book No sacred book Vedas (prayers)
    Upanishads (descriptions of origins of universe)

2. Religions
  • Religion Animism
  • Area of the World Tribal religion-Africa
    Latin America
  • Key Beliefs All living things have a spirit
  • Holy Book No holy book

3. Ancient River Civilizations
  • Examples Tigris/Euphrates (MesopotamiaFertile
    Crescent) Nile River Indus
    River Yellow/Yangtze (Yuang Chang)
  • Why settle on rivers? Fertile soil,
    transportation, irrigation

4. Ancient Civilizations
  • Ancient civilizations used advanced
    _technology_____ for their times. example

5. Hammurabis Code
  • Eye for an __eye_____written law code of
    ancient Babylon

6. Golden Ages
  • Golden Ages are a time of ___advanced___
    learning, a high point of civilization.

7. Ghana/Mali/Songhai
  • ancient African kingdoms known for ___trade_____
    and having pretty __complex_____ societies.

8. Byzantine Empire
  • empire in the Middle East during the 500s
  • emperor Justianian wrote Justinians Code, a
    written legal code
  • culturally diffused the cyrillic __alphabet__ and
    eastern Orthodox Christianity to ___Russia___

9. Crusades
  • What were they? Holy wars by the Christians from
    Europe trying to take back the Holy Land from the
  • Who won? Muslims
  • What did they cause? Cultural diffusion--new
    ideas went back to Europe and brought on

10. Catholic Church during Middle Ages
  • What was the role of the Catholic Church? Total
    control of the peoples lives--center of their
    world provided order stability
  • What could happen to someone who didnt follow
    the rules of the Catholic Church?get
    excommunicated (couldnt go to heaven or even
    speak to someone in church)

11. Protestant Reformation
  • Who started it? Why? Martin Luther didnt like
    what the Catholic Church was doing--selling
    indulgences and other abuses. He nailed his 95
    Theses to the door of a church.
  • What were the results? Decline in power of
    Catholic Church

12. Renaissance
  • The Renaissance was a period in Europe where
    there was a _rebirth_ in learning. It built on
    the ideas from ancient __Greece__ and __Rome__.
  • Humanism-focus on humans

13. Spanish Conquerors
  • Spanish conquistadores took over most of Central
    and _South_____ America.
  • They brought the Spanish language,
    __disease______, and the Catholic Church.
  • They defeated native peoples using advanced
    technology and __weapons__________.

14. Mercantilism
  • an economic system in which the mother countries
    takes _raw_____ materials from the colony and
    then uses the colony as a market_____ for
    finished goods

15. Absolutism
  • definitionOne ruler is in total control of the
  • examples of absolute rulers
  • Louis XIV from France Sun King Elizabeth I
    from England
  • Catherine the Great Peter the Great Russian,
    modernized westernized

16. Scientific Revolution
  • definition time when people started to use
    __natural_______ laws and the scientific
    ___method____,instead of traditional teachings to
    interpret the universe
  • examples of scientists Newton, Copernicus,
    Galileo, Descartes

17. Limited Monarchy
  • type of government in which the monarch
    (king/queen) has to share the __power__ with the
  • Example Parliament in England
  • Magna Cartalimits the power of the King of
  • Bill of Rightsgives people some rights limits
    power of King/Queen

18. Enlightenment
  • period in European history where philosophers
    challenged traditional teachings
  • use of _reason________
  • said people deserve the right to __life_____,
    liberty, _property____
  • examples Locke, Voltaire,Montesquieu

19. French Revolution
  • description Peasants and ordinary people of
    France were poor, overtaxed, didnt have any
    rights, abused by the king. Peasants overthrew
    the government and tried to kill many nobility
    during the Reign of _terror________
  • Leaders Louis XVI Marie Antoinette (king
    queen, beheaded) Robespierre (led the Committee
    of Public Safety)
  • effect spread the ideas of liberty, equality,
    and _fraternity_ across Europe

20. Karl Marx
  • wrote the __communist_____ Manifesto
  • hated the abuses/problems of the Industrial
  • believed the workers or have-nots (also known
    as the _proletariat____) would overthrow the
    owners or haves (also known as the

21. European Imperialism
  • definition of imperialism stronger _country_
    takes over weaker country
  • Europeans imperialized most of ___Africa_,
    Southeast_Asia___, and parts of Latin _America_
  • The Europeans didnt care about existing tribes
    or anything. They just wanted raw __materials_
    and markets.

22. Meiji Restoration
  • After Matthew Perry opened Japan up for trade
    with the rest of the world, the Japanese
    government decided to _modernize_______ and
    industrialize their country. This was known as
    the Meiji Restoration

23. Nationalist Leaders
  • wanted to free their countries of foreign rule
    wanted ____independence_
  • wanted their countries to be unified
  • examples Ho Chi Minh, Simon Bolivar, Jomo
    Kenyatta, Toussaint LOverture, Kwame Nkrumah,
    Cavour, Mazzini, Garibaldi

24. Japanese Imperialism
  • When Japan began to modernize, they needed
    natural resources. Being a volcanic island
    nation (archipelago), they did not have the
    necessary __raw materials__ and decided to
    imperialize to get them.

25. World War I
  • 4 Main Causes Militarism_________________ Allianc
    e System_________ Imperialism____________Nationa
  • assassination of Archduke Ferdinand in Sarajevo
    (Balkan Mountains) started the wararea was known
    as the powderkeg of Europe
  • Central Powers (Triple Alliance) vs. Allies
    (Triple Entente)
  • Treaty of __Versailles_____ ended the war
    punishing Germany very harshly

26. Russian Revolution
  • The people of Russia were not satisfied with the
    rule of Czar Nicholar II.
  • People were starving and they were oppressed
    without any political rights.
  • World War I made the problem worse.
  • In 1917, the __Communist__ party (the Bolsheviks)
    took over.

27. Joseph Stalin
  • Stalin ruled with an iron fist in the communist
    Soviet Union.
  • He used his secret _police_, a forced __famine___
    in the Ukraine, and the Great Purges to eliminate
    any and all ___opposition___ to his rule.
  • Had 5 Year _Plans_ to catch up industrially to
    the rest of the world
  • collectiveslarge government farms

28. Command Economy
  • People were told what to produce, where to work,
    etc.. by the ___government_____.

29. Hitler Mussolini
  • Fascist leaders (believed in glorification of the
    _state__) rose to power in Germany Italy during
    the 1930s
  • They promised to get their people out of the
    economic depression.

30. Cold War
  • Time after World War II when the United States
    and Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.) were not fighting
    each other directly, but helped opposing
  • battle of communism (U.S.S.R.) vs. capitalism
  • U.S. foreign policy _____containment___ do
    anything to stop the spread of communism
  • examples of Events Berlin Airlift, Berlin Wall,
    NATO, Warsaw Pact, Marshall Plan, Truman
    Doctrine, U2 Incident, Cuban Missile Crisis

31. Gandhi/India
  • Gandhi fought to get Indias independence from
    __Britain____ using nonviolent resistance such as
    hunger strikes, _____homespun___ cloth, and the
    Salt March
  • After independence, India split into Hindu India
    and _Muslim__ Pakistan

32. United Nations
  • International peacekeeping organization formed
    after ___World War II_________
  • made up of a Security Council and the General

33. Soviet Union During Cold War
  • command economy
  • no political _rights_, brutal harsh control

34. Mao Zedong Chinese Communism
  • Communist leader in China following World War II
  • Had support of the _peasants_ focused on
  • Used the Great _Leap__ Forward and established
    large communes
  • Cultural _Revolution_____ movement to reteach
    basic communist ideas using the Little Red Book
    of Chinese Communism

35. Cambodia
  • Pol __Pot____ and the Khmer Rouge killed 2
    million people in a mass genocide
  • Wanted to establish a communist regime

36. Deng Xiaoping
  • Ruler in China after Mao Zedong
  • Made many economic changes, allowing some
    elements of _capitalism__________
  • Four Modernizations
  • Allowed economic change, but not political
    freedomsi.e. Tianenmen Square

37. Collapse of U.S.S.R.
  • Communism was not working in the Soviet
  • Gorbachev made reforms such as glasnost
    (__openness____) and perestroika (allowing some
    capitalist elements)
  • Now the U.S.S.R. is the Commonwealth of
    Independent Nations-15 independent capitalist
    nations, but theyre very poor

38. Cuba
  • Under the leadership of Fidel ___Castro____, Cuba
    is a Communist country with no economic ties to
    the United States
  • Cuba used to get support from the U.S.S.R.
    (Soviet Union), but the U.S.S.R. and many other
    communist countries have since fallen apart

39. Arab-Israeli Conflict
  • Jewish (Israelis) and Muslims (Palestinians) are
    fighting over the land of _Israel/Palestine__,
    given to Israel after WWII. Both have religious
    and historical claims to the area.
  • Britain fist suggested in 1917 with the Balfour
    Declaration that the Jews deserve a homeland.
  • Peace talks have attempted to negotiate a
    compromise (Camp David _Accords_, 1979) but no
    peace yet.
  • Israeli troops occupy forcefully Palestinian
    territories of the Gaza _Strip, West _Bank_, and
    Golan __Heights._

40. Islamic Fundamentalism
  • movement to go back to basic Muslim
  • antiwestern, antidemocratic, antimodern
  • examples Iranian Revolutionoverthrow of _Shah_
    Reza Pahlavi by Ayatollah Khomeini (1979),
    Taliban Government in Afganistan

41. European Union
  • trade agreement between European countries
    designed to improve their _economies____
  • most use the EURO as their currency

42. Green Revolution
  • using new ___technology______ to improve crop
    yields and be able to feed more people using less
    amounts of land

  • trade agreement between the U.S., Canada, Mexico
    aimed at being able to compete with the European
    Union and improve _economies___
  • many U.S. businesses moving to Mexico for cheap

44. Latin America 1990s
  • Economies are often based on a single __cash_
  • Much drug trafficking Struggling to
  • Catholic Church is importantliberation
    theology priests helping the poor
  • democracy is replacing _dictatorship____

45. Nelson Mandela
  • jailed for 27 years in South _Africa____ for
    opposing apartheid
  • apartheidlaw segregating blacks and
  • elected president in the first open election in

46. Japans Favorable Balance of Trade
  • Japan _exports___ more than they
  • Japan focuses on technological products for
    export. (SONY, Mitsubishi)

47. Iraq
  • 1990 Iraq invaded Kuwait and U.S. led a United
    Nations effort to free Kuwait (Persian Gulf
    War)At the end, Iraq Saddam __Hussein__ had to
    agree to allow U.N. arms inspectors inspect
    factorieshe didnt do it. International trade
    sanctions (embargos-dont buy/sell with them_)
    have been put in place until that happens

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