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Chapter Eleven Career Counseling: Kindergarten Through Eighth Grade

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Title: Chapter Eleven Career Counseling: Kindergarten Through Eighth Grade


1
Chapter Eleven Career CounselingKindergarten
Through Eighth Grade
Career Counseling Foundations,
Perspectives, and Applications edited by
David Capuzzi and Mark Stauffer
  • Rebecca M. Dedmond
  • Pat Schwallie-Giddis
  • Shelby E. Strong

2
Career Planning K-8
  • Career planning has progressed through the years
    and is widely accepted as a developmental,
    sequential process that involves all students-all
    genders, all ethnicities, all ages.

3
Career Planning K-8 (cont.)
  • Learning to identify the relationship between
    academic content learned in school and how it
    applies to life and career choices is the
    cornerstone of the career planning system for K-8.

4
Career Planning System
  • Framework of Competencies
  • NOICC National Career Development Guidelines
    Project (2004)
  • ASCA National Model for School Counseling
  • National Standards for Students (2004)

5
Developmental Theorists
  • Erikson
  • First three stages prior to Kindergarten
  • Trust vs. mistrust
  • Autonomy vs. shame self-doubt
  • Initiative vs. guilt
  • Fourth stage around six
  • Industry vs. inferiority

6
Developmental Theorists (cont.)
  • Vygotsky
  • Childrens development and learning is the
    product of living in a social context.
  • Adults are mentors
  • Zone of Proximal Development
  • gap between what a learner can achieve on his
    or her own and what he or she can accomplish with
    the help of the mentor.

7
Career Theorists
  • Super
  • Fantasy (4-10 Years) Needs remain dominant
    aspects of the persons life, and role playing in
    fantasy takes place (Liptak, 2001, p. 73)
  • Interest (11-12 Years) Likes are the major
    determinant of the persons aspirations and
    activities. The person avoids activities that are
    not interesting (Liptak, 2001, p. 73).
  • Capacity (13-14 Years) Abilities take
    precedence in life, and the person begins to
    consider a variety of career requirements
    including training and salary (Liptak, 2001, p.
    73).

8
Career Theorists (cont.)
Super 9 Dimensions that lead to effective
problem-solving and decision-making
  • curiosity
  • exploration
  • information
  • time perspective
  • self-concept
  • key figures
  • interests
  • locus of control
  • planfulness

9
Career Theorists (cont.)
Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrad, and Herma
  • occupational choice is a developmental process
    it is not a single decision, but a series of
    decisions made over a period of years. Each step
    in the process has a meaningful relation to those
    which precede and follow it.
  • (1951, as cited in Liptak, 2001, p. 70)

10
Career Theorists (cont.)
Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrad, and Herma
  • First Stage (up to 11) Fantasy
  • Engagement in play
  • The second stage (through middle school)
    Tentative stage
  • 1st substage interests
  • 2nd substage capacity

11
Career Theorists (cont.)
Gottfredson
  • Circumscription and compromise
  • Children make compromises in their career
    aspirations in relation to gender stereotyping
    and sex-typed learning experiences.
  • Children eliminate, moderate, and restrict
    choices.

12
NCDA Interventions
  1. Making the classroom a workplace.
  2. Teaching/Reinforcing Productive Work Habits.
  3. Helping students understand the career
    applications of school subject matter.

13
NCDA Interventions (cont.)
  • Using community resource persons to emphasize
    both work and occupations.
  • Emphasizing career awareness but not specific
    occupational choice.
  • Reducing bias and stereotyping in career
    awareness.

14
Classroom Instructional Strategies
  • Real Game series
  • Kuder Career Planning System
  • Career Genogram
  • Career Clusters

15
Alternative Curriculum Design
  • Volunteering
  • Service learning

16
Other Learning Strategies and Interventions
  • Individual planning
  • Career portfolios
  • Career information
  • Computerized career information
  • Referral

17
Other Learning Strategies and Interventions
(cont.)
  • Work-based activities
  • Student appraisal inventories
  • Entrepreneurial opportunities
  • Student reflection and analysis

18
Systemic Approaches
  • Assessing Needs
  • To meet competencies with limited resources,
    needs assessment helps determine where resources
    should be used.
  • Process of Needs Assessment
  • Workplace Needs

19
Systemic Approaches (cont.)
  • Advisory Councils
  • Articulating the vision
  • Roles and Responsibilities of the School Team

20
Career Planning System
  • Role of counselors
  • Career counselor competencies
  • Role of educators
  • Student Benefits

21
Career Planning System (cont.)
  • Evaluation
  • Career planning program evaluation
  • Student follow-up

22
School Partnerships
  • Parent Involvement
  • Business and community partners working with
    students
  • Business and community partners working with
    educators

23
References
  • Liptak, J. (2001). Treatment planning in career
    counseling. Pacific Grove, CA Brooks Cole.
  • National Occupational Information Coordinating
    Committee (NOICC), U. S. Department of Labor.
    (2004). The national career development
    guidelines project. Washington, DC U.S.
    Department of Labor.
  • National Career Development Guidelines Framework.
    (2004). Available at http//associationdatabase.co
    m/aws/NCDA/pt/sp/Home_Page.
  • American School Counselor Association. (2004).
    ASCA National Standards for Students. Alexandria,
    VA Author.
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